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What if MBTI differs a lot for short-term and long-term lifestyle?

What if MBTI differs a lot for short-term and long-term lifestyle?


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Regarding the famous MBTI test, I am confused about how stable are the four indicators?

As of my experience, most people are certain whether they are introverted or extroverted. For the other three indicators, however, for some people it differs a lot for short-term and long-term actions. For example, I know a lot of people who are:

  • Extremely XNFP for short-time actions (e.g. what to do for tonight). They procrastinate a lot and do stuff based on their feelings.
  • but at the same time are extremely conservative and XSTJ for important life decisions (e.g. choosing a career, finding a research topic, etc.). Their such decisions are almost accurate and based on logical reasoning.

How could we effectively use MBTI interpretations for such people?


2. ISTP – The Craftsman

Myers-Briggs ISTP

Reserved and quiet, ISTPs are deeply interested to know why and how things work. They have impressive skills when it comes to machines and other mechanical things, like taking risks, and advocate living in the present. Extremely talented in sports and all sorts of physical activities. They are uncomplicated people who are loyal to a fault when it comes to their loved ones. Analytical and detached, they are good at coming up with effective solutions to empirical problems. ISTPs don’t really care that much about abiding by laws, rules, and regulations.

ISTP stands for Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving (Introverted Thinking with Extraverted Sensing)

  • Your primary mode of living is focused internally, i.e. you handle everything rationally and with a lot of logic.
  • Your secondary mode is external, i.e. you absorb things through the five senses.

1. ISTPs are always interested to know how things truly work. Good at analyzing everything logically, they are the masters when it comes to handling everything practically. Logical and reasonable people, they could care less about ideas and theories unless there is a practical application for them. Disassembling things and wanting to see how they work on the inside, is one of their favorite things to do.

2. ISTPs have a relaxed and flexible demeanor. Their chilled-out personality combined with their adaptable nature helps them in improvising whenever the need arises, and also helps them keep their cool in stressful situations. They have enough faith in themselves to believe that they will do a good job.

3. ISTPs are always up to something or the other and are always involved in some kind of project. They normally don’t like sitting idle for a long time and love it when they have something to do, especially something interesting. Due to their amiable and positive nature, they hardly feel stressed and are mostly in a good mood.

4. ISTPs like to spend time on their own and rely on solitude to think more clearly. It is in solitude that they are able to sort out all the issues they have in their minds. They absorb a lot of information from around them, and when they are alone, they sort through them and come up with their own opinions and judgments.

5. ISTPs are action-oriented people, and they like to stay active. Doing a 9-5 job where they will have to sit behind a desk for the most part of the day, is not their cup of tea. Spontaneous and adaptable, they grasp whatever is in front of them. Because they have impressive technical skills they do well as technical leaders.

6. ISTPs never make judgments or criticisms based on anything personal. Whatever they say and do, they do it on the basis of facts and logic. They are not good with feelings and fail to understand how their actions and words affect others. Their emotional intelligence is quite low, as they are always focusing on practicality and reason.

7. People having the ISTP personality type can be some of the friendliest people you will ever come across, but at the same time, they can be notoriously private. After all, they do have an introverted side to them. If they choose to be private about themselves and their lives, there’s no way you will be able to know what is going on, unless they want you to.

8. ISTPs hardly spend any time daydreaming or fantasizing about what can be they would rather dive headlong into making their dreams a reality. They always focus on the present, and never ever dwell in the past. ISTPs do not give importance to ambiguous ideas, and would rather work towards solving problems and doing what needs to be done.

9. ISTPs are truly gifted when it comes to being multifaceted. Despite this, they will be happiest when they are able to participate in action-oriented assignments, that demand impeccable technical skills, and analytical and logical thinking. They feel exceptionally proud of the fact that they are good when it comes to taking the next accurate step.

10. ISTPs are positive people who are always cheerful and have vivacious personalities. They are uncomplicated, unproblematic, trustworthy, kind, generous, and loyal. They are always up for helping people and do whatever they can to make lives easier for others, especially their close ones.

Jungian preferences:

  • Dominant: Introverted Thinking
  • Auxiliary: Extraverted Sensing
  • Tertiary: Introverted Intuition
  • Inferior: Extraverted Feeling

Myers Briggs Personality Test

Many people love to share their MBTI test scores, however you may not know what their seemingly random string of letters means. Developed by Carl Jung and some of his fans, the Myers-Briggs or MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator) test is loved by the public, but hated by many scientists.

The test puts participants into one of 16 categories based on how they answer questions. The MBTI measures 4 traits:

  • Extraversion vs Introversion
  • Sensing vs Intuition
  • Thinking vs Feeling
  • Judging vs Perceiving

Depending on how you fall into each of those categories, you are given a label. For example, if you received Introversion, Intuition, Thinking, and Judging, you would be labelled as an "INTJ", like me.


Here are the relationship dealbreaker for the Extraverted types:

ESFP: Risk aversion

The typical ESFP has an adventurous streak, and they need a free spirit to join them as they explore life. They might tolerate a random phobia, but generally, their patience wears thin. They don’t want to be unkind – in fact, they make accommodations in the beginning because they are so compassionate. At the same time, they can’t feel stifled in the relationship.

ESFJ: Someone who needs saving

ESFJs are loyal types who want to map out their future and care for the ones they love. While they enjoy a little fun and they give their last dollar to help someone out, long-term ESFJs want to be with someone who has their life together. They want to be giving and receiving love equally, and planning a life jointly, side by side.

ENTP: Boredom

If ENTPs are not activating their curiosity and continually learning, they’re going to get bored. Give them the opportunity, and challenge in any arena – including love, and they are satisfied with life.

ENTJ: Perception of disloyalty

These goal-oriented strategic planners are the same in love as they are business. And, they put you through a million tests to judge your worthiness and loyalty. They can be very supportive and share their partner’s success, but if they get an impression that you’re not as loyal to them – whether or not it’s true — you’ll be out so fast your head will spin!

ESTP: Controlling behavior

ESTPs like to swoop in and be the hero. They’ll help anyone out of a bind, and they’ll give you fun, excitement, and gifts when they are in love. Until they need their space to go out and do the things they need to do. If you apply pressure, this gregarious type worries that they are missing out, and any attempts to control them backfire.

ESTJ: Too many surprises

The ESTJ finally falls in love when they can let go of control. That isn’t easy for this take-charge individual. Too much of a good thing isn’t good though. Anyone who breaks their trust or brings too much instability is not going to last. The ESTJs relationship deal breaker is too many surprises.

ENFP: Close mindedness

The ENFP yearns to be free to explore their dreams. They are open, passionate types, and nothing holds them back. When they feel walls from and are given limits by a significant other, that’s a signal that the relationship can’t move forward.

ENFJ: Emotionally detached

This type has a lot to offer someone in a relationship. They’re warm and giving, and in the end, they want someone to care for them in return. Detached, overly independent types won’t go far with ENFJs. They need someone who nurtures them and their relationship.


Review Questions

The long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways are known as ________.

________ is credited with the first comprehensive theory of personality.

An early science that tried to correlate personality with measurements of parts of a person’s skull is known as ________.

The id operates on the ________ principle.

The ego defense mechanism in which a person who is confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral stage is called ________.

The Oedipus complex occurs in the ________ stage of psychosexual development.

The universal bank of ideas, images, and concepts that have been passed down through the generations from our ancestors refers to ________.

Self-regulation is also known as ________.

  1. self-efficacy
  2. will power
  3. internal locus of control
  4. external locus of control

Your level of confidence in your own abilities is known as ________.

Jane believes that she got a bad grade on her psychology paper because her professor doesn’t like her. Jane most likely has an _______ locus of control.

Self-concept refers to ________.

  1. our level of confidence in our own abilities
  2. all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves
  3. the belief that we control our own outcomes
  4. the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control

The idea that people’s ideas about themselves should match their actions is called ________.

The way a person reacts to the world, starting when they are very young, including the person’s activity level is known as ________.

Brianna is 18 months old. She cries frequently, is hard to soothe, and wakes frequently during the night. According to Thomas and Chess, she would be considered ________.

  1. an easy baby
  2. a difficult baby
  3. a slow to warm up baby
  4. a colicky baby

According to the findings of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, identical twins, whether raised together or apart have ________ personalities.

Temperament refers to ________.

  1. inborn, genetically based personality differences
  2. characteristic ways of behaving
  3. conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion
  4. degree of introversion-extroversion

According to the Eysencks’ theory, people who score high on neuroticism tend to be ________.

The United States is considered a ________ culture.

The concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs is known as ________.

  1. selective migration
  2. personal oriented personality
  3. socially oriented personality
  4. individualism

Which of the following is NOT a projective test?

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  2. Rorschach Inkblot Test
  3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  4. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)

A personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing unconscious feelings, impulses, and desires ________.

  1. self-report inventory
  2. projective test
  3. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Which personality assessment employs a series of true/false questions?

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  3. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)
  4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

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    What if MBTI differs a lot for short-term and long-term lifestyle? - Psychology

    What is the definition of instant gratification? is it possible to over come our primal instincts, including tips to prevent it from running your life.

    Definition of Instant Gratification

    Instant gratification is the concept that we must have results right away and that we don’t want to wait. It’s an impulsive desire to have things instantly.

    This need for instant gratification is believed to be deeply embedded into our subconscious minds. It was once a very important survival tool when the human race was living in caves and fending off predators. That evolutionary instant gratification need would of been vital to us surviving.

    Instant Gratification in Modern Society

    Instant gratification is very obvious in modern day society, a common example would be the way many people spend money. Many of us like to buy things for the instant feel good factor not taking into account the long term ramifications like getting into debt, which can reduce the overall quality of a persons life. Another very common example would be over eating, again this will reduce the overall quality of life in the long term.

    Many businesses and advertising companies are very aware of the human basic need to get instant results. For example fast foods which taste good and they’re cheap and fast to prepare, they provide instant satisfaction but they’re generally not healthy. We also see this instant gratification need being catered for in the medical world, examples would be, weight loss pills, anti depressant and anti anxiety medications, medications that are designed to get quick results. However many have potential side effects and they may not solve the problem in the long term.

    Instant gratification is not always a bad thing, but if it’s too much of a dominant force within somebody it will seriously reduce the quality of life for that individual. Many of the richest and most successful people in the world had to work very hard for a long time to achieve what they have, if they let instant gratification control their minds then they probably would of never earned the success that they have. Even the most successful entrepreneurs, musicians and actors in the world would of had to put up with a lot of rejection, failures and critics. Anyone just after instant results would of never of continued to success with the set backs that many would of had to deal with.

    There are always exceptions to how some people gain success and even fame. For example those that inherit money, those people tend not to appreciate it as much as those who have had to work for it and they’re also more likely to lose it all because they do not value it in the same way. Plus they have not trained their minds to prevent instant gratification from being so dominate.

    Ways to counter act instant gratification

    1. Understand and realize that instant gratification will reduce the quality of your life in the long term. Often it’s good to live in the now, however too much short term thinking will probably have a negative effect on your overall quality of life.

    2. Understand that achieving great things takes time, effort and perseverance. Few people ever achieve anything great over night.

    3. Accept that we cannot always have what we want instantly, this type of acceptance can be a very powerful and is an effective way of loosening the control instant gratification has on many of us.

    4. Spend some time thinking about your future and what you want to achieve long term, also what sort of person you want to be in the future (self reflection). This may help you look beyond the now, and that instant need for gratification.


    What is The MBTI® Test?

    The MBTI test is an assessment that identifies one’s 4-letter personality type, with each letter corresponding to a specific personality preference or tendency. The MBTI Assessment is made up of 93 questions and normally takes about 20-25 minutes to complete. There are no right or wrong answers on The Myers-Briggs® test. Those who complete the MBTI test are asked to answer as honestly as they can, without any outside interference. Those who take the indicator are asked to answer questions about how they act most of the time. The Myers-Briggs test online is made up of four dichotomies, or four pairs of opposite personality functions, making up a total of 16 personality types. At its core, the theory behind the MBTI test is based on the fact that the world’s population is made up of these 16 different types of people—hence the 16 MBTI Personality Types.

    The four personality type opposites (dichotomies) are:

    • Extraversion-Introversion
    • Intuition-Sensing
    • Thinking-Feeling
    • Judging-Perceiving

    The creators of The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment believed that the way in which people prefer to behave varies from person to person and therefore by personality type, and each of the letters listed above (E-I, I-S, T-F, J-P) represent a different preference.

    MBTI Extraverted Types

    Extraverted people tend to become energized by being around others, usually larger groups. They draw their energy from the outer world by communicating verbally and being social. They focus their energy toward the outside world as well. In relation to careers, they tend to prefer to work in larger groups as opposed to working alone or in one-on-one situations, which usually drains the extravert.

    MBTI Introverted Types

    Introverted people tend to become energized by taking time to themselves, including doing projects in small groups and participating in one-on-one situations. They tend to prefer to let others do the talking while in larger groups, and favor having a few long-term friends rather than more acquaintances. Introverts focus their energy inward to their inner world of ideas, thoughts, and feelings. When considering career options, an introverted person wants to think over his or her options alone and will usually only announce his or her decision after personal reflection.

    MBTI Intuition Types

    Intuition type people prefer to take in information by seeing the larger picture of life, focusing on future possibilities. They are generally imaginative, verbally creative, focus on patterns and meanings in data, follow hunches, and move quickly toward conclusions. They trust inspiration. When considering career options, those with the intuition type are more interested in a job’s potential than the job’s current description.

    MBTI Sensing Types

    Sensing people prefer real and tangible data when absorbing information. They excel at observing and remembering specifics. They like to focus on present realities and trust experience over intuition. Sensing individuals use practical application as a method to understand ideas and theories. Relating to work, a Sensing individual focuses on the facts of the job: benefits, location, and salary.

    MBTI Thinking Types

    Thinking types look at the logical consequences of a specific action when making decisions. They opt to remove emotion when analyzing situations so that they may weigh the pros and cons of a situation objectively. They strive to solve problems by critiquing and analyzing situations in order to identify the issues that need their attention. They utilize cause-and-effect reasoning and strive to find a standard that will apply in all similar situations. Career choices are made by logical analysis and they rationally consider all alternatives to be sure that they make the right choice.

    MBTI Feeling Types

    When making decisions, Feeling types tend to consider what is important to them and to those involved. Opposite of the Thinking type, they take emotion into consideration and identify with everyone involved. They make decisions based on their values about honoring people. They are fueled by appreciating and supporting others and look for qualities to praise. They tend to be compassionate, empathetic, and amiable, always striving to create harmony. They make career decisions based on what or who is most important to them at the time and take considerable notice of how career decisions affect them and their significant others.

    MBTI Judging Types

    Individuals that prefer Judging like to live in a planned, orderly way and seek to regulate and manage their lives. They are often seen as scheduled, systematic, and methodical. They make both short and long term plans and like to have things firmly decided as to avoid last-minute stresses. They feel energized by getting things done, and their career goal is the end result of a carefully calibrated timeline.

    MBTI Perceiving Types

    People that prefer utilizing their Perceiving process prefer a spontaneous and flexible lifestyle. They usually aim to experience and understand life instead of trying to control it. They are much more comfortable with last-minute pressures and like having the option to adapt and change course in an open-ended environment.

    MBTI® Complete

    Discover your personality in a time-efficient and comprehensive way.

    Want to learn about your personality, but don’t want to go through the process of having an interpreter evaluate your results? With the MBTI Complete, you receive a complete breakdown of your MBTI personality, including a thorough online interactive MBTI type verification process. This process allows you to receive your results quickly by downloading your report to your computer immediately upon the completion of your interactive online MBTI experience.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Outlooks

    MBTI SJ Outlook: The Patriarch/Matriarch

    The Patriarch/Matriarch Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known to put their trust in authority and believe in the hierarchy system. They have an inherent aptitude for attending to procedures, protocols and rules that help keep things orderly.

    The MBTI SJ Patriarch/Matriarch has a deep need for group membership and responsibility that, if unfulfilled, may lead them to feel out of place. They also value and work to maintain a sense of community, security and stability in their environment.

    When issues arise, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs prefer to turn to collective actions that focus on established standards for resolution. They are known to be talented at logistics and maintaining useful tradition that they re-enforce through looking at past experiences and finding practical ways to apply solutions. Throughout the problem-solving process, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs like to maintain a pre-determined sequence and established structure. With the knowledge of how things have been done in the past, they are able to anticipate where they could potentially go wrong and deal with the issue efficiently.

    The practical and methodical nature of those that fall within the Patriarch/Matriarch category gives them the reputation of being the type of people that can always seem to get the right things to the right place, at the right time, to the right people.

    The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known for their unambiguous communication style and general ease of holding conversation. During communication they will respectfully listen to theory and the abstract, but their focus is on the definite and tangible. They are also known to be conventional in their speech and tend to throw in old sayings and commonly understood language into their conversations.

    The MBTI SJ Patriarch/Matriarch is also known to be the economic type who is always seeking security, keeping the status-quo, and protecting things as-is. They tend to be skeptical of any changes that may potentially jeopardize their security.

    The Patriarch/Matriarch type innately feels responsible for the morality of their group or family unit. Their focus is on making sure individuals are responsible for their actions, focusing on what is right and avoiding what is wrong.

    Because the Patriarchs/Matriarchs are always “on watch”, they have to always prepare for the worst. This gives them a generally pessimistic outlook on life, preferring to be over prepared rather than caught off guard.

    Under circumstances of extended stress (i.e. when failing to reach financial or personal security over a prolonged period of time) they are known to get overwhelmed by strong negatives feelings, sometimes to the point of being rendered helpless. This scenario can be avoided when the Patriarch/Matriarch type maintains high self-esteem, by presenting themselves as trustworthy, dependable and accountable in handling their responsibilities.

    Education: Unfortunately, most educational environments do not naturally support the learning style and competences of the MBTI SJ Patriarchs/Matriarchs. Looking at actual scholastic performances rather than trusting standardized testing scores may be the best way to get an accurate view of a Patriarch’s/Matriarch’s intellectual competence.

    MBTI SP Outlook: The Originator

    The Originator Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Originators revolve around their core need for freedom to act without obstruction and to see a marked result from their actions. The Originators have a natural trust in their impulses and their creativity is truly revealed by the variety of solutions they come up with to any given problem. They also have an inherent drive to action that leads to results.

    The MBTI SP Originators are also known for fostering individuals that are talented at using their tool of choice, be it language, a paintbrush or a hammer. The Originator values aesthetics in both nature and in art. Their work tends to be pragmatic and functional, with a focus on delivering superior technique. The Originator’s energy is also channeled to provide skillful and varied performances.

    The Originators are gifted with the ability to tune into immediate sensory information and then vary their actions based on the needs of the specific situation. They are often known as being talented at tactics with their ability to make instant decisions as well as their flexibility to adjust their actions in order to reach a desired outcome. They are generally able to employ any available means to accomplish an end.

    In relation to communication, the Originator type focuses their talking on what is going on in the present moment. Discussions of things that cannot be observed or handled are of low importance to the MBTI SP Originators. Their language tends to be specific and literal, often avoiding generalizations and metaphors.

    The Originator is also known for their practical nature, focusing on what works and not having a primary worry about what is socially appropriate. They are likely to test out operations and then, based on their level of success, either continue on or drop the operation without a second thought if not perceived as successful.

    Originators have an extremely optimistic outlook on life. They believe that sometimes “life happens” and you have to be able to take the good with the bad. They are accepting when things go poorly and fully take advantage of the good times that life brings. Even during the bad times they feel that at any point they can get lucky and have things turn around. They also tend to be cynical about human motives in general, being much less gullible and trusting than others.

    Education: The MBTI SP Originator typically does not stray from their preference of a random and experiential learning style. They prefer a very hands-on applied learning approach to their schooling that is fast paced and that provides them with freedom to explore. Unfortunately, most educational systems are very deficient in meeting the needs, interests, and learning style of the Originator type. This is even more pronounced than with the Patriarch/Matriarch type.

    MBTI NF Outlook: The Optimist

    The Optimist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Optimists are individuals that focus on harmonious interactions, with an emphasis on ethics as well as morality. The Optimist has a deep rooted core need for meaning and significance that stems from having a sense of purpose and actively working toward some form of greater good.

    The MBTI NF Optimist values unity and authenticity and finds it very important to have a unique identity. They have a greater tendency to trust their intuition and impressions first. Afterward, they work to then seek out the logic and data to support their beliefs.

    If an Optimist finds themselves working on a global level, then they are likely to be championing a cause. On the other hand, if an Optimist ends up working on an individual level, then they are much more likely to focus on the growth and development of the individual.

    The Optimists are also known for being gifted at unifying diverse people as well as helping individuals realize their potential. These abilities lead Optimists to make excellent mediators. They can build bridges between people through their use of empathy and they are also able make clarifications of deeper issues that may be the root of an individual’s more superficial problems. Their focus is on cooperation and progress without sacrifice of goodwill. Expediency is never an appropriate excuse for loss of amicable relationships and the Optimist will go to great lengths to avoid unnecessary conflict. The morale of the group is of great importance to the Idealist.

    In communication, the Optimist focuses little on the concrete and instead prefers to focus on the abstract. They prefer to focus on concepts like the heart and soul as well as love and hate, among others. They are also competent at reading between the lines and likely to follow their hunches.

    The Optimist believes that happiness comes from selflessly serving others and that it is bad to be self-serving. Because of their belief that there is good in everyone they also tend to be the most gullible and innately trusting of the four Outlooks. To them, selfishness is just another roadblock in their overall goal of reaching self-actualization.

    Education: Unlike the Patriarch/Matriarch and Originator, the MBTI NF Optimist is much more consistent with the teachings as well as assessment methods in our education system. Because of their need for empathic relationships, the Optimist can also learn more easily when they can relate to the instructor and group.

    MBTI® Profile

    Uncover your potential with this profile, providing you with insight into your personality type.

    Ever wanted to know why you act or react a certain way? Wondered what career you would fit best in? Wished to discover how your mind works? A Myers-Briggs® (MBTI®) Profile can start you on the path to answers by mapping out your personality into different categories, allowing you to explore the motives behind your decisions, thoughts, and actions. See the benefits when you take the Myers-Briggs test online.

    MBTI NT Outlook: The Pragmatist

    The Pragmatist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Pragmatist relates to individuals that trust logic above all else. Because of this, they tend to be naturally skeptical in nature. They have a core need for mastery of concepts, competence and knowledge.

    They are not simply interested in facts, but instead want to understand the operating principles of the universe and have a tendency to want to learn or develop theories for everything. They are constantly seeking progress and highly value expertise, precision of language, concepts, logical consistency and ideas. Their actions tend toward the practical and applicable, with a focus on technology. A common action cycle might include research, analysis, searching for patterns and developing hypothesis among the Pragmatist individuals.

    The MBTI NT Pragmatists have a natural gift for strategic analysis. They tend to use it to approach all situations. They also like to think of all possible contingencies for any given situation and then develop multiple plans of action to handle them. Throughout this entire process, the Pragmatist tends to regularly examine the relationship of the means to the overall vision and goal that they have set out for themselves.

    In communication, the Pragmatists tend to focus on conceptual and abstract ideas. They prefer to avoid the redundant and trivial and dislike wasting words when speaking. They also have an applicative outlook on life, focusing on how useful a tool or tactic is in reaching their intended end before assessing its social implication.

    The MBTI NT Pragmatist is also associated with a life-long preoccupation with technology and this can be the foundation for a prolonged career focus. Many will end up focusing either on machines or organisms (the biological machine).

    The Pragmatist individuals look at the world around themselves from a serviceable perspective. Their greatest annoyance is the loss of efficiency, in any aspect of their lives. In everything that they do, they work on getting the greatest result with the least amount of effort. They do not let traditions or customs get in the way of finding new and more efficient ways of doing things.

    Education: Our current educational system tailors to the Pragmatist even more than it does to the Optimist. Our educational system tends to support conceptual learning styles, where the Pragmatists want to know the underlying principles that generate the facts in addition to the details and facts themselves.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Attitudes

    MBTI IJ Attitude: The Decisive Introvert

    The Decisive Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Decisive Introverts are introspective and hard to convince or change based on their persevering nature with compelling data being necessary in order to override a decision or foregone conclusion that the Decisive Introvert has made.

    The reason that those with the MBTI IJ attitude can appear inflexible and resistant to change has to do with their extraverted auxiliary judging function preference (either Thinking or Feeling). This preference leads the Decisive Introvert to state their conclusions, rather than providing the data for their judgment, which can come off as extra adamant.

    However, it is important to note that the Decisive Introvert has a dominant perceiving function (either Sensing or Intuition) that will lead them to renounce their conclusion if they are provided with information that contradicts their initial judgment.

    MBTI IP Attitude: The Adaptable Introvert

    The Adaptable Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Adaptable Introverts are introspective and while they tend to be adaptable in little things they are firm on important issues. The firm stance on important issues is attributed to their judging function (Thinking or Feeling) which is central to their personality.

    The Adaptable Introvert’s extraverted auxiliary perceiving function is responsible for the flexibility on small matters, but it is important to note that it can be overridden by their judging function (Feeling or Thinking). In these cases the Adaptable Introvert can come off as difficult and resistant to change.

    MBTI EP Attitude: The Adaptable Extravert

    The Adaptable Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Adaptable Extraverts are full of energy, outgoing and social. The main reasoning behind their eagerness to engage with the outside world can be attributed to their dominant extraverted perceiving function. They also have an easier time trusting the outside world than other attitude types.

    The Adaptable Extravert tends to approach life from a generally optimistic perspective and is known to be comfortable with embracing new opportunities. When Adaptable Extraverts run into obstacles, they tend to see it as a temporary setback and they are more likely to approach them like a challenge that they are happy to face.

    MBTI EJ Attitude: The Decisive Extravert

    The Decisive Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Decisive Extraverts are often seen as natural born leaders. They have a sense of confidence about them and are known to be quick and decisive in their actions. Their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) has a big influence on their decision making process and once they have come to a conclusion it can be difficult for them to change their minds.

    Decisive Extraverts are less likely to be affected by new information, which is based on their auxiliary perceiving function (Sensing or Intuition). Instead, the Decisive Extravert is more likely to be influenced if the consequences of their actions have a negative effect. In their natural roles they are able to utilize their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) in order to reach decisions and get things executed.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Mental Functions

    MBTI ST Mental Function: The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Types

    The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the ST Mental Function primarily rely on their Sensing preference when it comes to the purpose of perception and turn to their Thinking preference for judgment. The main focus of those with the ST Mental Function is centered on facts that they can verify through measuring, counting, touching, weighing, hearing and sensing.

    Once those with the ST Mental Function have the data that they need, they proceed with objective analysis that is fueled by their Thinking preference. This combination of preferences gives them the reputation for being practical and matter-of-fact.

    As can be seen in the MBTI Career Report, individuals with the ST Mental function are attracted to job fields that require non-personal analysis of concrete facts and data such as business, law, economics, and accounting.

    MBTI SF Mental Function: The Sympathetic and Friendly Types

    The Sympathetic and Friendly Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the SF Mental Function primarily turn to their Sensing preference for the purpose of perception. When it comes to the purpose of judgment they rely on their Feeling preference. Similar to those with the ST Mental Function, they gather facts directly through their main senses, but they approach their decision making process differently. For their decision making they tend to be more subjective, relying on their personal values.

    Those with the SF Mental function generally come across as friendly and sympathetic. As can be seen in the MBTI Career Report, these individuals tend to gravitate toward people-centric sales positions, teaching, and various health-care related fields.

    MBTI NF Mental Function: The Enthusiastic and Insightful Types

    The Enthusiastic and Insightful Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the NF Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference for their perceiving functions. When it comes to making decisions the NF Mental Function type relies on their Feeling preference.

    Those with the NF Mental Function tend to be sympathetic, similar to the SF Mental Function type, but their Intuition preference leads them to have interests in possibilities rather than concrete situations. They also tend to be insightful, warm, and committed. These individuals are more likely to be drawn to new projects and the unknown. They are more likely to see patterns, symbolic meanings, and theoretical relationships and then apply this information and insight to human relationships based on their values related to their Feeling preference.

    Individuals with the NF Mental Function tend to be drawn to fields such as teaching, counseling, writing, and research, based on their strong tendencies to have a gift for either the written or spoken word.

    MBTI NT Mental Function: The Logical and Ingenious Types

    The Logical and Ingenious Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the NT Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference when dealing with their perceiving function. Unlike the NF mental function, they prefer the objectivity related to their Thinking preference when dealing with judgment.

    Similar to those with the NF Mental Function, the Logical and Ingenious Types focus on possibilities and abstract patterns, but they differ in that they judge from a nonpersonal and objective perspective. They are attracted to pursuing possibilities that minimize human issues and instead have a technical and scientific focus.

    Individuals with the MBTI NT mental function are typically drawn to problem solving positions in their chosen field of focus. Generally these fields have mathematics or scientific research based foundations. In fact, most innovative fields in the technical and administrative world have strong Logical and Ingenious type representation.

    MBTI® Step II™ Interpretive Report

    Get to the core of your personality by exploring the inter-workings of what makes up your MBTI® personality type.

    The MBTI® Step II™ Interpretive Report outlines your personality on a grand scale, providing you with a detailed analysis of the facets that make up your persona. Discover how your personality best manages conflict, how the different parts of your personality work together to make decisions or gather information, how your personality type best communicates with others, and how you best deal with change in your life. Each broken-down dichotomy of your MBTI test personality type offers you a wealth of information to find out how your personality is formed.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Perceptions and Orientations to the Outside World

    MBTI SJ Types: The Realistic Decision Makers

    The Realistic Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Realistic Decision Makers introvert their Sensing function. In other words, these individuals turn their energy inward so that they can remember external events, as well as their internal thoughts, memories and feelings. The process involves absorbing new data and integrating it into their internal information bank ready for retrieval when necessary.

    The effect of the introverting Sensing of a Realistic Decision Maker can be seen in the way that we describe SJ types. They are seen as individuals that are organized and dependable. They seek order in their environment and many may see them as conservative. The MBTI SJ type also approaches problem solving by relying on past experiences. Because the SJ type internalizes all their factual and experiential data, the average person doesn’t see the depth of analysis that goes into the SJ type’s decision making process. When asked to provide information backing up their decisions, the SJ type can provide an unexpected and sometimes overwhelming amount of facts.

    MBTI SP Types: The Adaptable Realists

    The Adaptable Realist Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Realists extravert their Sensing function. Meaning, these individuals direct their energy outwardly and are known to notice sensory information (sounds, sights, smells, touch and human reactions) with great accuracy and in great detail. Adaptable Realists are known for wanting to experience as much as possible through their senses and do so very vividly.

    The effect of the extraverting Sensing function of an Adaptable Realist can be seen in the way that we describe the SP type. The MBTI SP types look to new experiences in the present moment and are known to be curious about the world around them. Adaptable Realists are flexible when situations arise and are adept at observing the immediate situation. Individuals with the SP type also tend to be attracted to work environments that focus on attending to details and facts in their immediate environment. On the other hand, the SP type is comparatively much less interested in any long-range aspects or implications of what they do in a working environment. Adaptable Realists are stimulus-seekers and are at their best when they can experience a large amount of external stimulation.

    MBTI NP Types: The Adaptable Innovators

    The Adaptable Innovator Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Innovators extravert their Intuition function. This process includes looking toward the outside world for anything that is new. This includes new people, new ideas, or new possibilities. The aim of this process is to change and reshape the NP type’s environment. The Adaptable Innovator’s goal is to fully experience and explore the world and all its potential through new challenges.

    The effect of the extraverted Sensing function of an Adaptable Innovator can be observed in how NP types are described. Adaptable Innovators are constantly seeking new challenges of the unknown and are able to adjust to new opportunities and possibilities as they arise. They love their creative freedom and are independent and unconventional in their thought and decision making process. They like to explore new solutions for not only new problems, but also old problems that they feel can be improved upon. It is also not uncommon to see MBTI NP types to proceed head-first into challenges that others may see as very difficult or impossible.

    MBTI NJ Types: The Visionary Decision Makers

    The Visionary Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Visionary Decision makers introvert their Intuition function. In other words, they focus their energies on internal connections and imagines in order to develop new patterns and ways of processing information. Through finding meaning and patterns in the world the MBTI NJ type spends their energy working on changing and reshaping their environment so that it matches their inner vision. The Visionary Decision Maker is constantly working on bettering their understanding of the world through developing inner intuitive patterns.

    You can see how the process of introverting Intuition manifests itself in the real world by the way that MBTI NJ types are generally described. Visionary Decision Makers are very determined and persistent in their pursuit of accomplishing the goals of their inner vision. They have the potential to be charismatic leaders and their qualities tend to attract dedicated followers to their cause. They have a natural way of presenting their inner vision in an inspirational and convincing way by presenting it in terms of either long-range impact on important values or long-range logical consequences, depending on the target audience.

    MBTI TJ Types: The Logical Decision Makers

    The Logical Decision Maker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Logical Decision Makers extravert their Thinking function. This process includes expressing thoughts and judgments with clarity and candor in order to bring stability to their external environment. In order to be able to anticipate consequences quickly and act upon them promptly, the Logical Decision Maker focuses on critiquing systems, ideas, and procedures. The overall goal of the MBTI TJ type is to create logical order in the external world by way of making the outside world rational.

    We can see the extraverting Thinking function in action by examining how the MBTI TJ type is described. Logical Decision Makers are often analytical, tough-minded, executive, and instrumental leaders. The MBTI TJ type naturally transition into leadership roles in any of the settings they may step into. They are able to effectively communicate their confidence in the practicality and viability of focusing on logical conclusions. They also have a very direct and to the point communication style, which can make them come off as hypercritical or too quick to act.

    Logical Decision Makers have a confident aura about them and are seen as in control with the ability to quickly and efficiently implement decisions. They are also quite capable of imposing logical organizational structures to support these goals.

    MBTI TP Types: The Adaptable Thinkers

    The Adaptable Thinker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Thinkers introvert their Thinking function. In other words, Adaptable Thinkers seek to order their internal thoughts through developing a logical system for comprehension. The MBTI TP type can critique reality and identify inconsistencies that other types may overlook through the use of reflective observation. A major goal of the Adaptable Thinker is to create logical order. This is done by developing rational principles that help them understand the world.

    We can observe the process of introverting the Thinking function by looking at how we describe Adaptable Thinkers. The MBTI TP type is curious, skeptical, and objective. This is especially true with possibilities and events that the TP types can fit into consistent and orderly frameworks. Adaptable Thinkers are also known for being excellent trouble-shooters because of their ability to focus in on the essence of problems and then finding logical solutions. When looking for solutions to problems they are unlikely to arbitrarily rule out any possibilities, even if they may seem unlikely to others. Their ability to consider such a broad range of facts and ideas into their decision making process leads them to come to the most accurate conclusion possible.

    Other individuals may have trouble following the Adaptive Thinkers logic when they are deeply involved with a project. This can be attributed to the MBTI TP types introverted Thinking. Their internal logic may seem self apparent and they may assume, incorrectly, that it is clear to everyone else as well.

    MBTI FP Types: The Gentle Types

    The Gentle Type Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are of the Gentle Type introvert their Feeling function. These individuals are known to seek complex and meaningful inner lives. They accomplish this through being attuned to possible contradictions that can occur between an individual’s inner values and their outer life. The MBTI FP type works diligently to clarify and maintain the consistency of their own actions and values. Their main goal is to identify their core values and then to work on establishing a compatible external life. Unfortunately, they rarely are able to truly express the intensity of their values to others as the MBTI FP type tends to internalize these values.

    You can gain extended clarity on the process of introverting the Feeling function by looking at the way that the Gentle Types are described. MBTI FP types are known to be primarily concerned with the human aspect of problems and are adaptable in their pursuit of harmony. The actions of the Gentle Types lead others to like and trust them more readily. The FP type is open to the ideas and contributions of others, which they receive plentifully as they are gifted at enlisting support.

    MBTI FJ Types: The Benevolent Administrators

    The Benevolent Administrator Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Benevolent Administrators extravert their Feeling function. They are skilled at being strongly attuned to people’s desires and expectations. The FJ types use this ability to seek harmonious relationships with people in their environment. This end is realized by their focus on structuring and organizing the environment to meet people’s needs. When extraverting their Feeling function their goal is to create cooperation in an external environment and to help others get what they need and want. Sometimes a Benevolent Administrator can have their extraverting Feeling effort misjudged as excessive emotionality. The MBTI FJ Type expresses strong values with the goal of making sure that those become actualized in the world.

    We can observe the process of extraverting the Feeling function in the way that the FJ types are described. Benevolent Administrators are often expressive leaders who are known to be very observant of people as well as their needs. The MBTI FJ Types spend a lot of their energy working on making people happy and bringing an overall feeling of harmony to relationships. They can sometimes falsely be judged as being overly accommodating or even codependent in some cases. Sometimes they may over commit to the well being of others, leadings to excessive stress as they attempt to fulfill all important obligations without letting anyone down.

    The MBTI FJ type tends to be loyal to those that share the same values and goals as they do. On the other hand, they can be harsh on those that deviate from their values or goals. It is also important to the Benevolent Administrator to include others and be included themselves. When this need is not met they tend to experience a feeling of failure along with hurt feelings.

    MBTI® Interpretive Report

    Take your MBTI test to the next level with a complete and succinct interpretation of your personality type.

    The MBTI® Interpretive report depicts your personality type in a five-page analysis that allows a complete interpretation of the inner-workings of what makes up your type. With the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Interpretive Report, you can expect everything that comes with a MBTI Profile as well as an extensive clarification of your results.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Orientations of Energy & Perceptions

    MBTI IS Types: The Thoughtful Realists

    The Thoughtful Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Thoughtful Realists are Introverts that also have a Sensing preference. They prefer to deal with what is real and factual and like to test ideas to see whether they are indeed supported by facts.

    The MBTI IS type is known to get irritated and frustrated when they feel rushed in a task that they are attempting to focus on. They prefer to deal with situations in a careful and unhurried manner.

    The Thoughtful Realist generally avoids leadership positions and prefers to stay in the background when dealing with projects. When forced into leadership positions, they are much more likely to feel uncomfortable and out of place. It can also lead to diminished job satisfaction even if the rest of their work environment is satisfactory. Because of the IS Types background role, their accomplishments are often times taken for granted or wholly overlooked. The quiet and persistent work style of the Thoughtful Realist, in the workplace as well as at home, can unfortunately further draw attention away from their oftentimes significant contributions. The fast paced and ever-changing work environments of today also contribute to the MBTI IS Types inability to always function in their most comfortable and natural way.

    MBTI IN Types: The Thoughtful Innovators

    The Thoughtful Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Thoughtful Innovators are Introverts that also have an Intuition preference. They are interested in theories and ideas for the sake of knowledge based on their introspective and scholarly nature. The MBTI IN Types prefer the complexity of theory over the pragmatism of accomplishments in the real world. This gives them the reputation of being the least practical of the MBTI personality types.

    Thoughtful Innovators naturally seek out the company of other Thoughtful Innovators. They do this in order to be in the company of others who will affirm their philosophical and intellectual interests. This is especially important as other types tend to have a much stronger preference for the practical world. Non IN Types also have a tendency to judge MBTI IN Types as being too serious and for missing out on many of the aspects of life that are associated with a practical outlook. Thoughtful Innovators are very serious academically and unfortunately the modern workplace does not provide many career fields where individuals can spend the majority of their time on intellectual pursuits. This leads MBTI IN Types to be more likely to report dissatisfaction in their work life.

    MBTI ES Types: The Action-Oriented Realists

    The Action-Oriented Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Realists are Extraverts that also have a Sensing preference. They have the reputation of being the most practical of all the types. This preference permeates their work, school and personal lives. Their preferred learning environment includes a focus on material that has useful direct applications in the real world. The Action-Oriented Realist has a very utilitarian perspective of the world, finding great enjoyment from the material world. They have little interest in dealing with how things could be or focusing their energies discussing theories and unproven ideas.

    The MBTI ES Type spends a lot of time focusing on experiencing as much of the world as possible. The Action-Oriented Realist comes across as ever confident when dealing with the outside world. They are likely to make an extended effort when they want to have a specific experience or if they want to visit a specific place that they find interesting.

    MBTI EN Types: The Action-Oriented Innovators

    The Action-Oriented Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Innovators are Extraverts that also have an Intuition preference. Instead of having interests in one or two focused areas, the MBTI EN Type has a variety of interests. Across their interests they look for new patterns and relationships that they can decipher. When the Action-Oriented Innovator sees a new possibility they take it as a challenge to make something happen. More than other types they get the ball rolling when it comes to making changes in the world that are outside of the norm.

    Action-Oriented Innovators are future oriented when it comes to their pursuits. Their future focused vision encompasses their vision for people, structures, as well as institutions. The extraverted nature of the Action-Oriented Innovators enables them to be innately comfortable interacting with the outside world.

    MBTI ET Types: The Action-Oriented Thinker

    The Action-Oriented Thinker Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Thinkers are Extraverts that also have the Thinking preference. They approach life from an objective perspective and they expect a similar approach from others. They like to make things happen in a very logical and analytical way. Others see them as very energetic and active. Competence and being effective is of top priority to the MBTI ET type.

    When others around the MBTI ET type begin to doubt themselves, show low self-confidence or hesitate, the Action-Oriented Thinker may show annoyance and lose their patience with the situation. Those with the Feeling preference may see the MBTI ET Type as extensively harsh and unsympathetic.

    MBTI EF Types: The Action-Oriented Cooperators

    The Action-Oriented Cooperator Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Cooperators are Extraverts that also have the Feeling preference. One of the primary motivators for their actions is enjoying doing things for people’s welfare and enjoyment. Others see them as sympathetic, extremely friendly, and generally sociable. Making social connections, having lots of friends, and being generally liked are all important things to the Action-Oriented Cooperator. The MBTI EF Types also tend to be very sensitive to the emotional environment around them. Positive energy and harmony fuels them. On the other hand, they have a very hard time functioning optimally in an environment that frequently is known for conflict and poor interpersonal cooperation. It is normal for the Action-Oriented Cooperator to act as a natural mediator who tries to keep the peace. The very same peace and harmony that is so very important to their well being and optimal social operation.

    MBTI IF Types: The Reflective Harmonizers

    The Reflective Harmonizer Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Reflective Harmonizers are Introverts that also have the Feeling preference. They have a deep connection with people as well as how they feel. They are quite often quiet, but also generally very caring in nature. They hold dear deeply established values that form the foundation of their decision making process. Others may see the MBTI IF Types as overly emotional, mainly because they tend to feel things more intensely than other types. They can come off as extremely serious when it comes to their values and their sensitivity extends to not only their own emotional state, but also to the emotional state of others. Unlike the Action-Oriented Cooperators, they are much less likely to step in and try to fix problematic situations, instead they are more likely to detach from the situation in order to avoid further stress.

    MBTI IT Types: The Reflective Reasoners

    The Reflective Reasoner Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Reflective Reasoners are Introverts that also have the Thinking preference. Of all the types they are the slowest to develop social skills. Many see them as the quiet ones that spend their time contemplating the world. They are unlikely to be very wordy in their conversations and often dislike small talk. Social interactions in general can be very stressful to the Reflective Reasoner. Sometimes they can even seem socially awkward. When they do socialize they can come off as overly formal, sometimes to the extent of seeming unfriendly. The MBTI IT Types are natural critics and their introverted approach to analysis can send mixed signals to those around them. Their energy is spent on internal reflection, leaving their body language to communicate an often erroneous and overly critical message when dealing with interpersonal communication.

    The Validity of The MBTI® Test Instrument

    The MBTI test has been found by numerous studies to be a valid tool when used for its intended purpose. It has been optimized to avoid gender bias and tested cross-culturally as to be available to a wide variety of individuals. The Myers Briggs test online has also been shown to positively correlate with other established instrument such as the FIRO-B® Test, FIRO Business® Test , Strong Interest Inventory® Test, and Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI Test).

    In order to further validate The MBTI assessment, exploratory factor analysis studies have been completed. Some of the focused studies have been Thompson and Borrello (1986) and Harvey, Murry, and Stamoulis (1995).

    Why The MBTI® Test Instrument?

    The MBTI test provides the user with an in-depth analysis of their four-letter Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality type. The pool of the 16 different personality types helps take into account the various individuals that we observe in our daily lives. It is an optimal starting point whether you are pursuing collegiate, career, or personal exploration.

    How is The MBTI® Test Instrument Used?

    Examples of how the MBTI test is used include—but are not limited to—how individuals process information, make decisions, present themselves to the external world, and focus their energy. MBTI test results can be used to optimize users’ methods of communicating, finding appropriate schooling pathways, exploring career options, resolving conflict, working in teams, learning leadership, and managing development. Please note, the MBTI assessment does not assess abilities in any specific personal, school, or work field.

    Free Versus Paid Assessments

    There are many free personality and interest inventory tests and assessments located around the Internet. Though one must know that these tests attempt to mimic The MBTI test at no or sometimes a low cost to you, they are neither valid nor proven to assess your personality, nor are they what you are searching for. The MBTI assessment has been rewritten for validity and cross-culturally tested for over 40 years and cannot be replaced by replicas that attempt to mimic its legitimacy. Being that The MBTI® is quite affordable, there really is no reason to look elsewhere and not be administered the genuine MBTI® line of assessments.

    Why Choose Career Assessment Site for the MBTI® Test?

    • Receive online access to the MBTI test at the lowest prices on the web.
    • Complimentary email support for any assessment based questions.
    • At Career Assessment Site we provide an assessment interpretation session with a licensed professional by telephone or ZOOM Audio for domestic customers and ZOOM Audio for international customers. This session is included with every purchase. The MBTI Complete, TKI and IStartStrong are non-restricted Assessments and do not include nor require a consultation appointment. All other assessments Careerassessmentsite.com provides are psychological restricted assessments which require this interpretation session as it is a very important part of your experience. For details please check our FAQ page.

    White Glove Customer Service

    Here at Career Assessment Site, whether you are a career counselor, a corporate CEO, a college student, seeking a career change or personality assessment, we provide our unique “white glove” customer service to every customer. We provide complementary email and telephone support, while taking great care in managing your account whether you have taken a single test, multiple tests, or have multiple clients. We track your orders, keeping an organized database of you and/or your clients assessments and consultation progress, all of which are electronically filed in a secure confidential server, which is backed-up to a safe electronic environment in-case of computer or server failure. Your records will be kept and can be accessed for several years after your purchase as a courtesy from Career Assessment Site with a free reprint service of your assessment(s) at anytime if you misplace or lose your or your client’s original report(s) as another free-of-charge courtesy.

    MBTI QUESTIONS

    Do Employers Look at MBTI Results?

    Your employer is not likely to look at your MBTI results when it comes to securing your position however, it can be a useful tool to help your employer better understand you and the ways that you communicate. Understanding the way you communicate and the way that your mind works can help you have a better relationship with your employer. You may also find that certain personality types are better suited for certain jobs. Your employer is going to see the same thing. So, while they are not likely to make a selection of a candidate based on their MBTI type, it can be valuable information for both you and your employer to have.

    Do Psychologists Use MBTI?

    Psychologists have a host of diagnostic tools that they can draw from when they are studying people or working with their clients. Because of this, some of them may choose to use the MBTI while others may stick towards other tools. Even though that is the case, your MBTI type is still something that may be of interest in a lot of psychological spaces. Whether or not it is used by a specific psychologist is at their discretion but this is still an interesting tool to help understand the mind and the way that it works. This is especially true when it comes to studying the innate personality rather than the one that is affected by the way someone was raised or their experiences. The MBTI Type is something that provides a lot of information and is unaffected by the lens through which we have our experiences.

    Does Personality Affect Career Choice?

    Yes! It only makes sense that you would choose a career that aligns with your personality type but even the existing research backs this up. Personality type can help you to determine what career is the best for you and it can also help you to understand why a job isn’t a good fit for you if you should run into that sort of problem. Research has also shown that people who are in careers that align with their personality type are more productive, happier, and make more money. Even if the tasks you do in your job are related to your personality type, you’re likely to enjoy your job more.

    Does Personality Affect Career Performance?

    Research has shown that personality affects all aspects of your job performance. This is because your personality is going to affect the way that you communicate on the job with your teammates and your superiors, the way that you approach and handle tasks, and react to work-related stress. As you read before, those who are in careers that align with their personality type are going to be more productive. Picking a career that aligns with your personality type is going to help you do better at work and be happier with your professional life.

    What Is The Rarest MBTI Type?

    The rarest Myers-Briggs personality type is considered INFJ. Less than three percent of the world’s population is speculated to have this personality type which stands for Introversion, Intuition, Feeling, and Judgement. Each of these letters describes the core characteristics of someone who has this personality type. Out of all of the different ones, this one is suggested to occur the least frequently in the world. Someone with this personality type is likely to be very perceptive, sensitive to conflict, and offer a unique blend of being very emotional yet still very rational. This type is more common among women.

    What Is The Most Common MBTI Type?

    Interestingly enough, the most common personality type shares many of the same traits as the rarest one. According to the MBTI Manual, the most commonly occurring Myers-Briggs personality type is ISFJ. This stands for Introversion, Sensing, Feeling, Judging. Close to 14% of the population have this personality type. Someone with this MBTI is going to be someone who is going to be very practical, very caring, and be very concerned with tradition. While some people may see being concerned with tradition to be a negative trait, it really just means that these people are loyal by nature. This personality type is most common in men.

    Can You Be Two MBTI Types?

    No, you’re only going to be one MBTI Type. There may be two types that seem like you could fit into either category and you may find that the result you get between these two is dependent on the test you’re taking. While it is possible to be closely aligned to more than one personality type, there is always going to be just one that suits you better than any of the others. To make sure that you’re getting the best result for your personality, you should be sure to take a high-quality test and be as honest as possible.

    Are You Born With Your MBTI Type?

    Most people would say yes. Your MBTI Type is dependent on your innate personality. Your personality does form over the course of your lifetime but the MBTI examines core traits that are considered to be the way your personality is at its core. That is why most people would say that this test examines your nature whereas the Enneagram examines your personality as the world has shaped you or the way you were nurtured. It is said that the way you express your personality or MBTI Type, becomes more prominent as you age but that it is innate to you from the start.

    Can You Change MBTI Types?

    Not really. As you read in the last question, it is widely considered to be true that your MBTI Type relates to your personality at your very core. These core traits are considered to be innate to you, so they do not really change over time. You may find that you’re able to be more thorough in taking your test if you take it a second time and that may affect your outcome. It is also true that as you age and have a better understanding of the world and the way that you exist in it, you may find your results change. Even when this is the case, your core personality has always been your core personality.

    What Is The Most Complex MBTI Type?

    The most complex MBTI Type is that of the INFJ. This stands for Introverted, Intuition, Feeling, Judgement. The reason why this is considered the most complex type has to do with the fact that they’re both introverted and intuitive people, which can make them come off as much more mysterious. They’re more capable of being rational but are not completely closed off from their emotions. People with this personality type don’t seem to exist in the same extremes as most people which can make them tougher to understand. This is also the rarest of all of the personality types.

    Why Is MBTI So Popular?

    Even after all these years, determining your MBTI Type is still very popular for several reasons. One of the main reasons is that people have an inherent drive to understand themselves and this is one of the most widely used tools to do so. Another thing that helps perpetuate its popularity and contribute to its longevity is that the MBTI is based on concrete principles in psychology and science, which lends to its credibility. Another reason why the MBTI is so popular is that it has been around so long that most people have heard of it at least once, making it easy to put your personality in context without having to explain yourself as deeply.

    Is The MBTI Reliable?

    Yes! The only thing that can be unreliable about the test is our own contributions as we are taking it. In order to get the most out of the test, it is so important that you are completely honest when you are taking it and you think critically but answer with what feels best for you. It is also very crucial to make sure that you’re taking a reputable test so that you can get the most accurate and reliable results.

    Is The MBTI Useful?

    The MBTI is useful in a lot of ways. One of the main ways that it is useful is because it is useful to understand the self. When you understand your personality type, you’re going to understand a lot more information about how you see the world and how you communicate with the world that you’re seeing. When you have a solid MBTI type, it can help you find more people who think as you do, it can help you understand your differences with those around you and help you bridge those gaps, and it can even help you nail down a career choice because you understand yourself and your personality.

    Is Our MBTI Nature or Nurture?

    As with any personality test, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is going to be a complex set of questions that will reflect our innate qualities as well as the way that we choose to express ourselves based on the lens through which we see the world. The general consensus is that the MBTI focuses more on our inherent personality, so nature. It isn’t productive to think of your MBTI as genetic however, it is something that many feel that we are born with and just learn to more thoroughly express as our lives progress and our personalities start to take shape.

    Is The MBTI Pseudoscience?

    A lot of people say that the MBTI is pseudoscience. Regardless of what you think about the test, it is important to remember that a lot of the things that this test looks at is rooted in actual science and can provide you and those around you (such as a potential employer or partner) with a lot of valuable information about you as a person. In order to make sure that you are getting the most accurate results that are going to be useful to you is by taking a reputable test and being completely honest while taking your test.

    MBTI Manual (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

    Introduction to Type (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

    Introduction to Type and Careers (Allen L. Hammer, 2007, CPP Inc.)


    How to choose a degree major that is right for you

    1. Sit down and make a list

    When I decided on a degree major, I literary sat down and made a list of all the things that were:

    • important to me in a career/lifestyle. (Eg. a career that pays well travel options the possibility to work from home / for myself).
    • what I enjoy doing in work and life. (Eg. helping and encouraging people training solving problems making a difference being creative, seeing the results of what I do a challenge…).
    • all the things I am naturally good at. (not going to blow my own horn here, but you get the drift)

    If you battle (and even if you don’t), take the time to do a free online personality test, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ® (MBTI). I’ve always just done these for fun, so I kind of knew what career choices my personality leaned towards.

    2. Find common ground between the items on the list

    Try to find commonality in the items. I tried to see how I could fit, helping people, solving problems and earn a decent salary together. I played around with a couple of ideas and managed to reduce my unending list of items to about three of four options. If I remember correctly it was something like:

    • psychologist, because I could help and encourage people
    • teacher/ training, but I was concerned about teaching kids & the salary/advancement opportunities (I was a single mom at the time)
    • accounting, because I was kind of good with numbers, but petrified I would get bored. But the money is good.
    • graphic design, creative aspect.

    3. Research your academic institutions in and around the area

    I knew I had to study part-time and I knew I wouldn’t be able to attend evening or weekend lectures. So open distance learning institution like UNISA was really my only rational choice. Perhaps this was a blessing in disguise because sometimes too many options overwhelm us even more!

    4. Research the degree majors the institution offers and match them with the items on your list

    I knew I wanted to study a B.Com degree. Looking back, I am not really sure why. I think the colleague that was about to enrol and led me to consider the idea of continuing my studies, painted the picture that a B.Com would be better. Perhaps the fact that a B.Com, even if, just a general B.Com would be a good direction, considering the idea that I was working in the business world. I’m not 100% certain, but I remember looking at the list of degree major offered in the B.Com degree and reading the descriptions carefully. The list is a lot longer now than it was back then, then my choices were pretty much:

    • Accounting
    • Business Management
    • Economics
    • General / Generic
    • Informatics
    • Industrial Psychology
    • Tourism

    Secretly the thought of psychology involved a whole lot of chemistry and I wasn’t very good at chemistry or science at school. Imagine my relief, when I realized psychology and industrial psychology had nothing to do with chemistry!

    Here’s how I matched my ‘wishlist’ with the courses on offer:

    I started researching both psychology and industrial psychology and made some pretty amazing discoveries about the industry, for example:

    • training and counselling were a part of an industrial psychologist’s tasks.
    • ergonomics is an area in industrial psychology that incorporated a whole lot of design and lighting elements to promote a healthy work environment for workers.
    • psychometric testing – you mean I can get other people to do the same personality tests, I love doing and charge them a fee?
    • if I decided to register as a psychometrist, I could work from home/work as a consultant to various organisations.
    • board certified industrial psychologists earn a killing!
    • I get to solve a lot of problems – what is the best career choices for you? How do I get this group of people to work with that group of people? How can I get the CEO of a company to understand the underlying problems in his organisation? That kind of thing.

    I knew I had a winner. Bottom line, I knew this would be an industry was I could make a difference in the lives of the people around me.

    Related Post:

    Related Post:

    Also, I am happy to say that I have managed to transition from a travel agent to a systems support specialists. I do a lot of what I love doing, training, solving problems, enhancing systems, integration, automation, etc and I really enjoy what I do.

    I am yet to transition to industrial psychology and the plan remains to do the practical hours in order to register as a psychometrist. But if all goes well, I would really like to go into organisational development!


    18 Wealth Lessons from “The Psychology of Money” by Morgan Housel (Book Summary)

    Overview of The Psychology of Money:

    “The premise of this book is that doing well with money has a little to do with how smart you are and a lot to do with how you behave.”

    • “Financial success is not a hard science. It’s a soft skill, where how you behave is more important than what you know. I call this soft skill the psychology of money.”
    • “The aim of this book is to use short stories to convince you that soft skills are more important than the technical side of money.”
    • “We think about and are taught about money in ways that are too much like physics (with rules and laws) and not enough like psychology (with emotions and nuance).”
    • “Physics isn’t controversial. It’s guided by laws. Finance is different. It’s guided by people’s behaviors.

    1. No One’s Crazy

    “Your personal experiences with money make up maybe 0.00000001% of what’s happened in the world, but maybe 80% of how you think the world works.”

    • “Every decision people make with money is justified by taking the information they have at the moment and plugging it into their unique mental model of how the world works.”
    • People do some crazy things with money. But no one is crazy. Here’s the thing: People from different generations, raised by different parents who earned different incomes and held different values, in different parts of the world, born into different economies, experiencing different job markets with different incentives and different degrees of luck, learn very different lessons.”
    • “In theory people should make investment decisions based on their goals and the characteristics of the investment options available to them at the time. But that’s not what people do. The economists found that people’s lifetime investment decisions are heavily anchored to the experiences those investors had in their own generation—especially experiences early in their adult life.”
    • Their view of money was formed in different worlds. And when that’s the case, a view about money that one group of people thinks is outrageous can make perfect sense to another.”
    • “Few people make financial decisions purely with a spreadsheet. They make them at the dinner table, or in a company meeting. Places where personal history, your own unique view of the world, ego, pride, marketing, and odd incentives are scrambled together into a narrative that works for you.”

    2. Luck & Risk

    “Luck and risk are both the reality that every outcome in life is guided by forces other than individual effort. They are so similar that you can’t believe in one without equally respecting the other. They both happen because the world is too complex to allow 100% of your actions to dictate 100% of your outcomes.”

    • “They are driven by the same thing: You are one person in a game with seven billion other people and infinite moving parts. The accidental impact of actions outside of your control can be more consequential than the ones you consciously take.
    • “The line between ‘inspiringly bold’ and ‘foolishly reckless’ can be a millimeter thick and only visible with hindsight. Risk and luck are doppelgangers.”
    • “Be careful who you praise and admire. Be careful who you look down upon and wish to avoid becoming. Or, just be careful when assuming that 100% of outcomes can be attributed to effort and decisions.”
    • “Therefore, focus less on specific individuals and case studies and more on broad patterns.”
    • “Go out of your way to find humility when things are going right and forgiveness / compassion when they go wrong. Because it’s never as good or as bad as it looks.
    • You should like risk because it pays off over time. But you should be paranoid of ruinous risk because it prevents you from taking future risks that will pay off over time.”

    3. Never Enough

    • ‘Enough’ is not too little … ‘Enough’ is realizing that the opposite—an insatiable appetite for more—will push you to the point of regret.”
    • The hardest financial skill is getting the goalpost to stop moving. But it’s one of the most important. If expectations rise with results there is no logic in striving for more because you’ll feel the same after putting in extra effort. It gets dangerous when the taste of having more—more money, more power, more prestige—increases ambition faster than satisfaction.”
    • Social comparison is the problem here … The point is that the ceiling of social comparison is so high that virtually no one will ever hit it. Which means it’s a battle that can never be won, or that the only way to win is to not fight to begin with—to accept that you might have enough, even if it’s less than those around you.”
    • “There is no reason to risk what you have and need for what you don’t have and don’t need.”
    • “There are many things never worth risking, no matter the potential gain.”
    • “Maintaining a lifestyle below what you can afford is avoiding the psychological treadmill of keeping up with the Joneses.” (Note: See voluntary simplicity)

    4. Confounding Compounding

    “If something compounds—if a little growth serves as the fuel for future growth—a small starting base can lead to results so extraordinary they seem to defy logic. It can be so logic-defying that you underestimate what’s possible, where growth comes from, and what it can lead to.”

    • $81.5 billion of Warren Buffett’s $84.5 billion net worth came after his 65th birthday. Our minds are not built to handle such absurdities.”
    • His skill is investing, but his secret is time. That’s how compounding works.”
    • “If you want to do better as an investor, the single most powerful thing you can do is increase your time horizon. Time is the most powerful force in investing.”
    • “Good investing isn’t necessarily about earning the highest returns, because the highest returns tend to be one-off hits that can’t be repeated. It’s about earning pretty good returns that you can stick with and which can be repeated for the longest period of time. That’s when compounding runs wild.”

    5. Getting Wealthy vs. Staying Wealthy

    “There are a million ways to get wealthy … but there’s only one way to stay wealthy: some combination of frugality and paranoia.”

    • “Good investing is not necessarily about making good decisions. It’s about consistently not screwing up.
    • “If I had to summarize money success in a single word it would be ‘survival.'”
    • “Getting money requires taking risks, being optimistic, and putting yourself out there. But keeping money requires the opposite of taking risk. It requires humility, and fear that what you’ve made can be taken away from you just as fast. It requires frugality and an acceptance that at least some of what you’ve made is attributable to luck, so past success can’t be relied upon to repeat indefinitely.”
    • The ability to stick around for a long time, without wiping out or being forced to give up, is what makes the biggest difference. This should be the cornerstone of your strategy, whether it’s in investing or your career or a business you own. There are two reasons why a survival mentality is so key with money. One is the obvious: few gains are so great that they’re worth wiping yourself out over. The other is the counterintuitive math of compounding. Compounding only works if you can give an asset years and years to grow.”
    • More than I want big returns, I want to be financially unbreakable. And if I’m unbreakable I actually think I’ll get the biggest returns, because I’ll be able to stick around long enough for compounding to work wonders.”
    • Planning is important, but the most important part of every plan is to plan on the plan not going according to plan … Many bets fail not because they were wrong, but because they were mostly right in a situation that required things to be exactly right. Room for error—often called margin of safety—is one of the most underappreciated forces in finance. It comes in many forms: A frugal budget, flexible thinking, and a loose timeline—anything that lets you live happily with a range of outcomes.”
    • “A barbelled personality—optimistic about the future, but paranoid about what will prevent you from getting to the future—is vital.”

    6. Tails, You Win

    “A lot of things in business and investing work this way. Long tails—the farthest ends of a distribution of outcomes—have tremendous influence in finance, where a small number of events can account for the majority of outcomes.

    • “That can be hard to deal with, even if you understand the math. It is not intuitive that an investor can be wrong half the time and still make a fortune. It means we underestimate how normal it is for a lot of things to fail. Which causes us to overreact when they do.”
    • Anything that is huge, profitable, famous, or influential is the result of a tail event—an outlying one-in-thousands or millions event. And most of our attention goes to things that are huge, profitable, famous, or influential. When most of what we pay attention to is the result of a tail, it’s easy to underestimate how rare and powerful they are.”
    • “A good definition of an investing genius is the man or woman who can do the average thing when all those around them are going crazy. Tails drive everything.

    7. Freedom

    “The ability to do what you want, when you want, with who you want, for as long as you want, is priceless. It is the highest dividend money pays.

    • The highest form of wealth is the ability to wake up every morning and say, ‘I can do whatever I want today.’ People want to become wealthier to make them happier. Happiness is a complicated subject because everyone’s different. But if there’s a common denominator in happiness—a universal fuel of joy—it’s that people want to control their lives.”
    • “More than your salary. More than the size of your house. More than the prestige of your job. Control over doing what you want, when you want to, with the people you want to, is the broadest lifestyle variable that makes people happy.
    • Money’s greatest intrinsic value—and this can’t be overstated—is its ability to give you control over your time. To obtain, bit by bit, a level of independence and autonomy that comes from unspent assets that give you greater control over what you can do and when you can do it.”
    • “Using your money to buy time and options has a lifestyle benefit few luxury goods can compete with.”
    • “Aligning money towards a life that lets you do what you want, when you want, with who you want, where you want, for as long as you want, has incredible return.”
    • “Being able to wake up one morning and change what you’re doing, on your own terms, whenever you’re ready, seems like the grandmother of all financial goals. Independence, to me, doesn’t mean you’ll stop working. It means you only do the work you like with people you like at the times you want for as long as you want.”

    8. Man in the Car Paradox

    “No one is impressed with your possessions as much as you are.”

    • “There is a paradox here: people tend to want wealth to signal to others that they should be liked and admired. But in reality those other people often bypass admiring you, not because they don’t think wealth is admirable, but because they use your wealth as a benchmark for their own desire to be liked and admired.
    • “It’s a subtle recognition that people generally aspire to be respected and admired by others, and using money to buy fancy things may bring less of it than you imagine. If respect and admiration are your goal, be careful how you seek it. Humility, kindness, and empathy will bring you more respect than horsepower ever will.

    9. Wealth is What You Don’t See

    “Spending money to show people how much money you have is the fastest way to have less money.”

    • “We tend to judge wealth by what we see, because that’s the information we have in front of us. We can’t see people’s bank accounts or brokerage statements. So we rely on outward appearances to gauge financial success. Cars. Homes. Instagram photos. Modern capitalism makes helping people fake it until they make it a cherished industry.”
    • The truth is that wealth is what you don’t see. Wealth is the nice cars not purchased. The diamonds not bought. The watches not worn, the clothes forgone and the first-class upgrade declined. Wealth is financial assets that haven’t yet been converted into the stuff you see. That’s not how we think about wealth, because you can’t contextualize what you can’t see.”
    • The only way to be wealthy is to not spend the money that you do have. It’s not just the only way to accumulate wealth it’s the very definition of wealth. We should be careful to define the difference between wealthy and rich. It is more than semantics. Not knowing the difference is a source of countless poor money decisions.”
    • Rich is a current income. Someone driving a $100,000 car is almost certainly rich, because even if they purchased the car with debt you need a certain level of income to afford the monthly payment. Same with those who live in big homes. It’s not hard to spot rich people. They often go out of their way to make themselves known.”
    • Wealth is hidden. It’s income not spent. Wealth is an option not yet taken to buy something later. Its value lies in offering you options, flexibility, and growth to one day purchase more stuff than you could right now.”
    • “People are good at learning by imitation. But the hidden nature of wealth makes it hard to imitate others and learn from their ways.”

    10. Save Money

    “Building wealth has little to do with your income or investment returns, and lots to do with your savings rate.”

    • “Independence, at any income level, is driven by your savings rate.” (Note: See FIRE (Financial Independence Retire Early))
    • “Personal savings and frugality—finance’s conservation and efficiency—are parts of the money equation that are more in your control and have a 100% chance of being as effective in the future as they are today.”
    • “Wealth is just the accumulated leftovers after you spend what you take in. And since you can build wealth without a high income, but have no chance of building wealth without a high savings rate, it’s clear which one matters more.”
    • Learning to be happy with less money creates a gap between what you have and what you want—similar to the gap you get from growing your paycheck, but easier and more in your control. A high savings rate means having lower expenses than you otherwise could, and having lower expenses means your savings go farther than they would if you spent more.”
    • Spending beyond a pretty low level of materialism is mostly a reflection of ego approaching income, a way to spend money to show people that you have (or had) money. Think of it like this, and one of the most powerful ways to increase your savings isn’t to raise your income. It’s to raise your humility. When you define savings as the gap between your ego and your income you realize why many people with decent incomes save so little.”
    • “Savings can be created by spending less. You can spend less if you desire less. And you will desire less if you care less about what others think of you.”
    • You don’t need a specific reason to save … You can save just for saving’s sake. And indeed you should. Everyone should.”
    • “Everyone knows the tangible stuff money buys. The intangible stuff is harder to wrap your head around, so it tends to go unnoticed. But the intangible benefits of money can be far more valuable and capable of increasing your happiness than the tangible things that are obvious targets of our savings. Savings without a spending goal gives you options and flexibility, the ability to wait and the opportunity to pounce. It gives you time to think. It lets you change course on your own terms.”
    • “Savings in the bank that earn 0% interest might actually generate an extraordinary return if they give you the flexibility to take a job with a lower salary but more purpose, or wait for investment opportunities that come when those without flexibility turn desperate.”
    • “If you have flexibility you can wait for good opportunities, both in your career and for your investments. You’ll have a better chance of being able to learn a new skill when it’s necessary. You’ll feel less urgency to chase competitors who can do things you can’t, and have more leeway to find your passion and your niche at your own pace. You can find a new routine, a slower pace, and think about life with a different set of assumptions.”
    • “Having more control over your time and options is becoming one of the most valuable currencies in the world.”
    • “Less ego, more wealth. Saving money is the gap between your ego and your income, and wealth is what you don’t see.”

    11. Reasonable > Rational

    Do not aim to be coldly rational when making financial decisions. Aim to just be pretty reasonable. Reasonable is more realistic and you have a better chance of sticking with it for the long run, which is what matters most when managing money.”

    • “What’s often overlooked in finance is that something can be technically true but contextually nonsense.”
    • “A rational investor makes decisions based on numeric facts. A reasonable investor makes them in a conference room surrounded by co-workers you want to think highly of you, with a spouse you don’t want to let down, or judged against the silly but realistic competitors that are your brother-in-law, your neighbor, and your own personal doubts. Investing has a social component that’s often ignored when viewed through a strictly financial lens.

    12. Surprise!

    The correct lesson to learn from surprises is that the world is surprising. Not that we should use past surprises as a guide to future boundaries that we should use past surprises as an admission that we have no idea what might happen next.”

    • “History is the study of change, ironically used as a map of the future.”
    • “It is smart to have a deep appreciation for economic and investing history. History helps us calibrate our expectations, study where people tend to go wrong, and offers a rough guide of what tends to work. But it is not, in any way, a map of the future.
    • “A trap many investors fall into is what I call ‘historians as prophets’ fallacy: An overreliance on past data as a signal to future conditions in a field where innovation and change are the lifeblood of progress.”
    • The most important driver of anything tied to money is the stories people tell themselves and the preferences they have for goods and services. Those things don’t tend to sit still. They change with culture and generation. They’re always changing and always will.”
    • The most important economic events of the future—things that will move the needle the most—are things that history gives us little to no guide about. They will be unprecedented events. Their unprecedented nature means we won’t be prepared for them, which is part of what makes them so impactful. This is true for both scary events like recessions and wars, and great events like innovation.”
    • “History can be a misleading guide to the future of the economy and stock market because it doesn’t account for structural changes that are relevant to today’s world.”
    • The further back in history you look, the more general your takeaways should be. General things like people’s relationship to greed and fear, how they behave under stress, and how they respond to incentives tend to be stable in time. The history of money is useful for that kind of stuff. But specific trends, specific trades, specific sectors, specific causal relationships about markets, and what people should do with their money are always an example of evolution in progress. Historians are not prophets.”

    13. Room for Error

    Margin of safety—you can also call it room for error or redundancy—is the only effective way to safely navigate a world that is governed by odds, not certainties. And almost everything related to money exists in that kind of world.”

    • Worship room for error. A gap between what could happen in the future and what you need to happen in the future in order to do well is what gives you endurance, and endurance is what makes compounding magic over time.”
    • “The most important part of every plan is planning on your plan not going according to plan.”
    • “There is never a moment when you’re so right that you can bet every chip in front of you. The world isn’t that kind to anyone—not consistently, anyways. You have to give yourself room for error. You have to plan on your plan not going according to plan.
    • “History is littered with good ideas taken too far, which are indistinguishable from bad ideas. The wisdom in having room for error is acknowledging that uncertainty, randomness, and chance—’unknowns’—are an ever-present part of life. The only way to deal with them is by increasing the gap between what you think will happen and what can happen while still leaving you capable of fighting another day.”
    • Two things cause us to avoid room for error. One is the idea that somebody must know what the future holds, driven by the uncomfortable feeling that comes from admitting the opposite. The second is that you’re therefore doing yourself harm by not taking actions that fully exploit an accurate view of that future coming true.”
    • “If there’s one way to guard against their damage, it’s avoiding single points of failure. A good rule of thumb for a lot of things in life is that everything that can break will eventually break. So if many things rely on one thing working, and that thing breaks, you are counting the days to catastrophe. That’s a single point of failure.”
    • “The biggest single point of failure with money is a sole reliance on a paycheck to fund short-term spending needs, with no savings to create a gap between what you think your expenses are and what they might be in the future.”

    14. You’ll Change

    “Long-term planning is harder than it seems because people’s goals and desires change over time.”

    • An underpinning of psychology is that people are poor forecasters of their future selves. Imagining a goal is easy and fun. Imagining a goal in the context of the realistic life stresses that grow with competitive pursuits is something entirely different. This has a big impact on our ability to plan for future financial goals.”
    • “The End of History Illusion is what psychologists call the tendency for people to be keenly aware of how much they’ve changed in the past, but to underestimate how much their personalities, desires, and goals are likely to change in the future.”
    • We should avoid the extreme ends of financial planning. Assuming you’ll be happy with a very low income, or choosing to work endless hours in pursuit of a high one, increases the odds that you’ll one day find yourself at a point of regret.”
    • “We should also come to accept the reality of changing our minds.”

    15. Nothing’s Free

    “Everything has a price, but not all prices appear on labels.”

    • Everything has a price, and the key to a lot of things with money is just figuring out what that price is and being willing to pay it. The problem is that the price of a lot of things is not obvious until you’ve experienced them firsthand, when the bill is overdue.”
    • Most things are harder in practice than they are in theory. Sometimes this is because we’re overconfident. More often it’s because we’re not good at identifying what the price of success is, which prevents us from being able to pay it.”
    • “Like everything else worthwhile, successful investing demands a price. But its currency is not dollars and cents. It’s volatility, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and regret—all of which are easy to overlook until you’re dealing with them in real time.”
    • “The question is: Why do so many people who are willing to pay the price of cars, houses, food, and vacations try so hard to avoid paying the price of good investment returns? The answer is simple: The price of investing success is not immediately obvious. It’s not a price tag you can see, so when the bill comes due it doesn’t feel like a fee for getting something good. It feels like a fine for doing something wrong. And while people are generally fine with paying fees, fines are supposed to be avoided. You’re supposed to make decisions that preempt and avoid fines.”
    • “It sounds trivial, but thinking of market volatility as a fee rather than a fine is an important part of developing the kind of mindset that lets you stick around long enough for investing gains to work in your favor.”
    • “Market returns are never free and never will be. They demand you pay a price, like any other product.”
    • The trick is convincing yourself that the market’s fee is worth it. That’s the only way to properly deal with volatility and uncertainty—not just putting up with it, but realizing that it’s an admission fee worth paying. There’s no guarantee that it will be.”
    • “Define the cost of success and be ready to pay for it. Because nothing worthwhile is free.”

    16. You & Me

    “Beware taking financial cues from people playing a different game than you are.”

    • An idea exists in finance that seems innocent but has done incalculable damage. It’s the notion that assets have one rational price in a world where investors have different goals and time horizons.”
    • “Bubbles form when the momentum of short-term returns attracts enough money that the makeup of investors shifts from mostly long term to mostly short term.”
    • “The formation of bubbles isn’t so much about people irrationally participating in long-term investing. They’re about people somewhat rationally moving toward short-term trading to capture momentum that had been feeding on itself.
    • It’s hard to grasp that other investors have different goals than we do, because an anchor of psychology is not realizing that rational people can see the world through a different lens than your own. Rising prices persuade all investors in ways the best marketers envy. They are a drug that can turn value-conscious investors into dewy-eyed optimists, detached from their own reality by the actions of someone playing a different game than they are.”
    • A takeaway here is that few things matter more with money than understanding your own time horizon and not being persuaded by the actions and behaviors of people playing different games than you are. The main thing I can recommend is going out of your way to identify what game you’re playing.”
    • “Smart, informed, and reasonable people can disagree in finance, because people have vastly different goals and desires. There is no single right answer just the answer that works for you.

    17. The Seduction of Pessimism

    “Optimism sounds like a sales pitch. Pessimism sounds like someone trying to help you.”

    • Optimism is a belief that the odds of a good outcome are in your favor over time, even when there will be setbacks along the way.”
    • “Money is ubiquitous, so something bad happening tends to affect everyone and captures everyone’s attention.”
    • “Pessimists often extrapolate present trends without accounting for how markets adapt.”
    • “Progress happens too slowly to notice, but setbacks happen too quickly to ignore.”
    • It’s easier to create a narrative around pessimism because the story pieces tend to be fresher and more recent. Optimistic narratives require looking at a long stretch of history and developments, which people tend to forget and take more effort to piece together.”

    18. When You’ll Believe Anything

    Stories are, by far, the most powerful force in the economy. They are the fuel that can let the tangible parts of the economy work, or the brake that holds our capabilities back.”


    7. Chico: The Entertainer - ESFP

    Highly emotional, territorial, and always seems ready to put on a show, that’s exactly the kind of guy Chico is. Whether it’s displaying dominance the in the halls of Kings Dominion or soaking the streets of Las Vegas in blood, Chico is certainly going to get your attention one way or another. For someone like Chico, the rules don’t really make any difference. Chico lets his feelings dictate his actions and he’s not concerned with the consequences of his actions one bit. You can see it in the way he aggressively taunts and assaults Marcus in his obsession with Marcus after Maria’s left him. It’s toxic traits like these that leave Chico with his throat slit in a dank, dirty alleyway in Las Vegas.


    Myers Briggs Personality Test

    Many people love to share their MBTI test scores, however you may not know what their seemingly random string of letters means. Developed by Carl Jung and some of his fans, the Myers-Briggs or MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator) test is loved by the public, but hated by many scientists.

    The test puts participants into one of 16 categories based on how they answer questions. The MBTI measures 4 traits:

    • Extraversion vs Introversion
    • Sensing vs Intuition
    • Thinking vs Feeling
    • Judging vs Perceiving

    Depending on how you fall into each of those categories, you are given a label. For example, if you received Introversion, Intuition, Thinking, and Judging, you would be labelled as an "INTJ", like me.


    7. Chico: The Entertainer - ESFP

    Highly emotional, territorial, and always seems ready to put on a show, that’s exactly the kind of guy Chico is. Whether it’s displaying dominance the in the halls of Kings Dominion or soaking the streets of Las Vegas in blood, Chico is certainly going to get your attention one way or another. For someone like Chico, the rules don’t really make any difference. Chico lets his feelings dictate his actions and he’s not concerned with the consequences of his actions one bit. You can see it in the way he aggressively taunts and assaults Marcus in his obsession with Marcus after Maria’s left him. It’s toxic traits like these that leave Chico with his throat slit in a dank, dirty alleyway in Las Vegas.


    18 Wealth Lessons from “The Psychology of Money” by Morgan Housel (Book Summary)

    Overview of The Psychology of Money:

    “The premise of this book is that doing well with money has a little to do with how smart you are and a lot to do with how you behave.”

    • “Financial success is not a hard science. It’s a soft skill, where how you behave is more important than what you know. I call this soft skill the psychology of money.”
    • “The aim of this book is to use short stories to convince you that soft skills are more important than the technical side of money.”
    • “We think about and are taught about money in ways that are too much like physics (with rules and laws) and not enough like psychology (with emotions and nuance).”
    • “Physics isn’t controversial. It’s guided by laws. Finance is different. It’s guided by people’s behaviors.

    1. No One’s Crazy

    “Your personal experiences with money make up maybe 0.00000001% of what’s happened in the world, but maybe 80% of how you think the world works.”

    • “Every decision people make with money is justified by taking the information they have at the moment and plugging it into their unique mental model of how the world works.”
    • People do some crazy things with money. But no one is crazy. Here’s the thing: People from different generations, raised by different parents who earned different incomes and held different values, in different parts of the world, born into different economies, experiencing different job markets with different incentives and different degrees of luck, learn very different lessons.”
    • “In theory people should make investment decisions based on their goals and the characteristics of the investment options available to them at the time. But that’s not what people do. The economists found that people’s lifetime investment decisions are heavily anchored to the experiences those investors had in their own generation—especially experiences early in their adult life.”
    • Their view of money was formed in different worlds. And when that’s the case, a view about money that one group of people thinks is outrageous can make perfect sense to another.”
    • “Few people make financial decisions purely with a spreadsheet. They make them at the dinner table, or in a company meeting. Places where personal history, your own unique view of the world, ego, pride, marketing, and odd incentives are scrambled together into a narrative that works for you.”

    2. Luck & Risk

    “Luck and risk are both the reality that every outcome in life is guided by forces other than individual effort. They are so similar that you can’t believe in one without equally respecting the other. They both happen because the world is too complex to allow 100% of your actions to dictate 100% of your outcomes.”

    • “They are driven by the same thing: You are one person in a game with seven billion other people and infinite moving parts. The accidental impact of actions outside of your control can be more consequential than the ones you consciously take.
    • “The line between ‘inspiringly bold’ and ‘foolishly reckless’ can be a millimeter thick and only visible with hindsight. Risk and luck are doppelgangers.”
    • “Be careful who you praise and admire. Be careful who you look down upon and wish to avoid becoming. Or, just be careful when assuming that 100% of outcomes can be attributed to effort and decisions.”
    • “Therefore, focus less on specific individuals and case studies and more on broad patterns.”
    • “Go out of your way to find humility when things are going right and forgiveness / compassion when they go wrong. Because it’s never as good or as bad as it looks.
    • You should like risk because it pays off over time. But you should be paranoid of ruinous risk because it prevents you from taking future risks that will pay off over time.”

    3. Never Enough

    • ‘Enough’ is not too little … ‘Enough’ is realizing that the opposite—an insatiable appetite for more—will push you to the point of regret.”
    • The hardest financial skill is getting the goalpost to stop moving. But it’s one of the most important. If expectations rise with results there is no logic in striving for more because you’ll feel the same after putting in extra effort. It gets dangerous when the taste of having more—more money, more power, more prestige—increases ambition faster than satisfaction.”
    • Social comparison is the problem here … The point is that the ceiling of social comparison is so high that virtually no one will ever hit it. Which means it’s a battle that can never be won, or that the only way to win is to not fight to begin with—to accept that you might have enough, even if it’s less than those around you.”
    • “There is no reason to risk what you have and need for what you don’t have and don’t need.”
    • “There are many things never worth risking, no matter the potential gain.”
    • “Maintaining a lifestyle below what you can afford is avoiding the psychological treadmill of keeping up with the Joneses.” (Note: See voluntary simplicity)

    4. Confounding Compounding

    “If something compounds—if a little growth serves as the fuel for future growth—a small starting base can lead to results so extraordinary they seem to defy logic. It can be so logic-defying that you underestimate what’s possible, where growth comes from, and what it can lead to.”

    • $81.5 billion of Warren Buffett’s $84.5 billion net worth came after his 65th birthday. Our minds are not built to handle such absurdities.”
    • His skill is investing, but his secret is time. That’s how compounding works.”
    • “If you want to do better as an investor, the single most powerful thing you can do is increase your time horizon. Time is the most powerful force in investing.”
    • “Good investing isn’t necessarily about earning the highest returns, because the highest returns tend to be one-off hits that can’t be repeated. It’s about earning pretty good returns that you can stick with and which can be repeated for the longest period of time. That’s when compounding runs wild.”

    5. Getting Wealthy vs. Staying Wealthy

    “There are a million ways to get wealthy … but there’s only one way to stay wealthy: some combination of frugality and paranoia.”

    • “Good investing is not necessarily about making good decisions. It’s about consistently not screwing up.
    • “If I had to summarize money success in a single word it would be ‘survival.'”
    • “Getting money requires taking risks, being optimistic, and putting yourself out there. But keeping money requires the opposite of taking risk. It requires humility, and fear that what you’ve made can be taken away from you just as fast. It requires frugality and an acceptance that at least some of what you’ve made is attributable to luck, so past success can’t be relied upon to repeat indefinitely.”
    • The ability to stick around for a long time, without wiping out or being forced to give up, is what makes the biggest difference. This should be the cornerstone of your strategy, whether it’s in investing or your career or a business you own. There are two reasons why a survival mentality is so key with money. One is the obvious: few gains are so great that they’re worth wiping yourself out over. The other is the counterintuitive math of compounding. Compounding only works if you can give an asset years and years to grow.”
    • More than I want big returns, I want to be financially unbreakable. And if I’m unbreakable I actually think I’ll get the biggest returns, because I’ll be able to stick around long enough for compounding to work wonders.”
    • Planning is important, but the most important part of every plan is to plan on the plan not going according to plan … Many bets fail not because they were wrong, but because they were mostly right in a situation that required things to be exactly right. Room for error—often called margin of safety—is one of the most underappreciated forces in finance. It comes in many forms: A frugal budget, flexible thinking, and a loose timeline—anything that lets you live happily with a range of outcomes.”
    • “A barbelled personality—optimistic about the future, but paranoid about what will prevent you from getting to the future—is vital.”

    6. Tails, You Win

    “A lot of things in business and investing work this way. Long tails—the farthest ends of a distribution of outcomes—have tremendous influence in finance, where a small number of events can account for the majority of outcomes.

    • “That can be hard to deal with, even if you understand the math. It is not intuitive that an investor can be wrong half the time and still make a fortune. It means we underestimate how normal it is for a lot of things to fail. Which causes us to overreact when they do.”
    • Anything that is huge, profitable, famous, or influential is the result of a tail event—an outlying one-in-thousands or millions event. And most of our attention goes to things that are huge, profitable, famous, or influential. When most of what we pay attention to is the result of a tail, it’s easy to underestimate how rare and powerful they are.”
    • “A good definition of an investing genius is the man or woman who can do the average thing when all those around them are going crazy. Tails drive everything.

    7. Freedom

    “The ability to do what you want, when you want, with who you want, for as long as you want, is priceless. It is the highest dividend money pays.

    • The highest form of wealth is the ability to wake up every morning and say, ‘I can do whatever I want today.’ People want to become wealthier to make them happier. Happiness is a complicated subject because everyone’s different. But if there’s a common denominator in happiness—a universal fuel of joy—it’s that people want to control their lives.”
    • “More than your salary. More than the size of your house. More than the prestige of your job. Control over doing what you want, when you want to, with the people you want to, is the broadest lifestyle variable that makes people happy.
    • Money’s greatest intrinsic value—and this can’t be overstated—is its ability to give you control over your time. To obtain, bit by bit, a level of independence and autonomy that comes from unspent assets that give you greater control over what you can do and when you can do it.”
    • “Using your money to buy time and options has a lifestyle benefit few luxury goods can compete with.”
    • “Aligning money towards a life that lets you do what you want, when you want, with who you want, where you want, for as long as you want, has incredible return.”
    • “Being able to wake up one morning and change what you’re doing, on your own terms, whenever you’re ready, seems like the grandmother of all financial goals. Independence, to me, doesn’t mean you’ll stop working. It means you only do the work you like with people you like at the times you want for as long as you want.”

    8. Man in the Car Paradox

    “No one is impressed with your possessions as much as you are.”

    • “There is a paradox here: people tend to want wealth to signal to others that they should be liked and admired. But in reality those other people often bypass admiring you, not because they don’t think wealth is admirable, but because they use your wealth as a benchmark for their own desire to be liked and admired.
    • “It’s a subtle recognition that people generally aspire to be respected and admired by others, and using money to buy fancy things may bring less of it than you imagine. If respect and admiration are your goal, be careful how you seek it. Humility, kindness, and empathy will bring you more respect than horsepower ever will.

    9. Wealth is What You Don’t See

    “Spending money to show people how much money you have is the fastest way to have less money.”

    • “We tend to judge wealth by what we see, because that’s the information we have in front of us. We can’t see people’s bank accounts or brokerage statements. So we rely on outward appearances to gauge financial success. Cars. Homes. Instagram photos. Modern capitalism makes helping people fake it until they make it a cherished industry.”
    • The truth is that wealth is what you don’t see. Wealth is the nice cars not purchased. The diamonds not bought. The watches not worn, the clothes forgone and the first-class upgrade declined. Wealth is financial assets that haven’t yet been converted into the stuff you see. That’s not how we think about wealth, because you can’t contextualize what you can’t see.”
    • The only way to be wealthy is to not spend the money that you do have. It’s not just the only way to accumulate wealth it’s the very definition of wealth. We should be careful to define the difference between wealthy and rich. It is more than semantics. Not knowing the difference is a source of countless poor money decisions.”
    • Rich is a current income. Someone driving a $100,000 car is almost certainly rich, because even if they purchased the car with debt you need a certain level of income to afford the monthly payment. Same with those who live in big homes. It’s not hard to spot rich people. They often go out of their way to make themselves known.”
    • Wealth is hidden. It’s income not spent. Wealth is an option not yet taken to buy something later. Its value lies in offering you options, flexibility, and growth to one day purchase more stuff than you could right now.”
    • “People are good at learning by imitation. But the hidden nature of wealth makes it hard to imitate others and learn from their ways.”

    10. Save Money

    “Building wealth has little to do with your income or investment returns, and lots to do with your savings rate.”

    • “Independence, at any income level, is driven by your savings rate.” (Note: See FIRE (Financial Independence Retire Early))
    • “Personal savings and frugality—finance’s conservation and efficiency—are parts of the money equation that are more in your control and have a 100% chance of being as effective in the future as they are today.”
    • “Wealth is just the accumulated leftovers after you spend what you take in. And since you can build wealth without a high income, but have no chance of building wealth without a high savings rate, it’s clear which one matters more.”
    • Learning to be happy with less money creates a gap between what you have and what you want—similar to the gap you get from growing your paycheck, but easier and more in your control. A high savings rate means having lower expenses than you otherwise could, and having lower expenses means your savings go farther than they would if you spent more.”
    • Spending beyond a pretty low level of materialism is mostly a reflection of ego approaching income, a way to spend money to show people that you have (or had) money. Think of it like this, and one of the most powerful ways to increase your savings isn’t to raise your income. It’s to raise your humility. When you define savings as the gap between your ego and your income you realize why many people with decent incomes save so little.”
    • “Savings can be created by spending less. You can spend less if you desire less. And you will desire less if you care less about what others think of you.”
    • You don’t need a specific reason to save … You can save just for saving’s sake. And indeed you should. Everyone should.”
    • “Everyone knows the tangible stuff money buys. The intangible stuff is harder to wrap your head around, so it tends to go unnoticed. But the intangible benefits of money can be far more valuable and capable of increasing your happiness than the tangible things that are obvious targets of our savings. Savings without a spending goal gives you options and flexibility, the ability to wait and the opportunity to pounce. It gives you time to think. It lets you change course on your own terms.”
    • “Savings in the bank that earn 0% interest might actually generate an extraordinary return if they give you the flexibility to take a job with a lower salary but more purpose, or wait for investment opportunities that come when those without flexibility turn desperate.”
    • “If you have flexibility you can wait for good opportunities, both in your career and for your investments. You’ll have a better chance of being able to learn a new skill when it’s necessary. You’ll feel less urgency to chase competitors who can do things you can’t, and have more leeway to find your passion and your niche at your own pace. You can find a new routine, a slower pace, and think about life with a different set of assumptions.”
    • “Having more control over your time and options is becoming one of the most valuable currencies in the world.”
    • “Less ego, more wealth. Saving money is the gap between your ego and your income, and wealth is what you don’t see.”

    11. Reasonable > Rational

    Do not aim to be coldly rational when making financial decisions. Aim to just be pretty reasonable. Reasonable is more realistic and you have a better chance of sticking with it for the long run, which is what matters most when managing money.”

    • “What’s often overlooked in finance is that something can be technically true but contextually nonsense.”
    • “A rational investor makes decisions based on numeric facts. A reasonable investor makes them in a conference room surrounded by co-workers you want to think highly of you, with a spouse you don’t want to let down, or judged against the silly but realistic competitors that are your brother-in-law, your neighbor, and your own personal doubts. Investing has a social component that’s often ignored when viewed through a strictly financial lens.

    12. Surprise!

    The correct lesson to learn from surprises is that the world is surprising. Not that we should use past surprises as a guide to future boundaries that we should use past surprises as an admission that we have no idea what might happen next.”

    • “History is the study of change, ironically used as a map of the future.”
    • “It is smart to have a deep appreciation for economic and investing history. History helps us calibrate our expectations, study where people tend to go wrong, and offers a rough guide of what tends to work. But it is not, in any way, a map of the future.
    • “A trap many investors fall into is what I call ‘historians as prophets’ fallacy: An overreliance on past data as a signal to future conditions in a field where innovation and change are the lifeblood of progress.”
    • The most important driver of anything tied to money is the stories people tell themselves and the preferences they have for goods and services. Those things don’t tend to sit still. They change with culture and generation. They’re always changing and always will.”
    • The most important economic events of the future—things that will move the needle the most—are things that history gives us little to no guide about. They will be unprecedented events. Their unprecedented nature means we won’t be prepared for them, which is part of what makes them so impactful. This is true for both scary events like recessions and wars, and great events like innovation.”
    • “History can be a misleading guide to the future of the economy and stock market because it doesn’t account for structural changes that are relevant to today’s world.”
    • The further back in history you look, the more general your takeaways should be. General things like people’s relationship to greed and fear, how they behave under stress, and how they respond to incentives tend to be stable in time. The history of money is useful for that kind of stuff. But specific trends, specific trades, specific sectors, specific causal relationships about markets, and what people should do with their money are always an example of evolution in progress. Historians are not prophets.”

    13. Room for Error

    Margin of safety—you can also call it room for error or redundancy—is the only effective way to safely navigate a world that is governed by odds, not certainties. And almost everything related to money exists in that kind of world.”

    • Worship room for error. A gap between what could happen in the future and what you need to happen in the future in order to do well is what gives you endurance, and endurance is what makes compounding magic over time.”
    • “The most important part of every plan is planning on your plan not going according to plan.”
    • “There is never a moment when you’re so right that you can bet every chip in front of you. The world isn’t that kind to anyone—not consistently, anyways. You have to give yourself room for error. You have to plan on your plan not going according to plan.
    • “History is littered with good ideas taken too far, which are indistinguishable from bad ideas. The wisdom in having room for error is acknowledging that uncertainty, randomness, and chance—’unknowns’—are an ever-present part of life. The only way to deal with them is by increasing the gap between what you think will happen and what can happen while still leaving you capable of fighting another day.”
    • Two things cause us to avoid room for error. One is the idea that somebody must know what the future holds, driven by the uncomfortable feeling that comes from admitting the opposite. The second is that you’re therefore doing yourself harm by not taking actions that fully exploit an accurate view of that future coming true.”
    • “If there’s one way to guard against their damage, it’s avoiding single points of failure. A good rule of thumb for a lot of things in life is that everything that can break will eventually break. So if many things rely on one thing working, and that thing breaks, you are counting the days to catastrophe. That’s a single point of failure.”
    • “The biggest single point of failure with money is a sole reliance on a paycheck to fund short-term spending needs, with no savings to create a gap between what you think your expenses are and what they might be in the future.”

    14. You’ll Change

    “Long-term planning is harder than it seems because people’s goals and desires change over time.”

    • An underpinning of psychology is that people are poor forecasters of their future selves. Imagining a goal is easy and fun. Imagining a goal in the context of the realistic life stresses that grow with competitive pursuits is something entirely different. This has a big impact on our ability to plan for future financial goals.”
    • “The End of History Illusion is what psychologists call the tendency for people to be keenly aware of how much they’ve changed in the past, but to underestimate how much their personalities, desires, and goals are likely to change in the future.”
    • We should avoid the extreme ends of financial planning. Assuming you’ll be happy with a very low income, or choosing to work endless hours in pursuit of a high one, increases the odds that you’ll one day find yourself at a point of regret.”
    • “We should also come to accept the reality of changing our minds.”

    15. Nothing’s Free

    “Everything has a price, but not all prices appear on labels.”

    • Everything has a price, and the key to a lot of things with money is just figuring out what that price is and being willing to pay it. The problem is that the price of a lot of things is not obvious until you’ve experienced them firsthand, when the bill is overdue.”
    • Most things are harder in practice than they are in theory. Sometimes this is because we’re overconfident. More often it’s because we’re not good at identifying what the price of success is, which prevents us from being able to pay it.”
    • “Like everything else worthwhile, successful investing demands a price. But its currency is not dollars and cents. It’s volatility, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and regret—all of which are easy to overlook until you’re dealing with them in real time.”
    • “The question is: Why do so many people who are willing to pay the price of cars, houses, food, and vacations try so hard to avoid paying the price of good investment returns? The answer is simple: The price of investing success is not immediately obvious. It’s not a price tag you can see, so when the bill comes due it doesn’t feel like a fee for getting something good. It feels like a fine for doing something wrong. And while people are generally fine with paying fees, fines are supposed to be avoided. You’re supposed to make decisions that preempt and avoid fines.”
    • “It sounds trivial, but thinking of market volatility as a fee rather than a fine is an important part of developing the kind of mindset that lets you stick around long enough for investing gains to work in your favor.”
    • “Market returns are never free and never will be. They demand you pay a price, like any other product.”
    • The trick is convincing yourself that the market’s fee is worth it. That’s the only way to properly deal with volatility and uncertainty—not just putting up with it, but realizing that it’s an admission fee worth paying. There’s no guarantee that it will be.”
    • “Define the cost of success and be ready to pay for it. Because nothing worthwhile is free.”

    16. You & Me

    “Beware taking financial cues from people playing a different game than you are.”

    • An idea exists in finance that seems innocent but has done incalculable damage. It’s the notion that assets have one rational price in a world where investors have different goals and time horizons.”
    • “Bubbles form when the momentum of short-term returns attracts enough money that the makeup of investors shifts from mostly long term to mostly short term.”
    • “The formation of bubbles isn’t so much about people irrationally participating in long-term investing. They’re about people somewhat rationally moving toward short-term trading to capture momentum that had been feeding on itself.
    • It’s hard to grasp that other investors have different goals than we do, because an anchor of psychology is not realizing that rational people can see the world through a different lens than your own. Rising prices persuade all investors in ways the best marketers envy. They are a drug that can turn value-conscious investors into dewy-eyed optimists, detached from their own reality by the actions of someone playing a different game than they are.”
    • A takeaway here is that few things matter more with money than understanding your own time horizon and not being persuaded by the actions and behaviors of people playing different games than you are. The main thing I can recommend is going out of your way to identify what game you’re playing.”
    • “Smart, informed, and reasonable people can disagree in finance, because people have vastly different goals and desires. There is no single right answer just the answer that works for you.

    17. The Seduction of Pessimism

    “Optimism sounds like a sales pitch. Pessimism sounds like someone trying to help you.”

    • Optimism is a belief that the odds of a good outcome are in your favor over time, even when there will be setbacks along the way.”
    • “Money is ubiquitous, so something bad happening tends to affect everyone and captures everyone’s attention.”
    • “Pessimists often extrapolate present trends without accounting for how markets adapt.”
    • “Progress happens too slowly to notice, but setbacks happen too quickly to ignore.”
    • It’s easier to create a narrative around pessimism because the story pieces tend to be fresher and more recent. Optimistic narratives require looking at a long stretch of history and developments, which people tend to forget and take more effort to piece together.”

    18. When You’ll Believe Anything

    Stories are, by far, the most powerful force in the economy. They are the fuel that can let the tangible parts of the economy work, or the brake that holds our capabilities back.”


    How to choose a degree major that is right for you

    1. Sit down and make a list

    When I decided on a degree major, I literary sat down and made a list of all the things that were:

    • important to me in a career/lifestyle. (Eg. a career that pays well travel options the possibility to work from home / for myself).
    • what I enjoy doing in work and life. (Eg. helping and encouraging people training solving problems making a difference being creative, seeing the results of what I do a challenge…).
    • all the things I am naturally good at. (not going to blow my own horn here, but you get the drift)

    If you battle (and even if you don’t), take the time to do a free online personality test, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ® (MBTI). I’ve always just done these for fun, so I kind of knew what career choices my personality leaned towards.

    2. Find common ground between the items on the list

    Try to find commonality in the items. I tried to see how I could fit, helping people, solving problems and earn a decent salary together. I played around with a couple of ideas and managed to reduce my unending list of items to about three of four options. If I remember correctly it was something like:

    • psychologist, because I could help and encourage people
    • teacher/ training, but I was concerned about teaching kids & the salary/advancement opportunities (I was a single mom at the time)
    • accounting, because I was kind of good with numbers, but petrified I would get bored. But the money is good.
    • graphic design, creative aspect.

    3. Research your academic institutions in and around the area

    I knew I had to study part-time and I knew I wouldn’t be able to attend evening or weekend lectures. So open distance learning institution like UNISA was really my only rational choice. Perhaps this was a blessing in disguise because sometimes too many options overwhelm us even more!

    4. Research the degree majors the institution offers and match them with the items on your list

    I knew I wanted to study a B.Com degree. Looking back, I am not really sure why. I think the colleague that was about to enrol and led me to consider the idea of continuing my studies, painted the picture that a B.Com would be better. Perhaps the fact that a B.Com, even if, just a general B.Com would be a good direction, considering the idea that I was working in the business world. I’m not 100% certain, but I remember looking at the list of degree major offered in the B.Com degree and reading the descriptions carefully. The list is a lot longer now than it was back then, then my choices were pretty much:

    • Accounting
    • Business Management
    • Economics
    • General / Generic
    • Informatics
    • Industrial Psychology
    • Tourism

    Secretly the thought of psychology involved a whole lot of chemistry and I wasn’t very good at chemistry or science at school. Imagine my relief, when I realized psychology and industrial psychology had nothing to do with chemistry!

    Here’s how I matched my ‘wishlist’ with the courses on offer:

    I started researching both psychology and industrial psychology and made some pretty amazing discoveries about the industry, for example:

    • training and counselling were a part of an industrial psychologist’s tasks.
    • ergonomics is an area in industrial psychology that incorporated a whole lot of design and lighting elements to promote a healthy work environment for workers.
    • psychometric testing – you mean I can get other people to do the same personality tests, I love doing and charge them a fee?
    • if I decided to register as a psychometrist, I could work from home/work as a consultant to various organisations.
    • board certified industrial psychologists earn a killing!
    • I get to solve a lot of problems – what is the best career choices for you? How do I get this group of people to work with that group of people? How can I get the CEO of a company to understand the underlying problems in his organisation? That kind of thing.

    I knew I had a winner. Bottom line, I knew this would be an industry was I could make a difference in the lives of the people around me.

    Related Post:

    Related Post:

    Also, I am happy to say that I have managed to transition from a travel agent to a systems support specialists. I do a lot of what I love doing, training, solving problems, enhancing systems, integration, automation, etc and I really enjoy what I do.

    I am yet to transition to industrial psychology and the plan remains to do the practical hours in order to register as a psychometrist. But if all goes well, I would really like to go into organisational development!


    What if MBTI differs a lot for short-term and long-term lifestyle? - Psychology

    What is the definition of instant gratification? is it possible to over come our primal instincts, including tips to prevent it from running your life.

    Definition of Instant Gratification

    Instant gratification is the concept that we must have results right away and that we don’t want to wait. It’s an impulsive desire to have things instantly.

    This need for instant gratification is believed to be deeply embedded into our subconscious minds. It was once a very important survival tool when the human race was living in caves and fending off predators. That evolutionary instant gratification need would of been vital to us surviving.

    Instant Gratification in Modern Society

    Instant gratification is very obvious in modern day society, a common example would be the way many people spend money. Many of us like to buy things for the instant feel good factor not taking into account the long term ramifications like getting into debt, which can reduce the overall quality of a persons life. Another very common example would be over eating, again this will reduce the overall quality of life in the long term.

    Many businesses and advertising companies are very aware of the human basic need to get instant results. For example fast foods which taste good and they’re cheap and fast to prepare, they provide instant satisfaction but they’re generally not healthy. We also see this instant gratification need being catered for in the medical world, examples would be, weight loss pills, anti depressant and anti anxiety medications, medications that are designed to get quick results. However many have potential side effects and they may not solve the problem in the long term.

    Instant gratification is not always a bad thing, but if it’s too much of a dominant force within somebody it will seriously reduce the quality of life for that individual. Many of the richest and most successful people in the world had to work very hard for a long time to achieve what they have, if they let instant gratification control their minds then they probably would of never earned the success that they have. Even the most successful entrepreneurs, musicians and actors in the world would of had to put up with a lot of rejection, failures and critics. Anyone just after instant results would of never of continued to success with the set backs that many would of had to deal with.

    There are always exceptions to how some people gain success and even fame. For example those that inherit money, those people tend not to appreciate it as much as those who have had to work for it and they’re also more likely to lose it all because they do not value it in the same way. Plus they have not trained their minds to prevent instant gratification from being so dominate.

    Ways to counter act instant gratification

    1. Understand and realize that instant gratification will reduce the quality of your life in the long term. Often it’s good to live in the now, however too much short term thinking will probably have a negative effect on your overall quality of life.

    2. Understand that achieving great things takes time, effort and perseverance. Few people ever achieve anything great over night.

    3. Accept that we cannot always have what we want instantly, this type of acceptance can be a very powerful and is an effective way of loosening the control instant gratification has on many of us.

    4. Spend some time thinking about your future and what you want to achieve long term, also what sort of person you want to be in the future (self reflection). This may help you look beyond the now, and that instant need for gratification.


    What is The MBTI® Test?

    The MBTI test is an assessment that identifies one’s 4-letter personality type, with each letter corresponding to a specific personality preference or tendency. The MBTI Assessment is made up of 93 questions and normally takes about 20-25 minutes to complete. There are no right or wrong answers on The Myers-Briggs® test. Those who complete the MBTI test are asked to answer as honestly as they can, without any outside interference. Those who take the indicator are asked to answer questions about how they act most of the time. The Myers-Briggs test online is made up of four dichotomies, or four pairs of opposite personality functions, making up a total of 16 personality types. At its core, the theory behind the MBTI test is based on the fact that the world’s population is made up of these 16 different types of people—hence the 16 MBTI Personality Types.

    The four personality type opposites (dichotomies) are:

    • Extraversion-Introversion
    • Intuition-Sensing
    • Thinking-Feeling
    • Judging-Perceiving

    The creators of The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment believed that the way in which people prefer to behave varies from person to person and therefore by personality type, and each of the letters listed above (E-I, I-S, T-F, J-P) represent a different preference.

    MBTI Extraverted Types

    Extraverted people tend to become energized by being around others, usually larger groups. They draw their energy from the outer world by communicating verbally and being social. They focus their energy toward the outside world as well. In relation to careers, they tend to prefer to work in larger groups as opposed to working alone or in one-on-one situations, which usually drains the extravert.

    MBTI Introverted Types

    Introverted people tend to become energized by taking time to themselves, including doing projects in small groups and participating in one-on-one situations. They tend to prefer to let others do the talking while in larger groups, and favor having a few long-term friends rather than more acquaintances. Introverts focus their energy inward to their inner world of ideas, thoughts, and feelings. When considering career options, an introverted person wants to think over his or her options alone and will usually only announce his or her decision after personal reflection.

    MBTI Intuition Types

    Intuition type people prefer to take in information by seeing the larger picture of life, focusing on future possibilities. They are generally imaginative, verbally creative, focus on patterns and meanings in data, follow hunches, and move quickly toward conclusions. They trust inspiration. When considering career options, those with the intuition type are more interested in a job’s potential than the job’s current description.

    MBTI Sensing Types

    Sensing people prefer real and tangible data when absorbing information. They excel at observing and remembering specifics. They like to focus on present realities and trust experience over intuition. Sensing individuals use practical application as a method to understand ideas and theories. Relating to work, a Sensing individual focuses on the facts of the job: benefits, location, and salary.

    MBTI Thinking Types

    Thinking types look at the logical consequences of a specific action when making decisions. They opt to remove emotion when analyzing situations so that they may weigh the pros and cons of a situation objectively. They strive to solve problems by critiquing and analyzing situations in order to identify the issues that need their attention. They utilize cause-and-effect reasoning and strive to find a standard that will apply in all similar situations. Career choices are made by logical analysis and they rationally consider all alternatives to be sure that they make the right choice.

    MBTI Feeling Types

    When making decisions, Feeling types tend to consider what is important to them and to those involved. Opposite of the Thinking type, they take emotion into consideration and identify with everyone involved. They make decisions based on their values about honoring people. They are fueled by appreciating and supporting others and look for qualities to praise. They tend to be compassionate, empathetic, and amiable, always striving to create harmony. They make career decisions based on what or who is most important to them at the time and take considerable notice of how career decisions affect them and their significant others.

    MBTI Judging Types

    Individuals that prefer Judging like to live in a planned, orderly way and seek to regulate and manage their lives. They are often seen as scheduled, systematic, and methodical. They make both short and long term plans and like to have things firmly decided as to avoid last-minute stresses. They feel energized by getting things done, and their career goal is the end result of a carefully calibrated timeline.

    MBTI Perceiving Types

    People that prefer utilizing their Perceiving process prefer a spontaneous and flexible lifestyle. They usually aim to experience and understand life instead of trying to control it. They are much more comfortable with last-minute pressures and like having the option to adapt and change course in an open-ended environment.

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    The MBTI® Test and the Four Outlooks

    MBTI SJ Outlook: The Patriarch/Matriarch

    The Patriarch/Matriarch Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known to put their trust in authority and believe in the hierarchy system. They have an inherent aptitude for attending to procedures, protocols and rules that help keep things orderly.

    The MBTI SJ Patriarch/Matriarch has a deep need for group membership and responsibility that, if unfulfilled, may lead them to feel out of place. They also value and work to maintain a sense of community, security and stability in their environment.

    When issues arise, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs prefer to turn to collective actions that focus on established standards for resolution. They are known to be talented at logistics and maintaining useful tradition that they re-enforce through looking at past experiences and finding practical ways to apply solutions. Throughout the problem-solving process, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs like to maintain a pre-determined sequence and established structure. With the knowledge of how things have been done in the past, they are able to anticipate where they could potentially go wrong and deal with the issue efficiently.

    The practical and methodical nature of those that fall within the Patriarch/Matriarch category gives them the reputation of being the type of people that can always seem to get the right things to the right place, at the right time, to the right people.

    The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known for their unambiguous communication style and general ease of holding conversation. During communication they will respectfully listen to theory and the abstract, but their focus is on the definite and tangible. They are also known to be conventional in their speech and tend to throw in old sayings and commonly understood language into their conversations.

    The MBTI SJ Patriarch/Matriarch is also known to be the economic type who is always seeking security, keeping the status-quo, and protecting things as-is. They tend to be skeptical of any changes that may potentially jeopardize their security.

    The Patriarch/Matriarch type innately feels responsible for the morality of their group or family unit. Their focus is on making sure individuals are responsible for their actions, focusing on what is right and avoiding what is wrong.

    Because the Patriarchs/Matriarchs are always “on watch”, they have to always prepare for the worst. This gives them a generally pessimistic outlook on life, preferring to be over prepared rather than caught off guard.

    Under circumstances of extended stress (i.e. when failing to reach financial or personal security over a prolonged period of time) they are known to get overwhelmed by strong negatives feelings, sometimes to the point of being rendered helpless. This scenario can be avoided when the Patriarch/Matriarch type maintains high self-esteem, by presenting themselves as trustworthy, dependable and accountable in handling their responsibilities.

    Education: Unfortunately, most educational environments do not naturally support the learning style and competences of the MBTI SJ Patriarchs/Matriarchs. Looking at actual scholastic performances rather than trusting standardized testing scores may be the best way to get an accurate view of a Patriarch’s/Matriarch’s intellectual competence.

    MBTI SP Outlook: The Originator

    The Originator Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Originators revolve around their core need for freedom to act without obstruction and to see a marked result from their actions. The Originators have a natural trust in their impulses and their creativity is truly revealed by the variety of solutions they come up with to any given problem. They also have an inherent drive to action that leads to results.

    The MBTI SP Originators are also known for fostering individuals that are talented at using their tool of choice, be it language, a paintbrush or a hammer. The Originator values aesthetics in both nature and in art. Their work tends to be pragmatic and functional, with a focus on delivering superior technique. The Originator’s energy is also channeled to provide skillful and varied performances.

    The Originators are gifted with the ability to tune into immediate sensory information and then vary their actions based on the needs of the specific situation. They are often known as being talented at tactics with their ability to make instant decisions as well as their flexibility to adjust their actions in order to reach a desired outcome. They are generally able to employ any available means to accomplish an end.

    In relation to communication, the Originator type focuses their talking on what is going on in the present moment. Discussions of things that cannot be observed or handled are of low importance to the MBTI SP Originators. Their language tends to be specific and literal, often avoiding generalizations and metaphors.

    The Originator is also known for their practical nature, focusing on what works and not having a primary worry about what is socially appropriate. They are likely to test out operations and then, based on their level of success, either continue on or drop the operation without a second thought if not perceived as successful.

    Originators have an extremely optimistic outlook on life. They believe that sometimes “life happens” and you have to be able to take the good with the bad. They are accepting when things go poorly and fully take advantage of the good times that life brings. Even during the bad times they feel that at any point they can get lucky and have things turn around. They also tend to be cynical about human motives in general, being much less gullible and trusting than others.

    Education: The MBTI SP Originator typically does not stray from their preference of a random and experiential learning style. They prefer a very hands-on applied learning approach to their schooling that is fast paced and that provides them with freedom to explore. Unfortunately, most educational systems are very deficient in meeting the needs, interests, and learning style of the Originator type. This is even more pronounced than with the Patriarch/Matriarch type.

    MBTI NF Outlook: The Optimist

    The Optimist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Optimists are individuals that focus on harmonious interactions, with an emphasis on ethics as well as morality. The Optimist has a deep rooted core need for meaning and significance that stems from having a sense of purpose and actively working toward some form of greater good.

    The MBTI NF Optimist values unity and authenticity and finds it very important to have a unique identity. They have a greater tendency to trust their intuition and impressions first. Afterward, they work to then seek out the logic and data to support their beliefs.

    If an Optimist finds themselves working on a global level, then they are likely to be championing a cause. On the other hand, if an Optimist ends up working on an individual level, then they are much more likely to focus on the growth and development of the individual.

    The Optimists are also known for being gifted at unifying diverse people as well as helping individuals realize their potential. These abilities lead Optimists to make excellent mediators. They can build bridges between people through their use of empathy and they are also able make clarifications of deeper issues that may be the root of an individual’s more superficial problems. Their focus is on cooperation and progress without sacrifice of goodwill. Expediency is never an appropriate excuse for loss of amicable relationships and the Optimist will go to great lengths to avoid unnecessary conflict. The morale of the group is of great importance to the Idealist.

    In communication, the Optimist focuses little on the concrete and instead prefers to focus on the abstract. They prefer to focus on concepts like the heart and soul as well as love and hate, among others. They are also competent at reading between the lines and likely to follow their hunches.

    The Optimist believes that happiness comes from selflessly serving others and that it is bad to be self-serving. Because of their belief that there is good in everyone they also tend to be the most gullible and innately trusting of the four Outlooks. To them, selfishness is just another roadblock in their overall goal of reaching self-actualization.

    Education: Unlike the Patriarch/Matriarch and Originator, the MBTI NF Optimist is much more consistent with the teachings as well as assessment methods in our education system. Because of their need for empathic relationships, the Optimist can also learn more easily when they can relate to the instructor and group.

    MBTI® Profile

    Uncover your potential with this profile, providing you with insight into your personality type.

    Ever wanted to know why you act or react a certain way? Wondered what career you would fit best in? Wished to discover how your mind works? A Myers-Briggs® (MBTI®) Profile can start you on the path to answers by mapping out your personality into different categories, allowing you to explore the motives behind your decisions, thoughts, and actions. See the benefits when you take the Myers-Briggs test online.

    MBTI NT Outlook: The Pragmatist

    The Pragmatist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

    The Pragmatist relates to individuals that trust logic above all else. Because of this, they tend to be naturally skeptical in nature. They have a core need for mastery of concepts, competence and knowledge.

    They are not simply interested in facts, but instead want to understand the operating principles of the universe and have a tendency to want to learn or develop theories for everything. They are constantly seeking progress and highly value expertise, precision of language, concepts, logical consistency and ideas. Their actions tend toward the practical and applicable, with a focus on technology. A common action cycle might include research, analysis, searching for patterns and developing hypothesis among the Pragmatist individuals.

    The MBTI NT Pragmatists have a natural gift for strategic analysis. They tend to use it to approach all situations. They also like to think of all possible contingencies for any given situation and then develop multiple plans of action to handle them. Throughout this entire process, the Pragmatist tends to regularly examine the relationship of the means to the overall vision and goal that they have set out for themselves.

    In communication, the Pragmatists tend to focus on conceptual and abstract ideas. They prefer to avoid the redundant and trivial and dislike wasting words when speaking. They also have an applicative outlook on life, focusing on how useful a tool or tactic is in reaching their intended end before assessing its social implication.

    The MBTI NT Pragmatist is also associated with a life-long preoccupation with technology and this can be the foundation for a prolonged career focus. Many will end up focusing either on machines or organisms (the biological machine).

    The Pragmatist individuals look at the world around themselves from a serviceable perspective. Their greatest annoyance is the loss of efficiency, in any aspect of their lives. In everything that they do, they work on getting the greatest result with the least amount of effort. They do not let traditions or customs get in the way of finding new and more efficient ways of doing things.

    Education: Our current educational system tailors to the Pragmatist even more than it does to the Optimist. Our educational system tends to support conceptual learning styles, where the Pragmatists want to know the underlying principles that generate the facts in addition to the details and facts themselves.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Attitudes

    MBTI IJ Attitude: The Decisive Introvert

    The Decisive Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Decisive Introverts are introspective and hard to convince or change based on their persevering nature with compelling data being necessary in order to override a decision or foregone conclusion that the Decisive Introvert has made.

    The reason that those with the MBTI IJ attitude can appear inflexible and resistant to change has to do with their extraverted auxiliary judging function preference (either Thinking or Feeling). This preference leads the Decisive Introvert to state their conclusions, rather than providing the data for their judgment, which can come off as extra adamant.

    However, it is important to note that the Decisive Introvert has a dominant perceiving function (either Sensing or Intuition) that will lead them to renounce their conclusion if they are provided with information that contradicts their initial judgment.

    MBTI IP Attitude: The Adaptable Introvert

    The Adaptable Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Adaptable Introverts are introspective and while they tend to be adaptable in little things they are firm on important issues. The firm stance on important issues is attributed to their judging function (Thinking or Feeling) which is central to their personality.

    The Adaptable Introvert’s extraverted auxiliary perceiving function is responsible for the flexibility on small matters, but it is important to note that it can be overridden by their judging function (Feeling or Thinking). In these cases the Adaptable Introvert can come off as difficult and resistant to change.

    MBTI EP Attitude: The Adaptable Extravert

    The Adaptable Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Adaptable Extraverts are full of energy, outgoing and social. The main reasoning behind their eagerness to engage with the outside world can be attributed to their dominant extraverted perceiving function. They also have an easier time trusting the outside world than other attitude types.

    The Adaptable Extravert tends to approach life from a generally optimistic perspective and is known to be comfortable with embracing new opportunities. When Adaptable Extraverts run into obstacles, they tend to see it as a temporary setback and they are more likely to approach them like a challenge that they are happy to face.

    MBTI EJ Attitude: The Decisive Extravert

    The Decisive Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

    Decisive Extraverts are often seen as natural born leaders. They have a sense of confidence about them and are known to be quick and decisive in their actions. Their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) has a big influence on their decision making process and once they have come to a conclusion it can be difficult for them to change their minds.

    Decisive Extraverts are less likely to be affected by new information, which is based on their auxiliary perceiving function (Sensing or Intuition). Instead, the Decisive Extravert is more likely to be influenced if the consequences of their actions have a negative effect. In their natural roles they are able to utilize their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) in order to reach decisions and get things executed.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Mental Functions

    MBTI ST Mental Function: The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Types

    The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the ST Mental Function primarily rely on their Sensing preference when it comes to the purpose of perception and turn to their Thinking preference for judgment. The main focus of those with the ST Mental Function is centered on facts that they can verify through measuring, counting, touching, weighing, hearing and sensing.

    Once those with the ST Mental Function have the data that they need, they proceed with objective analysis that is fueled by their Thinking preference. This combination of preferences gives them the reputation for being practical and matter-of-fact.

    As can be seen in the MBTI Career Report, individuals with the ST Mental function are attracted to job fields that require non-personal analysis of concrete facts and data such as business, law, economics, and accounting.

    MBTI SF Mental Function: The Sympathetic and Friendly Types

    The Sympathetic and Friendly Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the SF Mental Function primarily turn to their Sensing preference for the purpose of perception. When it comes to the purpose of judgment they rely on their Feeling preference. Similar to those with the ST Mental Function, they gather facts directly through their main senses, but they approach their decision making process differently. For their decision making they tend to be more subjective, relying on their personal values.

    Those with the SF Mental function generally come across as friendly and sympathetic. As can be seen in the MBTI Career Report, these individuals tend to gravitate toward people-centric sales positions, teaching, and various health-care related fields.

    MBTI NF Mental Function: The Enthusiastic and Insightful Types

    The Enthusiastic and Insightful Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the NF Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference for their perceiving functions. When it comes to making decisions the NF Mental Function type relies on their Feeling preference.

    Those with the NF Mental Function tend to be sympathetic, similar to the SF Mental Function type, but their Intuition preference leads them to have interests in possibilities rather than concrete situations. They also tend to be insightful, warm, and committed. These individuals are more likely to be drawn to new projects and the unknown. They are more likely to see patterns, symbolic meanings, and theoretical relationships and then apply this information and insight to human relationships based on their values related to their Feeling preference.

    Individuals with the NF Mental Function tend to be drawn to fields such as teaching, counseling, writing, and research, based on their strong tendencies to have a gift for either the written or spoken word.

    MBTI NT Mental Function: The Logical and Ingenious Types

    The Logical and Ingenious Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

    Those with the NT Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference when dealing with their perceiving function. Unlike the NF mental function, they prefer the objectivity related to their Thinking preference when dealing with judgment.

    Similar to those with the NF Mental Function, the Logical and Ingenious Types focus on possibilities and abstract patterns, but they differ in that they judge from a nonpersonal and objective perspective. They are attracted to pursuing possibilities that minimize human issues and instead have a technical and scientific focus.

    Individuals with the MBTI NT mental function are typically drawn to problem solving positions in their chosen field of focus. Generally these fields have mathematics or scientific research based foundations. In fact, most innovative fields in the technical and administrative world have strong Logical and Ingenious type representation.

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    The MBTI® Test and the Four Perceptions and Orientations to the Outside World

    MBTI SJ Types: The Realistic Decision Makers

    The Realistic Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Realistic Decision Makers introvert their Sensing function. In other words, these individuals turn their energy inward so that they can remember external events, as well as their internal thoughts, memories and feelings. The process involves absorbing new data and integrating it into their internal information bank ready for retrieval when necessary.

    The effect of the introverting Sensing of a Realistic Decision Maker can be seen in the way that we describe SJ types. They are seen as individuals that are organized and dependable. They seek order in their environment and many may see them as conservative. The MBTI SJ type also approaches problem solving by relying on past experiences. Because the SJ type internalizes all their factual and experiential data, the average person doesn’t see the depth of analysis that goes into the SJ type’s decision making process. When asked to provide information backing up their decisions, the SJ type can provide an unexpected and sometimes overwhelming amount of facts.

    MBTI SP Types: The Adaptable Realists

    The Adaptable Realist Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Realists extravert their Sensing function. Meaning, these individuals direct their energy outwardly and are known to notice sensory information (sounds, sights, smells, touch and human reactions) with great accuracy and in great detail. Adaptable Realists are known for wanting to experience as much as possible through their senses and do so very vividly.

    The effect of the extraverting Sensing function of an Adaptable Realist can be seen in the way that we describe the SP type. The MBTI SP types look to new experiences in the present moment and are known to be curious about the world around them. Adaptable Realists are flexible when situations arise and are adept at observing the immediate situation. Individuals with the SP type also tend to be attracted to work environments that focus on attending to details and facts in their immediate environment. On the other hand, the SP type is comparatively much less interested in any long-range aspects or implications of what they do in a working environment. Adaptable Realists are stimulus-seekers and are at their best when they can experience a large amount of external stimulation.

    MBTI NP Types: The Adaptable Innovators

    The Adaptable Innovator Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Innovators extravert their Intuition function. This process includes looking toward the outside world for anything that is new. This includes new people, new ideas, or new possibilities. The aim of this process is to change and reshape the NP type’s environment. The Adaptable Innovator’s goal is to fully experience and explore the world and all its potential through new challenges.

    The effect of the extraverted Sensing function of an Adaptable Innovator can be observed in how NP types are described. Adaptable Innovators are constantly seeking new challenges of the unknown and are able to adjust to new opportunities and possibilities as they arise. They love their creative freedom and are independent and unconventional in their thought and decision making process. They like to explore new solutions for not only new problems, but also old problems that they feel can be improved upon. It is also not uncommon to see MBTI NP types to proceed head-first into challenges that others may see as very difficult or impossible.

    MBTI NJ Types: The Visionary Decision Makers

    The Visionary Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Visionary Decision makers introvert their Intuition function. In other words, they focus their energies on internal connections and imagines in order to develop new patterns and ways of processing information. Through finding meaning and patterns in the world the MBTI NJ type spends their energy working on changing and reshaping their environment so that it matches their inner vision. The Visionary Decision Maker is constantly working on bettering their understanding of the world through developing inner intuitive patterns.

    You can see how the process of introverting Intuition manifests itself in the real world by the way that MBTI NJ types are generally described. Visionary Decision Makers are very determined and persistent in their pursuit of accomplishing the goals of their inner vision. They have the potential to be charismatic leaders and their qualities tend to attract dedicated followers to their cause. They have a natural way of presenting their inner vision in an inspirational and convincing way by presenting it in terms of either long-range impact on important values or long-range logical consequences, depending on the target audience.

    MBTI TJ Types: The Logical Decision Makers

    The Logical Decision Maker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Logical Decision Makers extravert their Thinking function. This process includes expressing thoughts and judgments with clarity and candor in order to bring stability to their external environment. In order to be able to anticipate consequences quickly and act upon them promptly, the Logical Decision Maker focuses on critiquing systems, ideas, and procedures. The overall goal of the MBTI TJ type is to create logical order in the external world by way of making the outside world rational.

    We can see the extraverting Thinking function in action by examining how the MBTI TJ type is described. Logical Decision Makers are often analytical, tough-minded, executive, and instrumental leaders. The MBTI TJ type naturally transition into leadership roles in any of the settings they may step into. They are able to effectively communicate their confidence in the practicality and viability of focusing on logical conclusions. They also have a very direct and to the point communication style, which can make them come off as hypercritical or too quick to act.

    Logical Decision Makers have a confident aura about them and are seen as in control with the ability to quickly and efficiently implement decisions. They are also quite capable of imposing logical organizational structures to support these goals.

    MBTI TP Types: The Adaptable Thinkers

    The Adaptable Thinker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Adaptable Thinkers introvert their Thinking function. In other words, Adaptable Thinkers seek to order their internal thoughts through developing a logical system for comprehension. The MBTI TP type can critique reality and identify inconsistencies that other types may overlook through the use of reflective observation. A major goal of the Adaptable Thinker is to create logical order. This is done by developing rational principles that help them understand the world.

    We can observe the process of introverting the Thinking function by looking at how we describe Adaptable Thinkers. The MBTI TP type is curious, skeptical, and objective. This is especially true with possibilities and events that the TP types can fit into consistent and orderly frameworks. Adaptable Thinkers are also known for being excellent trouble-shooters because of their ability to focus in on the essence of problems and then finding logical solutions. When looking for solutions to problems they are unlikely to arbitrarily rule out any possibilities, even if they may seem unlikely to others. Their ability to consider such a broad range of facts and ideas into their decision making process leads them to come to the most accurate conclusion possible.

    Other individuals may have trouble following the Adaptive Thinkers logic when they are deeply involved with a project. This can be attributed to the MBTI TP types introverted Thinking. Their internal logic may seem self apparent and they may assume, incorrectly, that it is clear to everyone else as well.

    MBTI FP Types: The Gentle Types

    The Gentle Type Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are of the Gentle Type introvert their Feeling function. These individuals are known to seek complex and meaningful inner lives. They accomplish this through being attuned to possible contradictions that can occur between an individual’s inner values and their outer life. The MBTI FP type works diligently to clarify and maintain the consistency of their own actions and values. Their main goal is to identify their core values and then to work on establishing a compatible external life. Unfortunately, they rarely are able to truly express the intensity of their values to others as the MBTI FP type tends to internalize these values.

    You can gain extended clarity on the process of introverting the Feeling function by looking at the way that the Gentle Types are described. MBTI FP types are known to be primarily concerned with the human aspect of problems and are adaptable in their pursuit of harmony. The actions of the Gentle Types lead others to like and trust them more readily. The FP type is open to the ideas and contributions of others, which they receive plentifully as they are gifted at enlisting support.

    MBTI FJ Types: The Benevolent Administrators

    The Benevolent Administrator Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

    Individuals that are Benevolent Administrators extravert their Feeling function. They are skilled at being strongly attuned to people’s desires and expectations. The FJ types use this ability to seek harmonious relationships with people in their environment. This end is realized by their focus on structuring and organizing the environment to meet people’s needs. When extraverting their Feeling function their goal is to create cooperation in an external environment and to help others get what they need and want. Sometimes a Benevolent Administrator can have their extraverting Feeling effort misjudged as excessive emotionality. The MBTI FJ Type expresses strong values with the goal of making sure that those become actualized in the world.

    We can observe the process of extraverting the Feeling function in the way that the FJ types are described. Benevolent Administrators are often expressive leaders who are known to be very observant of people as well as their needs. The MBTI FJ Types spend a lot of their energy working on making people happy and bringing an overall feeling of harmony to relationships. They can sometimes falsely be judged as being overly accommodating or even codependent in some cases. Sometimes they may over commit to the well being of others, leadings to excessive stress as they attempt to fulfill all important obligations without letting anyone down.

    The MBTI FJ type tends to be loyal to those that share the same values and goals as they do. On the other hand, they can be harsh on those that deviate from their values or goals. It is also important to the Benevolent Administrator to include others and be included themselves. When this need is not met they tend to experience a feeling of failure along with hurt feelings.

    MBTI® Interpretive Report

    Take your MBTI test to the next level with a complete and succinct interpretation of your personality type.

    The MBTI® Interpretive report depicts your personality type in a five-page analysis that allows a complete interpretation of the inner-workings of what makes up your type. With the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Interpretive Report, you can expect everything that comes with a MBTI Profile as well as an extensive clarification of your results.

    The MBTI® Test and the Four Orientations of Energy & Perceptions

    MBTI IS Types: The Thoughtful Realists

    The Thoughtful Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Thoughtful Realists are Introverts that also have a Sensing preference. They prefer to deal with what is real and factual and like to test ideas to see whether they are indeed supported by facts.

    The MBTI IS type is known to get irritated and frustrated when they feel rushed in a task that they are attempting to focus on. They prefer to deal with situations in a careful and unhurried manner.

    The Thoughtful Realist generally avoids leadership positions and prefers to stay in the background when dealing with projects. When forced into leadership positions, they are much more likely to feel uncomfortable and out of place. It can also lead to diminished job satisfaction even if the rest of their work environment is satisfactory. Because of the IS Types background role, their accomplishments are often times taken for granted or wholly overlooked. The quiet and persistent work style of the Thoughtful Realist, in the workplace as well as at home, can unfortunately further draw attention away from their oftentimes significant contributions. The fast paced and ever-changing work environments of today also contribute to the MBTI IS Types inability to always function in their most comfortable and natural way.

    MBTI IN Types: The Thoughtful Innovators

    The Thoughtful Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Thoughtful Innovators are Introverts that also have an Intuition preference. They are interested in theories and ideas for the sake of knowledge based on their introspective and scholarly nature. The MBTI IN Types prefer the complexity of theory over the pragmatism of accomplishments in the real world. This gives them the reputation of being the least practical of the MBTI personality types.

    Thoughtful Innovators naturally seek out the company of other Thoughtful Innovators. They do this in order to be in the company of others who will affirm their philosophical and intellectual interests. This is especially important as other types tend to have a much stronger preference for the practical world. Non IN Types also have a tendency to judge MBTI IN Types as being too serious and for missing out on many of the aspects of life that are associated with a practical outlook. Thoughtful Innovators are very serious academically and unfortunately the modern workplace does not provide many career fields where individuals can spend the majority of their time on intellectual pursuits. This leads MBTI IN Types to be more likely to report dissatisfaction in their work life.

    MBTI ES Types: The Action-Oriented Realists

    The Action-Oriented Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Realists are Extraverts that also have a Sensing preference. They have the reputation of being the most practical of all the types. This preference permeates their work, school and personal lives. Their preferred learning environment includes a focus on material that has useful direct applications in the real world. The Action-Oriented Realist has a very utilitarian perspective of the world, finding great enjoyment from the material world. They have little interest in dealing with how things could be or focusing their energies discussing theories and unproven ideas.

    The MBTI ES Type spends a lot of time focusing on experiencing as much of the world as possible. The Action-Oriented Realist comes across as ever confident when dealing with the outside world. They are likely to make an extended effort when they want to have a specific experience or if they want to visit a specific place that they find interesting.

    MBTI EN Types: The Action-Oriented Innovators

    The Action-Oriented Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Innovators are Extraverts that also have an Intuition preference. Instead of having interests in one or two focused areas, the MBTI EN Type has a variety of interests. Across their interests they look for new patterns and relationships that they can decipher. When the Action-Oriented Innovator sees a new possibility they take it as a challenge to make something happen. More than other types they get the ball rolling when it comes to making changes in the world that are outside of the norm.

    Action-Oriented Innovators are future oriented when it comes to their pursuits. Their future focused vision encompasses their vision for people, structures, as well as institutions. The extraverted nature of the Action-Oriented Innovators enables them to be innately comfortable interacting with the outside world.

    MBTI ET Types: The Action-Oriented Thinker

    The Action-Oriented Thinker Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Thinkers are Extraverts that also have the Thinking preference. They approach life from an objective perspective and they expect a similar approach from others. They like to make things happen in a very logical and analytical way. Others see them as very energetic and active. Competence and being effective is of top priority to the MBTI ET type.

    When others around the MBTI ET type begin to doubt themselves, show low self-confidence or hesitate, the Action-Oriented Thinker may show annoyance and lose their patience with the situation. Those with the Feeling preference may see the MBTI ET Type as extensively harsh and unsympathetic.

    MBTI EF Types: The Action-Oriented Cooperators

    The Action-Oriented Cooperator Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Action-Oriented Cooperators are Extraverts that also have the Feeling preference. One of the primary motivators for their actions is enjoying doing things for people’s welfare and enjoyment. Others see them as sympathetic, extremely friendly, and generally sociable. Making social connections, having lots of friends, and being generally liked are all important things to the Action-Oriented Cooperator. The MBTI EF Types also tend to be very sensitive to the emotional environment around them. Positive energy and harmony fuels them. On the other hand, they have a very hard time functioning optimally in an environment that frequently is known for conflict and poor interpersonal cooperation. It is normal for the Action-Oriented Cooperator to act as a natural mediator who tries to keep the peace. The very same peace and harmony that is so very important to their well being and optimal social operation.

    MBTI IF Types: The Reflective Harmonizers

    The Reflective Harmonizer Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Reflective Harmonizers are Introverts that also have the Feeling preference. They have a deep connection with people as well as how they feel. They are quite often quiet, but also generally very caring in nature. They hold dear deeply established values that form the foundation of their decision making process. Others may see the MBTI IF Types as overly emotional, mainly because they tend to feel things more intensely than other types. They can come off as extremely serious when it comes to their values and their sensitivity extends to not only their own emotional state, but also to the emotional state of others. Unlike the Action-Oriented Cooperators, they are much less likely to step in and try to fix problematic situations, instead they are more likely to detach from the situation in order to avoid further stress.

    MBTI IT Types: The Reflective Reasoners

    The Reflective Reasoner Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

    MBTI Reflective Reasoners are Introverts that also have the Thinking preference. Of all the types they are the slowest to develop social skills. Many see them as the quiet ones that spend their time contemplating the world. They are unlikely to be very wordy in their conversations and often dislike small talk. Social interactions in general can be very stressful to the Reflective Reasoner. Sometimes they can even seem socially awkward. When they do socialize they can come off as overly formal, sometimes to the extent of seeming unfriendly. The MBTI IT Types are natural critics and their introverted approach to analysis can send mixed signals to those around them. Their energy is spent on internal reflection, leaving their body language to communicate an often erroneous and overly critical message when dealing with interpersonal communication.

    The Validity of The MBTI® Test Instrument

    The MBTI test has been found by numerous studies to be a valid tool when used for its intended purpose. It has been optimized to avoid gender bias and tested cross-culturally as to be available to a wide variety of individuals. The Myers Briggs test online has also been shown to positively correlate with other established instrument such as the FIRO-B® Test, FIRO Business® Test , Strong Interest Inventory® Test, and Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI Test).

    In order to further validate The MBTI assessment, exploratory factor analysis studies have been completed. Some of the focused studies have been Thompson and Borrello (1986) and Harvey, Murry, and Stamoulis (1995).

    Why The MBTI® Test Instrument?

    The MBTI test provides the user with an in-depth analysis of their four-letter Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality type. The pool of the 16 different personality types helps take into account the various individuals that we observe in our daily lives. It is an optimal starting point whether you are pursuing collegiate, career, or personal exploration.

    How is The MBTI® Test Instrument Used?

    Examples of how the MBTI test is used include—but are not limited to—how individuals process information, make decisions, present themselves to the external world, and focus their energy. MBTI test results can be used to optimize users’ methods of communicating, finding appropriate schooling pathways, exploring career options, resolving conflict, working in teams, learning leadership, and managing development. Please note, the MBTI assessment does not assess abilities in any specific personal, school, or work field.

    Free Versus Paid Assessments

    There are many free personality and interest inventory tests and assessments located around the Internet. Though one must know that these tests attempt to mimic The MBTI test at no or sometimes a low cost to you, they are neither valid nor proven to assess your personality, nor are they what you are searching for. The MBTI assessment has been rewritten for validity and cross-culturally tested for over 40 years and cannot be replaced by replicas that attempt to mimic its legitimacy. Being that The MBTI® is quite affordable, there really is no reason to look elsewhere and not be administered the genuine MBTI® line of assessments.

    Why Choose Career Assessment Site for the MBTI® Test?

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    MBTI QUESTIONS

    Do Employers Look at MBTI Results?

    Your employer is not likely to look at your MBTI results when it comes to securing your position however, it can be a useful tool to help your employer better understand you and the ways that you communicate. Understanding the way you communicate and the way that your mind works can help you have a better relationship with your employer. You may also find that certain personality types are better suited for certain jobs. Your employer is going to see the same thing. So, while they are not likely to make a selection of a candidate based on their MBTI type, it can be valuable information for both you and your employer to have.

    Do Psychologists Use MBTI?

    Psychologists have a host of diagnostic tools that they can draw from when they are studying people or working with their clients. Because of this, some of them may choose to use the MBTI while others may stick towards other tools. Even though that is the case, your MBTI type is still something that may be of interest in a lot of psychological spaces. Whether or not it is used by a specific psychologist is at their discretion but this is still an interesting tool to help understand the mind and the way that it works. This is especially true when it comes to studying the innate personality rather than the one that is affected by the way someone was raised or their experiences. The MBTI Type is something that provides a lot of information and is unaffected by the lens through which we have our experiences.

    Does Personality Affect Career Choice?

    Yes! It only makes sense that you would choose a career that aligns with your personality type but even the existing research backs this up. Personality type can help you to determine what career is the best for you and it can also help you to understand why a job isn’t a good fit for you if you should run into that sort of problem. Research has also shown that people who are in careers that align with their personality type are more productive, happier, and make more money. Even if the tasks you do in your job are related to your personality type, you’re likely to enjoy your job more.

    Does Personality Affect Career Performance?

    Research has shown that personality affects all aspects of your job performance. This is because your personality is going to affect the way that you communicate on the job with your teammates and your superiors, the way that you approach and handle tasks, and react to work-related stress. As you read before, those who are in careers that align with their personality type are going to be more productive. Picking a career that aligns with your personality type is going to help you do better at work and be happier with your professional life.

    What Is The Rarest MBTI Type?

    The rarest Myers-Briggs personality type is considered INFJ. Less than three percent of the world’s population is speculated to have this personality type which stands for Introversion, Intuition, Feeling, and Judgement. Each of these letters describes the core characteristics of someone who has this personality type. Out of all of the different ones, this one is suggested to occur the least frequently in the world. Someone with this personality type is likely to be very perceptive, sensitive to conflict, and offer a unique blend of being very emotional yet still very rational. This type is more common among women.

    What Is The Most Common MBTI Type?

    Interestingly enough, the most common personality type shares many of the same traits as the rarest one. According to the MBTI Manual, the most commonly occurring Myers-Briggs personality type is ISFJ. This stands for Introversion, Sensing, Feeling, Judging. Close to 14% of the population have this personality type. Someone with this MBTI is going to be someone who is going to be very practical, very caring, and be very concerned with tradition. While some people may see being concerned with tradition to be a negative trait, it really just means that these people are loyal by nature. This personality type is most common in men.

    Can You Be Two MBTI Types?

    No, you’re only going to be one MBTI Type. There may be two types that seem like you could fit into either category and you may find that the result you get between these two is dependent on the test you’re taking. While it is possible to be closely aligned to more than one personality type, there is always going to be just one that suits you better than any of the others. To make sure that you’re getting the best result for your personality, you should be sure to take a high-quality test and be as honest as possible.

    Are You Born With Your MBTI Type?

    Most people would say yes. Your MBTI Type is dependent on your innate personality. Your personality does form over the course of your lifetime but the MBTI examines core traits that are considered to be the way your personality is at its core. That is why most people would say that this test examines your nature whereas the Enneagram examines your personality as the world has shaped you or the way you were nurtured. It is said that the way you express your personality or MBTI Type, becomes more prominent as you age but that it is innate to you from the start.

    Can You Change MBTI Types?

    Not really. As you read in the last question, it is widely considered to be true that your MBTI Type relates to your personality at your very core. These core traits are considered to be innate to you, so they do not really change over time. You may find that you’re able to be more thorough in taking your test if you take it a second time and that may affect your outcome. It is also true that as you age and have a better understanding of the world and the way that you exist in it, you may find your results change. Even when this is the case, your core personality has always been your core personality.

    What Is The Most Complex MBTI Type?

    The most complex MBTI Type is that of the INFJ. This stands for Introverted, Intuition, Feeling, Judgement. The reason why this is considered the most complex type has to do with the fact that they’re both introverted and intuitive people, which can make them come off as much more mysterious. They’re more capable of being rational but are not completely closed off from their emotions. People with this personality type don’t seem to exist in the same extremes as most people which can make them tougher to understand. This is also the rarest of all of the personality types.

    Why Is MBTI So Popular?

    Even after all these years, determining your MBTI Type is still very popular for several reasons. One of the main reasons is that people have an inherent drive to understand themselves and this is one of the most widely used tools to do so. Another thing that helps perpetuate its popularity and contribute to its longevity is that the MBTI is based on concrete principles in psychology and science, which lends to its credibility. Another reason why the MBTI is so popular is that it has been around so long that most people have heard of it at least once, making it easy to put your personality in context without having to explain yourself as deeply.

    Is The MBTI Reliable?

    Yes! The only thing that can be unreliable about the test is our own contributions as we are taking it. In order to get the most out of the test, it is so important that you are completely honest when you are taking it and you think critically but answer with what feels best for you. It is also very crucial to make sure that you’re taking a reputable test so that you can get the most accurate and reliable results.

    Is The MBTI Useful?

    The MBTI is useful in a lot of ways. One of the main ways that it is useful is because it is useful to understand the self. When you understand your personality type, you’re going to understand a lot more information about how you see the world and how you communicate with the world that you’re seeing. When you have a solid MBTI type, it can help you find more people who think as you do, it can help you understand your differences with those around you and help you bridge those gaps, and it can even help you nail down a career choice because you understand yourself and your personality.

    Is Our MBTI Nature or Nurture?

    As with any personality test, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is going to be a complex set of questions that will reflect our innate qualities as well as the way that we choose to express ourselves based on the lens through which we see the world. The general consensus is that the MBTI focuses more on our inherent personality, so nature. It isn’t productive to think of your MBTI as genetic however, it is something that many feel that we are born with and just learn to more thoroughly express as our lives progress and our personalities start to take shape.

    Is The MBTI Pseudoscience?

    A lot of people say that the MBTI is pseudoscience. Regardless of what you think about the test, it is important to remember that a lot of the things that this test looks at is rooted in actual science and can provide you and those around you (such as a potential employer or partner) with a lot of valuable information about you as a person. In order to make sure that you are getting the most accurate results that are going to be useful to you is by taking a reputable test and being completely honest while taking your test.

    MBTI Manual (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

    Introduction to Type (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

    Introduction to Type and Careers (Allen L. Hammer, 2007, CPP Inc.)


    2. ISTP – The Craftsman

    Myers-Briggs ISTP

    Reserved and quiet, ISTPs are deeply interested to know why and how things work. They have impressive skills when it comes to machines and other mechanical things, like taking risks, and advocate living in the present. Extremely talented in sports and all sorts of physical activities. They are uncomplicated people who are loyal to a fault when it comes to their loved ones. Analytical and detached, they are good at coming up with effective solutions to empirical problems. ISTPs don’t really care that much about abiding by laws, rules, and regulations.

    ISTP stands for Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving (Introverted Thinking with Extraverted Sensing)

    • Your primary mode of living is focused internally, i.e. you handle everything rationally and with a lot of logic.
    • Your secondary mode is external, i.e. you absorb things through the five senses.

    1. ISTPs are always interested to know how things truly work. Good at analyzing everything logically, they are the masters when it comes to handling everything practically. Logical and reasonable people, they could care less about ideas and theories unless there is a practical application for them. Disassembling things and wanting to see how they work on the inside, is one of their favorite things to do.

    2. ISTPs have a relaxed and flexible demeanor. Their chilled-out personality combined with their adaptable nature helps them in improvising whenever the need arises, and also helps them keep their cool in stressful situations. They have enough faith in themselves to believe that they will do a good job.

    3. ISTPs are always up to something or the other and are always involved in some kind of project. They normally don’t like sitting idle for a long time and love it when they have something to do, especially something interesting. Due to their amiable and positive nature, they hardly feel stressed and are mostly in a good mood.

    4. ISTPs like to spend time on their own and rely on solitude to think more clearly. It is in solitude that they are able to sort out all the issues they have in their minds. They absorb a lot of information from around them, and when they are alone, they sort through them and come up with their own opinions and judgments.

    5. ISTPs are action-oriented people, and they like to stay active. Doing a 9-5 job where they will have to sit behind a desk for the most part of the day, is not their cup of tea. Spontaneous and adaptable, they grasp whatever is in front of them. Because they have impressive technical skills they do well as technical leaders.

    6. ISTPs never make judgments or criticisms based on anything personal. Whatever they say and do, they do it on the basis of facts and logic. They are not good with feelings and fail to understand how their actions and words affect others. Their emotional intelligence is quite low, as they are always focusing on practicality and reason.

    7. People having the ISTP personality type can be some of the friendliest people you will ever come across, but at the same time, they can be notoriously private. After all, they do have an introverted side to them. If they choose to be private about themselves and their lives, there’s no way you will be able to know what is going on, unless they want you to.

    8. ISTPs hardly spend any time daydreaming or fantasizing about what can be they would rather dive headlong into making their dreams a reality. They always focus on the present, and never ever dwell in the past. ISTPs do not give importance to ambiguous ideas, and would rather work towards solving problems and doing what needs to be done.

    9. ISTPs are truly gifted when it comes to being multifaceted. Despite this, they will be happiest when they are able to participate in action-oriented assignments, that demand impeccable technical skills, and analytical and logical thinking. They feel exceptionally proud of the fact that they are good when it comes to taking the next accurate step.

    10. ISTPs are positive people who are always cheerful and have vivacious personalities. They are uncomplicated, unproblematic, trustworthy, kind, generous, and loyal. They are always up for helping people and do whatever they can to make lives easier for others, especially their close ones.

    Jungian preferences:

    • Dominant: Introverted Thinking
    • Auxiliary: Extraverted Sensing
    • Tertiary: Introverted Intuition
    • Inferior: Extraverted Feeling

    Review Questions

    The long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways are known as ________.

    ________ is credited with the first comprehensive theory of personality.

    An early science that tried to correlate personality with measurements of parts of a person’s skull is known as ________.

    The id operates on the ________ principle.

    The ego defense mechanism in which a person who is confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral stage is called ________.

    The Oedipus complex occurs in the ________ stage of psychosexual development.

    The universal bank of ideas, images, and concepts that have been passed down through the generations from our ancestors refers to ________.

    Self-regulation is also known as ________.

    1. self-efficacy
    2. will power
    3. internal locus of control
    4. external locus of control

    Your level of confidence in your own abilities is known as ________.

    Jane believes that she got a bad grade on her psychology paper because her professor doesn’t like her. Jane most likely has an _______ locus of control.

    Self-concept refers to ________.

    1. our level of confidence in our own abilities
    2. all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves
    3. the belief that we control our own outcomes
    4. the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control

    The idea that people’s ideas about themselves should match their actions is called ________.

    The way a person reacts to the world, starting when they are very young, including the person’s activity level is known as ________.

    Brianna is 18 months old. She cries frequently, is hard to soothe, and wakes frequently during the night. According to Thomas and Chess, she would be considered ________.

    1. an easy baby
    2. a difficult baby
    3. a slow to warm up baby
    4. a colicky baby

    According to the findings of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, identical twins, whether raised together or apart have ________ personalities.

    Temperament refers to ________.

    1. inborn, genetically based personality differences
    2. characteristic ways of behaving
    3. conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion
    4. degree of introversion-extroversion

    According to the Eysencks’ theory, people who score high on neuroticism tend to be ________.

    The United States is considered a ________ culture.

    The concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs is known as ________.

    1. selective migration
    2. personal oriented personality
    3. socially oriented personality
    4. individualism

    Which of the following is NOT a projective test?

    1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    2. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    4. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)

    A personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing unconscious feelings, impulses, and desires ________.

    1. self-report inventory
    2. projective test
    3. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

    Which personality assessment employs a series of true/false questions?

    1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    3. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)
    4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

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      Here are the relationship dealbreaker for the Extraverted types:

      ESFP: Risk aversion

      The typical ESFP has an adventurous streak, and they need a free spirit to join them as they explore life. They might tolerate a random phobia, but generally, their patience wears thin. They don’t want to be unkind – in fact, they make accommodations in the beginning because they are so compassionate. At the same time, they can’t feel stifled in the relationship.

      ESFJ: Someone who needs saving

      ESFJs are loyal types who want to map out their future and care for the ones they love. While they enjoy a little fun and they give their last dollar to help someone out, long-term ESFJs want to be with someone who has their life together. They want to be giving and receiving love equally, and planning a life jointly, side by side.

      ENTP: Boredom

      If ENTPs are not activating their curiosity and continually learning, they’re going to get bored. Give them the opportunity, and challenge in any arena – including love, and they are satisfied with life.

      ENTJ: Perception of disloyalty

      These goal-oriented strategic planners are the same in love as they are business. And, they put you through a million tests to judge your worthiness and loyalty. They can be very supportive and share their partner’s success, but if they get an impression that you’re not as loyal to them – whether or not it’s true — you’ll be out so fast your head will spin!

      ESTP: Controlling behavior

      ESTPs like to swoop in and be the hero. They’ll help anyone out of a bind, and they’ll give you fun, excitement, and gifts when they are in love. Until they need their space to go out and do the things they need to do. If you apply pressure, this gregarious type worries that they are missing out, and any attempts to control them backfire.

      ESTJ: Too many surprises

      The ESTJ finally falls in love when they can let go of control. That isn’t easy for this take-charge individual. Too much of a good thing isn’t good though. Anyone who breaks their trust or brings too much instability is not going to last. The ESTJs relationship deal breaker is too many surprises.

      ENFP: Close mindedness

      The ENFP yearns to be free to explore their dreams. They are open, passionate types, and nothing holds them back. When they feel walls from and are given limits by a significant other, that’s a signal that the relationship can’t move forward.

      ENFJ: Emotionally detached

      This type has a lot to offer someone in a relationship. They’re warm and giving, and in the end, they want someone to care for them in return. Detached, overly independent types won’t go far with ENFJs. They need someone who nurtures them and their relationship.


      Watch the video: 5 MBTI Personality Types That Will Put You First, No Matter What (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Bhruic

    I didn't quite understand what you meant by that.

  2. Makani

    These are for!

  3. Mikakinos

    Thank you :) Cool topic, write more often - you are doing great :)

  4. Philip

    Congratulations, your thought is very good

  5. Mazutilar

    namana it happens



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