Information

What is a good book for studying incentives?

What is a good book for studying incentives?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I am looking for a book, which gives a broad overview of all the main theories regarding incentives. Using this book, I would like to further my understanding of things like:

  • Why slot machines keeps people motivated to play
  • Why extrinsic motivation is weaker than intrinsic motivation

Economical theories should at least contribute to the understanding of incentives.


I guess what you are looking for is readings on applied behavioral economics. Here is a popular favourite: Freakonomics


If you want to delve deeper into the topic, If Homo Economicus Could Choose His Own Utility Function, Would He Want One with a Conscience? is a seminal paper. Then, you can take a look at some of Bob Frank's other publications. Among them, I would recommend Passions Within Reason and Winner Take All Society.


The aspects of incentives which you are interested in are studied by psychologists as well. I recommend Carol Dweck's work. One of her popular books is Mindset.


You could check out any of Dan Ariely's books. Those are generally good at providing a similar to Freakonomics-level handling of a variety of economic topics, especially behavioral ones.


Reviews

Reviewed by Audrey Roberts, Assistant Professor, Bowling Green State University on 1/28/21

This text provides a relatively comprehensive overview of most foundational educational psychology theories. However, there are some important elements missing, as well as an over-emphasis on classroom management and assessment that veer away from. read more

Reviewed by Audrey Roberts, Assistant Professor, Bowling Green State University on 1/28/21

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

This text provides a relatively comprehensive overview of most foundational educational psychology theories. However, there are some important elements missing, as well as an over-emphasis on classroom management and assessment that veer away from the curriculum normally taught in an introductory educational psychology class for undergraduate students. I would argue that Chapters 1-6 and Chapter 9 would be the selections covered in an ed. psych class, with Chapters 7, 8, and 10-12 better suited for a more pedagogically focused or more assessment focused course. The two biggest concepts not covered in the text are information processing theory and memory, and any sort of mention of the LGBTQ+ community in regard to addressing diversity. I would've liked to see more attention paid to socioemotional learning theories as well.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

Content is accurate, error-free, and not significantly biased in any one section or area overall. Where appropriate, the foundational researchers are given credit, so that someone with knowledge in the field would concur.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

Content for many of the foundational educational psychology theories has not changed since the bulk of this material was released in 2009. So, in this way, the first 6 or so chapters could continue to be used, with some more recent articles to support it. However, almost all of the citations are now, in 2021, 15+ years old. This presents problems with some of the education policies they mention, and it also neglects the impact that technology has in the day to day classroom. Tech is mentioned, but almost 20 years have passed, so things are rightfully different, and classroom management is a bit different too. Many of the hyperlinks to appropriate websites do not work or lead you to a now incorrect page.

I do appreciate the writing style of these two authors. It is conversational, yet appropriate for an academic audience of young adult students. I appreciate the real-life classroom examples, and think a real effort has been made to make connections and the material more engaging for the reader. It's not bogged down with over-difficult vocabulary, but not too simple either.

The text is generally consistent in the way that material is presented. One issue I had was that there were often concepts brought up in the middle of one chapter that weren't really explained well until later chapters. For instance, discussing motivation at the same time operant conditioning is mentioned is confusing and motivation isn't broken down until chapter 6.

I think this text would be very easy to pull out certain sections, i.e., divisible. The glossary links in the PDF are useful as well.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

Overall, the organization isn't bad, however the text has a tendency to jump a bit over the place. Bold text is somewhat liberally used, which could be distracting for readers. I thought Chapter 9: Complex thinking should've been placed before it was in the text-it would've been a natural section after information processing theory/memory (which was not addressed).

Easy enough to navigate. Most of the hyperlinks do not work at the chapters' end. Very few images, but many tables, and they have all formatted well

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

There are no glaring grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive, but it does not address any information on the LGBTQ+ community, which is mentioned earlier.

This text has many strengths. It is free to use under a Creative Commons License, which is incredible for students who struggle with text costs. It is well laid out and would be easy to navigate. It covers most foundation educational psychology theories/material well. Last, it is an engaging read, and not filled with dry or overly academic language. This text also has weaknesses. Nearly all citations are 15+ years old. It does not properly address current technology use in the classroom, social development in adolescence and the importance of friends, information processing theory, memory, or the LGBTQ+ community. There is an overemphasis on classroom management, assessment, and even some research methodology that seems unnecessary. There is no test bank (understandable) or self-review questions to help students. Last, most of the hyperlinks in the pdf no longer work or go to the appropriate place described. Overall, as an instructor of an educational psychology course that has taught for years, I would feel comfortable using the first half of this text, supplemented with other articles. I think the fact that this textbook is free outweighs most of the negatives.

Reviewed by D F, Professor, Worcester State University on 6/30/20

Surface treatment of some topics. Out dated Bloom Model &amp references to learning styles missing discussion of memory passing reference to race (as part of culture), nothing about poverty, etc. Missing Social Cognitivism. Really missing links. read more

Reviewed by D F, Professor, Worcester State University on 6/30/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 2 see less

Surface treatment of some topics. Out dated Bloom Model & references to learning styles missing discussion of memory passing reference to race (as part of culture), nothing about poverty, etc. Missing Social Cognitivism. Really missing links to effective teaching

Content Accuracy rating: 2

Inaccuracies due to out of date information/theories Bias in the sense that White, western is normal diversity is other Right at beginning does not use person first language, instead referring to "disabled children"

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

Book needs major updating in terms of student diversity & students with disabilities. Needs to include the nature of memory, learning theories and give direct links to effective teaching

Tends to pack a great deal into brief sections. More examples and photos would certainly help.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

I prefer Ormrod's approach to Educational Psychology starting with research basics and looking at learning theories in depth and then diversity

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

Narrow, white, western treatment--not reflect US adult and student diversitIES

Good start. Needs updating

Reviewed by Elbert Davis, Assistant Professor, Marshall University on 2/5/20

This textbook aligns with another for-profit textbook that cost $220. The major concepts of educational psychology are present, including the major theories and theorists of education, along with assessments, student diversity, learners with. read more

Reviewed by Elbert Davis, Assistant Professor, Marshall University on 2/5/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This textbook aligns with another for-profit textbook that cost $220. The major concepts of educational psychology are present, including the major theories and theorists of education, along with assessments, student diversity, learners with special needs, and motivation. I was pleasantly surprised to see appendices concerning action research, licensure preparation, and critical evaluation of research articles. References were provided at the end of each chapter, as well as websites for additional information. At the end of each chapter are key terms, but no index or glossary was found.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

I saw nothing that was inaccurate or biased. Errors were not evident.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The major theories and theorists are covered. As most of these people have passed on, it is unlikely major changes will need to be made. It would be easy to add new theories or theorists if the issue arose. The only section that will need updating or overhauling would be the chapter on standardized testing. This seems to change every so often due to national, state, and local politics. It is possible that major overhauls may be needed when laws change, as with any textbook that discusses these laws. I do think these updates would be straightforward to implement.

The textbook is as accessible as similar books on educational psychology. Jargon is typically defined for the student in-text, along with examples where needed.

The framework is very consistent. Once a student reads the first chapter, he/she should be able to know what to expect in future chapters. In each chapter, headings are broken into subheadings, followed by a chapter summary, key terms, online resources, and references. Terminology is consistent throughout the textbook, and is on the level of college students in the education field should comprehend.

The textbook is organized into chapters with the major concepts. The chapters are organized into headings and subheadings. Each page is numbered. It should be easy to assign different chapters or even sections of a chapter, if necessary. Long blocks of text are interrupted by images, charts, and tables, along with subheadings. There are very few self-referential moments in the text, other than providing an example at the beginning of each chapter.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The organization of the textbook mirrors that of costly for-profit textbooks on the same subject. Major areas are divided into 12 chapters with relevant headings and subheadings in each chapter.

The textbook is free of navigational issues. Headings and subheadings are used throughout the book. In the table of contents, the headings and subheadings are clickable and linked to the appropriate section or subsection of the book, eliminating the need to endlessly scroll to find a certain page. The images and charts used are not distorted. If I had a minor complaint, it would have been to use page breaks to ensure tables were on the same page, rather than be split across two pages. Again, this is a very minor issue.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No grammatical errors were found.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

There is a section of the textbook that discusses cultural diversity and provides classroom examples based on different customs. Most of the examples outside of this section relate to the authors' personal experiences. The textbook is not insensitive or offensive in any way.

It is obvious that a love for educational psychology is the major motivation of authors Kelvin Seifert and Rosemary Sutton, as well as reviewer Sandra Deemer, and the editorial team (Marisa Drexel, Jackie Sharman, and Rachel Pugliese). Professor Seifert, in the preface, also explains his other motives for co-authoring the textbook (individualization of the content, the expense of the textbook, and eliminating the added features commercial textbook publishers use to increase the price).

Reviewed by Amanda Bozack, Associate Professor, Radford University on 1/6/20

This book covers the general areas explored in an introductory educational psychology course. The chapters are short but address the main concepts widely taught in this course and the reference list at the end of each chapter is comprehensive. read more

Reviewed by Amanda Bozack, Associate Professor, Radford University on 1/6/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This book covers the general areas explored in an introductory educational psychology course. The chapters are short but address the main concepts widely taught in this course and the reference list at the end of each chapter is comprehensive.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

On many main points, the text is accurate. However, the student diversity chapter plays into outdated thinking about learning styles and multiple intelligences. Because the chapters are short, the complexity of this discussion and the importance of combatting misconceptions are missed. Instructors who use this textbook should consider supplementing this section or omitting it. Additionally, the chapter on students with disabilities does not use the language of or discuss tiered levels of support--the basic building blocks for preservice teachers--and the chapter on classroom management is very traditional without any information about trauma-informed practices or restorative practices. The chapters on motivation, communication, and complex thinking are strong.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

Updates to the sections on learning styles and multiple intelligences, and the addition of tiered levels of support, trauma informed practices and restorative practices would increase the relevance of this textbook. Additionally, a section devoted to learning science and neuroscience would be useful given the many advances in recent years that help us understand learning from a neurological perspective.

This book is clearly and succinctly written. Terminology is bolded when appropriate and a list of key terms is provided after the chapter summary.

This book is consistent in format, terminology, and framework from one chapter to the next.

This text can easily be assigned in its entirety or for only specific chapters or topics. The information in one chapter is not dependent on information in another chapter. As such, instructors who use the whole text may find it useful to note where information from one chapter is aligned to information in another chapter.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The book and the chapters are organized logically, clearly, and follow the general arc of many educational psychology textbooks.

The interface for this text was appropriate. It is "low tech" and has a clickable table of contents.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

There were no grammatical errors evident in my review.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

This book did not address culture, race, or ethnicity specifically as part of the content. Educators looking to use a culturally responsive lens to teach educational psychology would probably want to supplement this text or use another text.

Reviewed by Adam Moore, Assistant Professor , Roger Williams University on 12/20/19

The text covers an overview of educational psychology. I wonder about some other areas within educational psychology that are not addressed such as universal design for learning (UDL) (Rose &amp Meyer), multiple intelligences (Gardner), backward. read more

Reviewed by Adam Moore, Assistant Professor , Roger Williams University on 12/20/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

The text covers an overview of educational psychology. I wonder about some other areas within educational psychology that are not addressed such as universal design for learning (UDL) (Rose & Meyer), multiple intelligences (Gardner), backward design (Wiggins & McTighe) and growth mindset (Dweck). While some of these theories are not without controversy, it might provide future educators and education professionals a more complete understanding of how one learns by including these topics. Even a critical analysis of these commonly known contemporary theories could help provide necessary background for future professionals.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

Some of the terminology used to discuss people with disabilities in the text are not in line with people first language and are not 100% accurate (i.e. use of term IEP ("P" means program, not plan). Additionally, authors might consider mentioning the movement to "end the r word" instead of using the term "retarded". It is also important that professionals are explicitly told the problem with calling students "slow learners" (from p. 96). These ideas tend to support ableist language and ideologies that are too often present in educational settings.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

This text will support the many education psychology courses offered at most institutions. The topics presented are almost universally taught in educational psychology courses.

The writing is clear and coherent.

The text is consistent in presentation, how terminology is presented, and how information is conveyed.

Many subheadings and bold-face print allow the reader to find information in manageable chunks.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The organization of the text is similar to other educational psychology texts. Clear and logical presentation of information.

The text is easy to read, provides some charts and photos, and is clear in presentation.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No grammatical errors that I found in my reading of this text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

There is not a substantial focus on historically minoritized people in this text. While some of the chapters mention race/ethnicity, there is not a consistent focus on people who have minoritized in educational settings (LGBTQ community, racially minoritized people, gender, people from the disability community, etc) nor is there a focus on equity.

Reviewed by Cassie Bergstrom, Assistant Professor, University of Northern Colorado on 12/14/19

The text covers a wide variety of topics typical to intro to educational psychology texts. The main topics of development, learning, student differences, motivation, classroom environment, and assessment are all covered in what I thought was. read more

Reviewed by Cassie Bergstrom, Assistant Professor, University of Northern Colorado on 12/14/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

The text covers a wide variety of topics typical to intro to educational psychology texts. The main topics of development, learning, student differences, motivation, classroom environment, and assessment are all covered in what I thought was appropriate depth. There were a few topics that I think could be more strongly emphasized, particularly related to how the brain works in the context of learning, information processing theory, and some additional cognitive topics. But I could also see these as topics that teachers could supplement. I did not see an index, but the table of contents is detailed and linked to the subtopics in the chapters. Each chapter has a list of “key terms” at the end (although they are not linked back to the area in the chapter). No overall index or glossary is present.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

I did not find any content that was inaccurate. There are many citations throughout the text that I was familiar with in the context of the topics being discussed. References are listed by chapter, so the content is supported by outside sources that students can access. I didn’t detect any biased coverage, most of the commentary speaks to how the topics are currently seen in the field of educational psychology.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Overall, I do think the text is written broadly enough to be relevant for a number of years. Content in a few areas could be updated, as it is now at least 10 years old. There could definitely be more information on a few topics, for example the role of the brain in learning and memory, growth mindset, grit, autism spectrum, self-regulated learning, etc. These are topics that the field of ed psych has expanded on within the last decade. Other topics could be better positioned to reflect the general thinking in the field (ex. the content on Gardner's multiple intelligences could include more than one sentence of criticism…). I do think the text could be updated fairly easily, and would recommend the authors consider doing so within the next few years.

I really enjoyed the writing style of this text. The authors wrote in a clear, but concise manner. They did a nice job blending their writing styles (as opposed to some texts that feel distinctly written by more than one person). Additionally, the terminology and topics are explained at a level that someone without a background in psychology could understand. There is lots of context for the new ideas and terminology.

The internal consistency of this text is strong. Each chapter has the same organization, beginning with a vignette/story and followed with a number of subsections on different topics. The terminology and framework seem to be consistent across all chapters. Additionally, the headings provided follow the same pattern in chapters, also aiding consistency.

There are many headings and subheadings in this text, dividing main ideas into smaller chunks that could be assigned. The text is not overly self-referential—but honestly I think a bit more reference would be helpful at some points (for example connecting the info on gifted learners with special needs, mentioning the focus on multicultural and anti-bias education within the chapter on diversity). I do think the chapters could be assigned in a variety of orders, and the many headings improve the modularity of this text.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Yes, I think the topics presented in the chapters of the text flow logically, both across and within chapters. Providing the basis for learning up front (in Chapter 2) is a strength, as is following it with the information on development. Within each chapter, the topics logically follow one another, but not to the extent that assigning one chunk would disrupt the flow.

Overall, I think the PDF of this text looks really good. The interface feels more streamlined than many published texts, as there are no boxes, unnecessary graphics, or other distractions. The addition of a few more hyperlinks within the text (to help navigate) would be beneficial. Since the text is a bit dated, there were a few links at the end of chapters that didn’t work for me—which might confuse readers. I do wish the text was available in a format other than just a PDF. I have found it beneficial to provide the OER texts directly within the LMS, as opposed to linking out to another source. With the interface of a PDF, I believe this would be more difficult (I’m less likely to cut and paste PDF content, because of the formatting issues and needing to clean up the copy).

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I found no grammatical errors in my reading of this text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I didn’t detect any insensitivity or offensive handling of cultural issues within this text. The focus was often not on cultural diversity, and I think this could be improved. There is a full chapter on student diversity, but the section on culture is almost entirely devoted to language (while important, doesn’t encompass everything about culture). I did enjoy that the vignettes at the beginning of the chapters were authentic to the authors, but I think this could be an area that would benefit from including more diversity of representation (particularly the vignette at the beginning of Chapter 4…I’m not sure it’s the best way to speak to diversity).

I think this is a strong basic educational psychology text. The writing is clear and easy to read. If I was using this text, I would supplement it with a few topics that are either a bit dated or not covered in the text. But overall, I think it is a strong option for an intro to ed psych OER.

Reviewed by Jose Martinez Molinero, Assistant Professor of Secondary Education, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 11/11/19

In terms of covering all areas, this text provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of teaching. It is organized effectively—it takes the readers through a journey of the joys, challenges, nuances, and realities associated with the. read more

Reviewed by Jose Martinez Molinero, Assistant Professor of Secondary Education, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 11/11/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

In terms of covering all areas, this text provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of teaching. It is organized effectively—it takes the readers through a journey of the joys, challenges, nuances, and realities associated with the teaching profession. The additional materials at the end of the text (Preparing for licensure, Deciding for your self about the research, and Reflective practitioner) provide resources that students in education preparation programs can refer back to as they progress in their respective programs. Although, the text could benefit from presenting other major licensure exam bodies other than Praxis. The text does not include an index or glossary in the traditional sense, however, at the end of each chapter key terms and a works cited is provided.3

Content Accuracy rating: 5

From my perspective, the content of this text is accurate, error-free, and is unbiased. Furthermore, the authors invite readers to apply a critical lens on the content and research by providing open-ended questions regarding each chapter in the ‘Deciding for Yourself About the Research’ section in the additional materials section in the end.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The text is written in broad terms that allow longevity in its relevance. This is mostly achieved by presenting various/multiple theories and approaches when explaining how concepts may be applied in the classroom. Also, the authors recognize and address the differences in the classroom diversity and demographics within the text—although some of the content may not apply to one’s specific situation, other areas of the text will apply.

The text is accessible to students entering a teacher education program. As I reflect on the students I have had, I can envision my students reading this book and having ‘something to say’ about the content based on their own experiences as students and in their field experiences. What I appreciate the most is the teacher ‘scenarios’ that are presented in the beginning of each chapter and how authentic/realistic they are—this sets the tone for the chapter and captures the reader’s attention—answers the ‘why’ the chapter is important.

The text is consistent in its terminology and framework. One example of this, is once a concept(s) presented within the text, a visual chart or graph of the same information is provided for additional clarity. Moreover, I can expect a list of key terms and works cited at the end of every chapter.

The modularity of the text makes chapters easy to read and therefore makes the content accessible. Although there are some key terms I would like to see bolded versus italicized, the bullet points and section headers will make it easy for me to section off, focus on, or assign certain elements of the chapter to my students.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

The topics are presented in a logical, clear fashion. Although, I would say this is true for teacher educators—some of the students in our programs may be completing their field experiences or student teaching in school districts that emphasize (or even romanticize) standardized testing—and this dominates their concerns and questions. Therefore, I would ask those considering the text to reflect on to what extent or where in the curriculum an honest discussion about the value that is (mis)placed on standardized testing should take place.

The navigation is appropriate and accessible from the Table of Contents. It would be helpful to include a navigation link at the end of chapter that takes the reader back to the Table of Contents instead of having to manually scroll back up. The use of pictures and charts are appropriate and helpful for the readers however, they appear as simple or basic—not as vivid as in a traditional textbook. Typically, this is not an issue—however, the current generation of students’ focus is on ‘clout’ and aesthetics in determining the value of something.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

From my reading of various chapters, I did not find any evident grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I appreciate how inclusive and authentic this text was in discussing the different types of learners. For example, I have use multiple multi-cultural education textbooks in the past, and not one has mentioned the phenomenon of ‘language loss’ that ELLs experience and its implications in the classroom.

Reviewed by Mistie Potts, Assistant Professor, Manchester University on 10/28/19

While the text offers a clear table of contents, no evidence of an index was observed. The reader can clearly locate topics that are relevant to teaching by using the table of contents, however finding specific theorists may be more challenging. read more

Reviewed by Mistie Potts, Assistant Professor, Manchester University on 10/28/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

While the text offers a clear table of contents, no evidence of an index was observed. The reader can clearly locate topics that are relevant to teaching by using the table of contents, however finding specific theorists may be more challenging without an index of terms/names. The text appears to cover all relevant topics necessary to preservice or in-service teachers.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The content covered in this text appears to be accurate and aligns with recent peer-reviewed research in the field of educational psychology. The text clearly cites relevant research to support concepts covered. Each section concludes with references that direct the reader to recent research in the field. This research-based approach appears to be unbiased and consistent with commonly accepted views in the field of educational psychology.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The content of this textbook compliments the needs of today’s teachers. In this context, the content is relevant and applicable in a way that will allow it to remain relevant for years to come while providing a realistic way for teachers to utilize the theories and research findings. As research continues to unfold in the field of educational psychology, necessary updates may include small adjustments and manageable changes.

Written with a focus on practitioners, the text is clear and understandable. In this way, the text allows access to important topics in the field of educational psychology without bogging down the reader with complicated prose/jargon. The text calls upon a mild level of background knowledge (e.g., Pavlov and classical conditioning) yet provides contextual clues to include readers lacking this background. In my experiences, most undergraduate teacher preparation students come to the classroom with basic understandings of these topics. The clarity of the text is sufficient for this level of learners.

Terms and conceptual frameworks appear consistent throughout the breadth of the text. Tables with terms common to specific theories/concepts are provided to add clarity throughout the text. The terminology is highlighted with bold print making them easy to identify for the reader. No conflicting terminology or definitions were found during this review of the text.

The layout of the text provides clear sections identified with headers and subheadings. These make the text easy to divide and study in specific sections/topics. It could easily be read in chunks rather than front-to-back without disrupting comprehension of the text.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Similar to other textbooks I have explored in the field of educational psychology, the topics in the text are presented in a logical fashion that lays the groundwork for how individuals learn, educational diversity, development, and commences with topics surrounding the assessment of learning. The flow of text and tables is consistent and clear throughout the text. Distracting content is minimized by excluding sidebars and unnecessary graphics. The organization of the text fosters cognitive processing of the information with little distraction from supplemental information. A clear format for the licensure preparation section allows readers to access important test preparation information as needed. These take the form of sample questions from Praxis II exams, which will assist the reader in practice testing to prepare for the licensure exams.

The text is free from distracting content such as sidebars, photographs, or text boxes that may detract from comprehension of the material. Links from the table of contents direct the reader to specific sections in the text. The tables provide clear explanations of terms and theories. No displays or distortions of the images/charts/text were noticed in review of this text.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

In review of this text, no grammatical errors were observed.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

This text embraces multicultural education and is free from offensive or insensitive material. The omission of photographs alleviates the need to include a diverse array of examples to represent all cultures. The text discusses research relevant to diverse groups of learners and provides culturally relevant concepts to support multicultural education in schools. The examples provided throughout the text are inclusive of race, ethnicities and students from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. Specifically, this text focuses on subject matter that will support educators as they provide educational experiences for all types of learners.

Reviewed by Nautu Leilani, Asst. Prof. of Education/Exec. Dir. of K12 Programs, Southern Utah University on 6/19/18

This resource is very comprehensive. It actually covers the content for several of our courses at our institution (introduction to teaching, principles of learning and teaching, educational psychology, classroom management, and instructional. read more

Reviewed by Nautu Leilani, Asst. Prof. of Education/Exec. Dir. of K12 Programs, Southern Utah University on 6/19/18

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

<p> This resource is very comprehensive. It actually covers the content for several of our courses at our institution (introduction to teaching, principles of learning and teaching, educational psychology, classroom management, and instructional planning/assessment). With a resource like this and being so comprehensive we could definitely remove the barrier of cost for our students.</p>

Content Accuracy rating: 5

<p> The content in this resource is accurate. I was not able to find any errors and did not find biases. We already have professors in our department using this resource and I have not heard from them that there has been any issues in these areas either.</p>

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

<p> The content is up to date and will not become obsolete. Since the book is so comprehensive I don&#39t believe the authors could go in depth on many of the topics. They discuss the topics very well. The only suggestion I would have is that they add to each section actual strategies to help teachers with applicability.</p>

<p> The text is written so that a student new to the field could understand it - the authors take time to explain terminology that is specific to the field.</p>

<p> I did not find any inconsistencies in terminology or the framework provided. I believe that in using this text in our classes, we will be more equipped to add further comment on this section.</p>

<p> One of the biggest concerns we have now in our College is overwhelming our students with too much reading. The problem when we do this is that the students choose to do none of it. The smaller chunks that the author provided makes this a resource that helps us address this concern. We could definitely use this resource as an introduction to all these topics and then jump off from there. Since the chunks of reading are small the students will likely read it and get the foundation we need them to have to go deeper.</p>

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

<p> We just did a scope and sequence of our courses in Teacher Education and when I compare the flow of this resource to our outcomes from our scope and sequence, I found that the flow matched what we thought should be the flow of our courses in general.</p>

<p> I would have liked to see more graphics and visuals and flowcharts to attract the attention of the reader. I think also the very narrow margins makes it feel like there is too much to read on a page. At the expense of having more pages to read for each chunk I would probably make the margins at least a little bigger.</p>

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

<p> I didn&#39t necessarily read for grammatical errors - because that would be a read of it just for that - but as I read each part I didn&#39t find any grammar errors that would prevent comprehension.</p>

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

<p> I would say that the cultural relevance/sensitivity of this book is a good surface attempt. I would have liked the authors to go deeper in other areas of culturally responsive teaching like they did with the english language learner sections.</p>

<p> Thank you to the authors for helping us compile such a wonderful resource, and for being willing to share it with us inexpensively. They should be commended. This was a lot of work on their part - and then to be willing to share it liberally is noteworthy. My suggestions were meant to only add to the wonderful work they have done. Thank you again.</p>

Reviewed by Stephen Vassallo, Associate Professor, American University on 2/1/18

The book covers most of what one might expect in an conventional educational psychology text for teacher education. However, I am surprised that self-regulated learning is not included in the book. This notion has been an important area of study. read more

Reviewed by Stephen Vassallo, Associate Professor, American University on 2/1/18

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

The book covers most of what one might expect in an conventional educational psychology text for teacher education. However, I am surprised that self-regulated learning is not included in the book. This notion has been an important area of study for educational psychologists for about 4 decades now. Self-regulated learning is often discussed in the section on "higher order thinking." There are also other ideas such as growth mindset and grit that are more contemporary than self-regulated learning. I would like to see these concepts discussed in an educational psychology text. I would also like to see some text on embodied cognition, which is a perspective of memory that is contrasted with the information processing perspective, which also happens to not be discussed. Although the information processing theory is philosophically and conceptually limited, it can be helpful for thinking about teaching. There are also sociocultural theories, beyond Vygotsky, that can be helpful for getting a broad and diverse representation of the field.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Educational psychology is never unbiased. The one major error in this book is that this bias is not acknowledged. However, I am hesitant to call that an error of the authors and the text an error of the field. I did not find any errors in representing the elements of the field that are typically taught to teachers. However, what is typically taught to teachers relating to educational psychology misses a great deal of complexities--including those biases that underpin theories, perspectives, methods, ways of reasoning, and models. The authors are accurate in explaining the theories and concepts that are taught in an educational psychology text.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

The text is written in a way that can support adding contemporary ideas. For example, grit and growth mindset are getting a good deal of attention among educational psychologists, psychologists, administrators, and policy makers. These notions can easily be integrated in the chapter on motivation. These notions are also problematic. I would suggest integrating not just explanations of these ideas but their philosophical and ideological complexities. As another example, researchers have recently debunked the learning styles framework. I think it is worth talking about "learning styles" but offer different perspectives related to this way of reading and naming students. I am not suggesting that authors shape their texts in response to every educational fad that emerges, but I think authors should try to capture as best they could the critical nuances with the ideas they present to teachers. One of the major shortcomings of this book is the contemporary relevance but I rated this high because the structure of the book lends itself well to integrating new content.

The text is clear and lucid. All terminology is explained well.

The book is consistent. And although consistency is generally a positive quality of a book, I would like to see competing and contradictory text. For example, developmental frameworks can be useful for teaching but they can also be implicated in a number of problematic student evaluations and educational interventions. It is useful and valuable to capture the inconsistencies with thinking about learning, development, and teaching. With that said, the authors are consistent within their frame of reference. They present educational psychology ideas that are intended to improve teaching and learning.

The authors do a fine job at partitioning the text and labeling sections with appropriate headings. Although topics and concepts across chapters are related, each chapter can stand on its own and does not have to be assigned in chronological order. The text is not overly self-referential. In fact, I argue that it lacks self-reference. There are many ideas that need to be considered together and hyperlinks can help students make those connections. For example, the chapter on complex thinking should be considered in the context of development. I would like to see links between chapters.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

This book conforms to the general organization of educational psychology texts. Early in the book the authors introduce readers to theories of learning and then move into development. Following are two chapters on learner differences. One is related to cognitive differences such as learning styles and intelligence. The other is related to special learning needs. The middle chapters center on big topic, including classroom management, motivation, and complex thinking. Like many other books, the last chapters are dedicated to application by focusing explicitly on pedagogy and assessment. Although chapters are dedicated to pedagogy toward the end of the book, the authors integrate suggestions throughout for applying ideas to the classroom. The organization and flow makes sense. I might consider, however, having the "complex thinking" chapter follow learning and development. The book is organized and written in such a way to support assignment chapters out of the listed order. I think that is more important than having the book chapters conform to how I might organize topic. Instructors will likely have different ideas about topic organization and this book allows for that possibility.

The images, charts, and tables are clear. There was nothing that distracted me as a reader. I did experience any problems with navigation. One very minor interface issue was that the tables were a little drab. Reviewing the tables felt like I was reviewing a quickly constructed table on a Word file. Perhaps shading title boxes or different rows or columns, for example, might make for targeted attention and aesthetic pleasure.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I did not find any grammatical errors in this book.

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

I do not believe the authors say anything explicitly offensive or insensitive. There are some examples and discussion of cultural groups and variation. Some educational psychology textbooks have a chapter dedicated to cultural differences in learning and development. This book does not have such a chapter, but rather has evidence of cultural relevance sprinkled modestly throughout. The issue of culture has not quite been handled well in general within educational psychology texts. This limitation is characteristic of the field in general and not specific to the text.

I would like to see some hyperlinks in the text. There are many ideas that are related to each other but are in different chapters. If hyperlinks are not possible to refer students to other chapters, perhaps not just refer students to outside sources at the end of the chapter, but also point them to different chapters within the book. This textbook is a solid educational psychology book. Aside from missing discussion of some contemporary ideas, concepts, and critical perspectives, the authors provide a good overview of the field. I recommend using this book for a course but supplementing some of the material. I suggest certainly bringing in readings on grit, growth mindset, self-regulated learning, and embodied cognition. I also suggest bringing in text about critical educational psychology, which can support the reflections on the ways ideology, history, culture, and politics operate in and through educational psychology.

Reviewed by Cecelia Monto, Dean, Education and Humanities, and Adjunct Instructor in Education, Chemeketa Community College on 4/11/17

This book provides an overall comprehensive look at educational psychology, but I think it could be updated. If I use this text, I would supplement this text with current sources on: • Educational neuroscience • Poverty and the brain (use Eric. read more

Reviewed by Cecelia Monto, Dean, Education and Humanities, and Adjunct Instructor in Education, Chemeketa Community College on 4/11/17

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This book provides an overall comprehensive look at educational psychology, but I think it could be updated. If I use this text, I would supplement this text with current sources on: • Educational neuroscience • Poverty and the brain (use Eric Jensen and other sources) • The need for greater diversity in the teaching force (use Linda Darling-Hammond and others) • Bilingualism in the U.S. • The concept of grit (use Duckworth), and for U.S. use I would fold in current legislation and historical pieces. • Communication during conflict Each chapter begins with an inviting story on the opening pages, and then moves on to the core topic. The stories seem a little simplistic, but they do provide a welcoming beginning to each chapter. Some of the openers (such as journals kept by author Kelvin Seifert) would not relate well to U.S. students. I would have liked a “social justice perspective” woven into the book. This could be related to students as they imagine their future teaching role, and the contribution they will make to kids, and to greater society. In the U.S., education has a solid link to democracy, and the historical foundation is powerful to students. Arne Duncans’ quote could be used to lead this idea. ““I believe that education is the civil rights issue of our generation. And if you care about promoting opportunity and reducing inequality, the classroom is the place to start. Great teaching is about so much more than education it is a daily fight for social justice.” There are no photos or eye-catching items in the text. The authors comment that this is for cost reduction purposes, however, since the text is offered digitally it could add a needed dimension to the text. Chapters 1, 2 and 3 The first chapter would be a good place to lay the ground work for education as a vehicle for social justice. The “trends in teaching” paragraphs should be updated. I actually thought the first chapter was a little short. There was good coverage of the learning process, although I would add information about learning and the brain. and the major learning theories (behaviorism, Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner), as related to educational psychology and the implications to teaching. The Student development chapter was appropriate for a course on educational psychology, but may present too much information for more introductory courses. I would have liked a more straight forward piece written about stages of development, with a clear outline of physical, cognitive, social and character development, and I would have included a clear graph of Piaget’s model for cognitive development with this section. They do cover this, but the writing is less clear for me in this section. Same on Maslow- I would have liked a simpler hierarchy of needs chart. Erik Erkison’s psychosocial development section is good. The outline for Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, and linkage to ethical thinking and justice was good, with Gilligan’s framework included. For US use, I would add in examples from US schools and even court cases to exemplify points. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 The student diversity section was not comprehensive. The content on learning styles, and multiple intelligences was fine. There was some information on Talented and Gifted, but it was not linked to learning disabilities. I would have folded in Chapter 5 into Chapter 4, instead of making it a separate chapter on Students with Special Educational Needs. The separate chapter on Students with Special Educational Needs offered pretty good detail for an overview class. The ADHD section was good. I would recommend more content on dyslexia. The segment addressing behavioral issues could be linked to societal and SES issues. I appreciated the inclusion of hearing loss and vision impairment, because I have not seen that in many texts. I would have introduced the concept of differentiated learning in this section, and then revisited it in the later section. The Gender roles section of chapter 4 is incomplete and dated, more information is needed on different sexual orientations. I would have liked to see deeper content related to the bilingual and second language learners. The initial chapter mentions language diversity, but too briefly. There is no mention of the need of greater diversity in the teaching force itself. Authors could use research from Linda Darling-Hammond to write about this topic. In Chapter 4, the Student Diversity section., there is discussion of bilingualism, but seemed too clinical. I would have liked discussion of why language learners need models ….. and more coverage of English language learners in relation to motivation would have been helpful. The part on cultural identity development was good. This could be addressed by adding journal articles on this topic into supplementary coursework. Content related to low SES and the role poverty plays in the psychological profile of students is missing. The Student Motivation chapter would be appealing to students. I think this could be inserted into any time frame of the class. Perhaps this information would have been better if directly linked to the learning theory section, ie Skinner’s behaviorism, or to the Student Motivation Chapter. I would have liked to see more about making learning relevant and placed in the real world context in this chapter. Motivation linked to self-efficacy was good, but the self-determination section seemed a little esoteric and I don’t think would resonate with U.S. students. This might be a good chapter to include a piece about “grit” (by Duckworth) and learning. Chapter 7 and 8 I would re-title this section, to use words such a Creating a Positive and Productive Learning Environment, and fold in the student motivation section and the classroom communication section. This chapter could be shorter, and written in a way that made inquiry with the reader to make it more relevant. That would leave more room to fold in the other chapters. The segment on focusing on future solutions rather than past mistakes is excellent. I would have liked to see the use of the word pedagogy in this section. I would remove the section on “functions of talk”, and reduce down the section on nonverbal communication. That would leave more room for additional information about communication and conflict and also cross cultural communication, which are areas where students need help. I would also shorten the section on classroom communication, and build in more inquiry for student readers in this section. Chapter 9, 10, 11 and 12 Facilitation Complex Thinking and Planning instruction and Assessment could be combined. I would like to see the concepts of diagnostic, formative and summative assessment included, and then linked to current examples. This would align with the concepts of student-centered and teacher-centered learning, with discussion on the methodology such as inquiry based learning, cooperative/collaborative learning. Setting learning goals and “backward design” could be added to the curriculum section. The section outlining Bloom’s Taxonomy with examples and revisions is excellent. I am glad you included Marzano. I would revisit the concept of differentiated instruction with the information presented on response to intervention. I would move the multicultural education and anti-bias education section out of this chapter, and in to the earlier section on student diversity. Information on alternative approaches to learning, like online learning and service learning is good. The assessment section was thoughtfully written, and would challenge students to consider how they are making assessment decisions. Getting students to consider the validity and reliability of assessment is critical, and revisiting the concept of bias as related to assessment is important. I would reduce the content related to teacher made assessments, and perhaps have the students evaluate existing assessments

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Overall, information was accurate. Some sections that are dated presented slightly inaccurate information. For example, the authors give data about the Hispanic population in the U.S. from 2005, which was 14%. This should be adjusted to 18%, and notice of the growth of this segment should be noted to represent the true picture. The U.S. National Center for Educational Statistics notes about 25% of students in public school are Hispanic (and even that information is 3 years old). The licensing chapter is also dated and therefore inaccurate. The sections on “deciding for yourself”, which explained the research procedures used and gave more content information, were a great vehicle to encourage students to consider the complexities of research, and demonstrate their ability to evaluate and critically consider complicated topics, thus improving the accuracy of their own thinking.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

The authors bring a unique perspective to educational psychology because they are from outside the U.S. I appreciate their candor in acknowledging that most major textbooks in this area cover similar content, but are quite expensive when printed and published via conventional manner. However, there are some content issues that jeopardize the relevance and longevity of the book. I would like to see the concept of educational neuroscience addressed in the early sections on cognitive development. The Student Development Chapter 3 would need to be re-worked for greater relevance for U.S. use. I would have liked to see development issues tied to social factors. The authors did some of this when they discussed health issues, but for the most part social links are missing. To improve relevance, I would like to see information on how poverty affects the brain and learning. I would also like to see a section devoted to the importance of having a diverse teaching workforce. The section on technology use in schools is quite dated and unrealistic. Discussion of single-computer classrooms is outdated. Although they must exist, I have never observed such a classroom in at least 10 years. There needs to be more emphasis on using technology in a myriad of ways, from harnessing the power of smart phones, tablets, and internet resource gathering was not fully covered. Chapter 10 references online learning, but it could have been made more relevant by explaining this book as an example. The final section on licensing requirements was outdated. Our state no longer uses PRAXIS. Perhaps because licensing is done on a state-by-state basis, this section should encourage instructors to use their own state resources in this area. Other topics that would improve relevance would be the topic “grit”, and the development of communication skills that address conflict. The citations seem dated, not much past 2006. The publication date is 2011. Relevant current publications and issues should be brought in.

Due to the consistent writing style and predictable format, the book was clear and easy to follow. Additional charts or graphs could reinforce points made in the book, and thus might improve clarity for visual learners. Chapter summaries clearly reinforce main points for students to grasp. Lists of key points and terminology also added clarity, such as the listing at the end of Chapter 3.

Overall consistency was good. Writing style was straightforward and standardized throughout the text, which made reading easier. The links to additional articles were consistently presented, and therefore would be easy to reference.

The text is designed in a modular framework, and authors note that chapters can be taught in any order. Some of the repetition crosses over modules, which helps with clarity.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

The text flowed in a logical manner, and as a reader I would recommend teaching from it from the structure already presented. In terms of organization, I would move the Action Research table to a different section, not right up front. The first three chapters fit together nicely as a unit. In this early section, I would also like to see more on changes in the brain that occur from learning new information. Chapters 4 and 5 meshed well. As I already noted, I suggest linking the learning section with the motivation section .I would organize the material in Chapter 6 to fold into the later Chapters 7 or 8. The final chapters regarding instructional planning, assessment and facilitation of complex thinking could be reorganized. Each chapter finished with a summary, which could help students organize their thinking. I would change the layout of the summary into bullet points, to make it more readable. Key vocabulary was also highlighted, so that students could focus on the language specifics of the education field.

The online resources, with examples of assignments, are beneficial. Simple assignments, such as creating a chart summarizing human development, would be easy for students to follow and reinforce their reading. There was a large array of resources and articles, which would allow instructors to supplement and make the chapters more relevant. I would like to see more reflection pieces, like journals on certain topics. The autobiography assignments were too vague. The assignment on “true confessions” from students regarding moral development would be too risky in a community college setting. I would also like to see some video pieces attached as additional resources. In the communication section towards the end of the book, it would have been great to observe examples of communication styles in the classroom, or include interviews with teachers. Video clips demonstrating children in varying stages of development would also be useful. I know it’s always easier to ask for more resources than to provide them. But these additional elements would provide variety to the course.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

The grammar was correct and accurate.

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

Greater relevance could be achieved by updating resources used and broadening topics to include current issues in the United States. Some opening stories did not mesh well with current student experience. For example, the Chapter 4 opening story would not be relate-able to the students in my class. As noted earlier, more emphasis on the importance of a bicultural and bilingual teaching workforce was not mentioned, and this perspective is critical. Lead in stories could provide a venue for greater cultural perspectives on teaching and student experience, and is needed. The text also lacks mention of social justice issues as they relate to teaching, which is an important point in proving cultural relevancy. Reflective assignments and inquiry based writing could be added to challenge students to broaden their thinking and relate content to their own circumstances.

Many sections of the text are solid, and I would like to use content for an online book that I will create for our Foundations of Education course. I read this text through the lens of that course need, and I was looking for some elements that are understandably not covered in this text. The current text I am using incorporates a lot of student reflection, and I think including that aspect into this text would make it more engaging. I also noted that the lack of content related to social justice and the teaching field is a concern.

Reviewed by Maite Correa, Associate Professor, Colorado State University on 12/5/16

This textbook is very comprehensive. Any prospective or current teacher could use it as an introduction or a refresher (respectively). The topics covered are ample and the references and additional readings provided at the end of each chapter help. read more

Reviewed by Maite Correa, Associate Professor, Colorado State University on 12/5/16

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

This textbook is very comprehensive. Any prospective or current teacher could use it as an introduction or a refresher (respectively). The topics covered are ample and the references and additional readings provided at the end of each chapter help the reader expand on the topic if needed. The text provides an effective index at the beginning and a glossary for each unit.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

Content is accurate. Drawing from different pedagogical approaches, the authors manage to create a balance that helps the reader make their own choices.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Content is relatively up-to-date. Although chapter 12 might become obsolete depending on state requirements for standardized tests, overall, the text can stand the test of time (taking into account that pedagogy is an area that changes rapidly).

The text is accessible for any reader. All jargon or terminology is explained. It is suitable for teacher candidates, for teachers who want a refresher and for anyone interested in pedagogy.

The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework. Chapters flow into each other very well, although they could be used separately (see modularity below).

The text could be used as a whole textbook divided by units (the order seems appropriate for an "Intro to Pedagogy" course), but it could also be divided into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. It could also be used as a companion to any other handbook that is discipline-specific (Math, Language Arts, World Languages, etc.). Case studies at the end make it very easy to assign them at any point.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The topics in the text follow a logical fashion. From the introduction (learning process and student development) until the end (assessment and standardized tests), the text increases in specificity/complexity. The case studies in the appendices are very conveniently located at the end for easy access in case the chapters are assigned in isolation.

Although the indentation in the tables could be improved and some images could be formatted to be more visually appealing, the interface in general is appropriate.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

The text contains no grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. On the contrary, it follows pedagogies that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds.

This is a great textbook that can be used in any education course at both undergraduate and graduate levels. It can be complemented with research articles in each discipline if needed, but it can be perfectly used on its own.

Reviewed by Kelly Lynch, Teacher - Elementary Education, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

Text covers all aspects of what a teacher would encounter throughout the year in a classroom. Very comprehensive. read more

Reviewed by Kelly Lynch, Teacher - Elementary Education, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

Text covers all aspects of what a teacher would encounter throughout the year in a classroom. Very comprehensive.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

To my knowledge and experience, this text is very accurate on all fronts. It is up-to-date when it addresses standardized testing, management challenges, and student diversity.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The content in this text will need to be updated at times to keep in step with changes in standardized testing. Other than that particular section, I don't believe there will be signifigant updating needed regularly.

Text is easy to read, comprehend, and offers varied examples to address multiple ages of children and adults.

Consistency is not an issue. Text is in step with current terminology.

Text is clearly divided into smaller sections. Very easy to assign.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Text is well organized and easy to follow. Topics are clear and easily defined.

Text is very clear and easy to read. Information is easy to interpret.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No signifigant grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

Text is culturally diverse.

Reviewed by Selma Koç, Associate Professor, Cleveland State University on 1/12/15

"Educational Psychology” by Seifert and Sutton covers a wide variety of topics providing examples from everyday classroom situations. The authors need to be commended for a book that can lay a strong foundation in the area for prospective. read more

Reviewed by Selma Koç, Associate Professor, Cleveland State University on 1/12/15

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

"Educational Psychology” by Seifert and Sutton covers a wide variety of topics providing examples from everyday classroom situations. The authors need to be commended for a book that can lay a strong foundation in the area for prospective teachers. The structure of the book, the contents, the easy-to-read approach, how the authors make connections relevant to theory and practice and among the topics will be of value to the educational psychology courses. The language of the book makes it clear for the prospective teachers develop an understanding of how major theories of learning and models can be relevant and useful in teaching and learning. The inclusion of the chapters on the nature of classroom communication, facilitating complex thinking, teacher-made assessment strategies and examples provided as well as the appendices with respect to preparing students for licensure, research and the reflective practitioner complement the book compared to the other outlets in the area. For example, in the appendix titled "deciding for yourself about the research," the readers are provided with examples of several research problems, how they were conducted and their implications that reflect many of the themes of the book chapters.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The content seems to be accurate, error-free and unbiased.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The book starts with a chapter about the changing teaching profession: new trends in education such as diversity in students, use of technology to support learning, accountability in education, increased professionalism of teachers. Updates can easily be made if necessary if new trends or influences in education were to occur.

The book is written in a clear and easy-to-understand style that is adequate for those who are novice to educational psychology. The language of the text makes it appealing for exploring the book content further. Although the book is written by two authors, it's hard to detect the difference between the authors' writing.

The book is consistent in terms of terminology and framework.

The table of contents is well organized and easily divisible into reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. The authors do a great job providing headings and subheadings to avoid reader fatigue or overload that contibute to the the reading of the content more appealing.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The topics are presented in a manner that is suitable for an educational psychology course that flows with the course content and activities.

The text does not have any interface or navigation issues when read on-screen or in print.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I have not noticed any grammar mistakes or issues with the writing mechanics that will disrupt the meaning of the text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

The book makes use of diversity and cultural relevance as it provides numerous examples from everyday classroom situations as well as the research it discusses.

This is a book that can rivet the attention of teacher candidates because of its easy-to-understand style. I commend the authors for a book that clearly communicates the purpose of studying educational psychology and how it relates to teaching and learning.


6 Trading Psychology Books to Improve Market Strategies

Trading is as much about psychology as it is about developing a solid strategy. Without the mental strength to stick to a plan, the best strategy in the world won't do any good. Good traders not only evolve and master a strategy, but they also become more aware of their own traits (such as discipline and patience) and grow them, which allows them to be more effective in implementing their strategies.

A variety of books can help traders take steps toward grasping how psychology works in investing.


Best Personal Development Books For Creating a Better Life

1. The Art of War, by Sun Tzu

The Art of War may be the most widely read book that examines strategy and dispute resolution, equally studied by men and women, military, business executives and politicians alike. According to this book, strategy, preparedness and taking advantage of opportunities are key to achieving success by overcoming conflict.

“The wise warrior avoids the battle.”

“Thus those skilled in war subdue the enemy’s army without battle … They conquer by strategy.”

“To … not prepare is the greatest of crimes to be prepared beforehand for any contingency is the greatest of virtues.”

“What is of the greatest importance in war is extraordinary speed: One cannot afford to neglect opportunity.”

2. The Four Agreements: A Practical Guide To Personal Freedom, by Miguel Ruiz

According to author Miguel Ruiz, four agreements in life are fundamental steps on the path to freedom:

Be impeccable with your word.

Don’t take anything personally.

The motivational books basic premise is that the diligent application of these agreements will lead to personal freedom.

“Every human is an artist. The dream of your life is to make beautiful art.”

“Maybe we cannot escape from the destiny of the human, but we have a choice: to suffer our destiny or to enjoy our destiny.”

“You will find that you don’t need to trust others as much as you need to trust yourself to make the right choices.”


Introduction

Achievement motivation energizes and directs behavior toward achievement and therefore is known to be an important determinant of academic success (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004 Hattie, 2009 Plante et al., 2013 Wigfield et al., 2016). Achievement motivation is not a single construct but rather subsumes a variety of different constructs like motivational beliefs, task values, goals, and achievement motives (see Murphy and Alexander, 2000 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010 Wigfield et al., 2016). Nevertheless, there is still a limited number of studies, that investigated (1) diverse motivational constructs in relation to students’ academic achievement in one sample and (2) additionally considered students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). Because students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement are among the best single predictors of academic success (e.g., Kuncel et al., 2004 Hailikari et al., 2007), it is necessary to include them in the analyses when evaluating the importance of motivational factors for students’ achievement. Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) did so and revealed that students’ domain-specific ability self-concepts followed by domain-specific task values were the best predictors of students’ math and German grades compared to students’ goals and achievement motives. However, a flaw of their study is that they did not assess all motivational constructs at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. For example, achievement motives were measured on a domain-general level (e.g., 𠇍ifficult problems appeal to me”), whereas students’ achievement as well as motivational beliefs and task values were assessed domain-specifically (e.g., math grades, math self-concept, math task values). The importance of students’ achievement motives for math and German grades might have been underestimated because the specificity levels of predictor and criterion variables did not match (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977 Baranik et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the seminal findings by Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) will hold when motivational beliefs, task values, goals, and achievement motives are all assessed at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. This is an important question with respect to motivation theory and future research in this field. Moreover, based on the findings it might be possible to better judge which kind of motivation should especially be fostered in school to improve achievement. This is important information for interventions aiming at enhancing students’ motivation in school.

Theoretical Relations Between Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement

We take a social-cognitive approach to motivation (see also Pintrich et al., 1993 Elliot and Church, 1997 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). This approach emphasizes the important role of students’ beliefs and their interpretations of actual events, as well as the role of the achievement context for motivational dynamics (see Weiner, 1992 Pintrich et al., 1993 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). Social cognitive models of achievement motivation (e.g., expectancy-value theory by Eccles and Wigfield, 2002 hierarchical model of achievement motivation by Elliot and Church, 1997) comprise a variety of motivation constructs that can be organized in two broad categories (see Pintrich et al., 1993, p. 176): students’ �liefs about their capability to perform a task,” also called expectancy components (e.g., ability self-concepts, self-efficacy), and their “motivational beliefs about their reasons for choosing to do a task,” also called value components (e.g., task values, goals). The literature on motivation constructs from these categories is extensive (see Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). In this article, we focus on selected constructs, namely students’ ability self-concepts (from the category 𠇎xpectancy components of motivation”), and their task values and goal orientations (from the category “value components of motivation”).

According to the social cognitive perspective, students’ motivation is relatively situation or context specific (see Pintrich et al., 1993). To gain a comprehensive picture of the relation between students’ motivation and their academic achievement, we additionally take into account a traditional personality model of motivation, the theory of the achievement motive (McClelland et al., 1953), according to which students’ motivation is conceptualized as a relatively stable trait. Thus, we consider the achievement motives hope for success and fear of failure besides students’ ability self-concepts, their task values, and goal orientations in this article. In the following, we describe the motivation constructs in more detail.

Students’ ability self-concepts are defined as cognitive representations of their ability level (Marsh, 1990 Wigfield et al., 2016). Ability self-concepts have been shown to be domain-specific from the early school years on (e.g., Wigfield et al., 1997). Consequently, they are frequently assessed with regard to a certain domain (e.g., with regard to school in general vs. with regard to math).

In the present article, task values are defined in the sense of the expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (1983) and Eccles and Wigfield (2002). According to the expectancy-value model there are three task values that should be positively associated with achievement, namely intrinsic values, utility value, and personal importance (Eccles and Wigfield, 1995). Because task values are domain-specific from the early school years on (e.g., Eccles et al., 1993 Eccles and Wigfield, 1995), they are also assessed with reference to specific subjects (e.g., “How much do you like math?”) or on a more general level with regard to school in general (e.g., “How much do you like going to school?”).

Students’ goal orientations are broader cognitive orientations that students have toward their learning and they reflect the reasons for doing a task (see Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Therefore, they fall in the broad category of “value components of motivation.” Initially, researchers distinguished between learning and performance goals when describing goal orientations (Nicholls, 1984 Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Learning goals (“task involvement” or “mastery goals”) describe people’s willingness to improve their skills, learn new things, and develop their competence, whereas performance goals (𠇎go involvement”) focus on demonstrating one’s higher competence and hiding one’s incompetence relative to others (e.g., Elliot and McGregor, 2001). Performance goals were later further subdivided into performance-approach (striving to demonstrate competence) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid looking incompetent, e.g., Elliot and Church, 1997 Middleton and Midgley, 1997). Some researchers have included work avoidance as another component of achievement goals (e.g., Nicholls, 1984 Harackiewicz et al., 1997). Work avoidance refers to the goal of investing as little effort as possible (Kumar and Jagacinski, 2011). Goal orientations can be assessed in reference to specific subjects (e.g., math) or on a more general level (e.g., in reference to school in general).

McClelland et al. (1953) distinguish the achievement motives hope for success (i.e., positive emotions and the belief that one can succeed) and fear of failure (i.e., negative emotions and the fear that the achievement situation is out of one’s depth). According to McClelland’s definition, need for achievement is measured by describing affective experiences or associations such as fear or joy in achievement situations. Achievement motives are conceptualized as being relatively stable over time. Consequently, need for achievement is theorized to be domain-general and, thus, usually assessed without referring to a certain domain or situation (e.g., Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009). However, Sparfeldt and Rost (2011) demonstrated that operationalizing achievement motives subject-specifically is psychometrically useful and results in better criterion validities compared with a domain-general operationalization.

Empirical Evidence on the Relative Importance of Achievement Motivation Constructs for Academic Achievement

A myriad of single studies (e.g., Linnenbrink-Garcia et al., 2018 Muenks et al., 2018 Steinmayr et al., 2018) and several meta-analyses (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004 Möller et al., 2009 Hulleman et al., 2010 Huang, 2011) support the hypothesis of social cognitive motivation models that students’ motivational beliefs are significantly related to their academic achievement. However, to judge the relative importance of motivation constructs for academic achievement, studies need (1) to investigate diverse motivational constructs in one sample and (2) to consider students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement, too, because the latter are among the best single predictors of academic success (e.g., Kuncel et al., 2004 Hailikari et al., 2007). For effective educational policy and school reform, it is crucial to obtain robust empirical evidence for whether various motivational constructs can explain variance in school performance over and above intelligence and prior achievement. Without including the latter constructs, we might overestimate the importance of motivation for achievement. Providing evidence that students’ achievement motivation is incrementally valid in predicting their academic achievement beyond their intelligence or prior achievement would emphasize the necessity of designing appropriate interventions for improving students’ school-related motivation.

There are several studies that included expectancy and value components of motivation as predictors of students’ academic achievement (grades or test scores) and additionally considered students’ prior achievement (Marsh et al., 2005 Steinmayr et al., 2018, Study 1) or their intelligence (Spinath et al., 2006 Lotz et al., 2018 Schneider et al., 2018 Steinmayr et al., 2018, Study 2, Weber et al., 2013). However, only few studies considered intelligence and prior achievement together with more than two motivational constructs as predictors of school students’ achievement (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). Kriegbaum et al. (2015) examined two expectancy components (i.e., ability self-concept and self-efficacy) and eight value components (i.e., interest, enjoyment, usefulness, learning goals, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals, and work avoidance) in the domain of math. Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) investigated the role of an expectancy component (i.e., ability self-concept), five value components (i.e., task values, learning goals, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals, and work avoidance), and students’ achievement motives (i.e., hope for success, fear of failure, and need for achievement) for students’ grades in math and German and their GPA. Both studies used relative weights analyses to compare the predictive power of all variables simultaneously while taking into account multicollinearity of the predictors (Johnson and LeBreton, 2004 Tonidandel and LeBreton, 2011). Findings showed that – after controlling for differences in students‘ intelligence and their prior achievement – expectancy components (ability self-concept, self-efficacy) were the best motivational predictors of achievement followed by task values (i.e., intrinsic/enjoyment, attainment, and utility), need for achievement and learning goals (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). However, Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) who investigated the relations in three different domains did not assess all motivational constructs on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. More precisely, students’ achievement as well as motivational beliefs and task values were assessed domain-specifically (e.g., math grades, math self-concept, math task values), whereas students’ goals were only measured for school in general (e.g., “In school it is important for me to learn as much as possible”) and students’ achievement motives were only measured on a domain-general level (e.g., 𠇍ifficult problems appeal to me”). Thus, the importance of goals and achievement motives for math and German grades might have been underestimated because the specificity levels of predictor and criterion variables did not match (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977 Baranik et al., 2010). Assessing students’ goals and their achievement motives with reference to a specific subject might result in higher associations with domain-specific achievement criteria (see Sparfeldt and Rost, 2011).

Taken together, although previous work underlines the important roles of expectancy and value components of motivation for school students’ academic achievement, hitherto, we know little about the relative importance of expectancy components, task values, goals, and achievement motives in different domains when all of them are assessed at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria (e.g., achievement motives in math → math grades ability self-concept for school → GPA).

The Present Research

The goal of the present study was to examine the relative importance of several of the most important achievement motivation constructs in predicting school students’ achievement. We substantially extend previous work in this field by considering (1) diverse motivational constructs, (2) students’ intelligence and their prior achievement as achievement predictors in one sample, and (3) by assessing all predictors on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. Moreover, we investigated the relations in three different domains: school in general, math, and German. Because there is no study that assessed students’ goal orientations and achievement motives besides their ability self-concept and task values on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria, we could not derive any specific hypotheses on the relative importance of these constructs, but instead investigated the following research question (RQ):

RQ. What is the relative importance of students’ domain-specific ability self-concepts, task values, goal orientations, and achievement motives for their grades in the respective domain when including all of them, students’ intelligence and prior achievement simultaneously in the analytic models?


Environment at home and at school

The American Psychological Association conducted a study on how motivation can be a big factor in achieving academic goals in a classroom setting. There were 176 junior high school students who were selected randomly and were asked to answer a questionnaire that talked about their views on some motivational processes and strategies that were deemed effective for them. The findings demonstrate that motivating students depends on their willingness and open-mindedness about these kinds of strategic undertakings as well as the environment they are in.


Sales Development and Prospecting

The Sales Development Playbook

This book is about not just growth, but high growth, explosive growth, the kind of growth that weather satellites can see from space.

The success of any business-to-business company is directly linked to how effectively they acquire new pipeline. To skyrocket growth, sales development is the answer.

This book encapsulates author Trish Bertuzzi’s three decades of practical, hands-on experience. It presents six elements for building new pipeline and accelerating revenue growth with inside sales.

Outbound Sales, No Fluff

This book is a step-by-step guide for the modern sales professional, giving you the framework, knowledge, and skills to fill a sales pipeline with highly qualified opportunities. It’s all practical advice — no cutesy stories, no rants, and no product pitches.

There are really only two ways to fill a funnel: inbound leads or outbound prospecting.

Biberson and Reisert focus exclusively on outbound prospecting, because it’s the half of the formula that an individual sales rep can control (that’s why so many sales job descriptions include the phrase “we’re looking for a hunter”)

Fanatical Prospecting

Fanatical Prospecting gives salespeople, sales leaders, entrepreneurs, and executives a practical, eye-opening guide that clearly explains the why and how behind the most important activity in sales and business development―prospecting.

The brutal fact is the number one reason for failure in sales is an empty pipe and the root cause of an empty pipeline is the failure to consistently prospect. By ignoring the muscle of prospecting, many otherwise competent salespeople and sales organizations consistently underperform.

Step by step, Jeb Blount outlines his innovative approach to prospecting that works for real people, in the real world, with real prospects.

Sales Development: Cracking the Code of Outbound Sales

Cory Bray and Hilmon Sorey

Sales development is one of the fastest growing careers in the United States. It is fast-paced, often on the leading edge of technology, and people in the role have the possibility of making a ton of money!

Unlike accounting, medicine, or law, most salespeople do not study their profession in college. Instead, they are tossed into the fray without much training, context, or support, and are left to sink or swim. This method proves neither efficient nor effective for the individual or the company.

Sales Development is written specifically for the job seeker or individual contributor who has aspirations of success in a sales development role, and beyond. This is your personal guidebook to the how, why, and what-to-do’s of the sales development profession. Written practically and tactically, this book shows you how to get the job, how to perform, and how to position yourself for advancement. Based upon ten years of teaching sales development representatives in the fastest-growing companies in the United States, this book will launch you on your path to becoming a rock star.

The New Handshake: Sales Meets Social Media

With more than 400 million active users on Facebook alone (50 percent of whom log in on any given day), today’s social media-oriented climate has redefined the way people communicate and interact. It’s also changed the way consumers operate in the marketplace. Unfortunately, as a whole, sales professionals have been slow to embrace the new technology.

In The New Handshake: Sales Meets Social Media, Curtis and Giamanco present Sales 2.0, a significant expansion from selling via the traditional face-to-face or telephone sales methods.

The book begins by examining the impact of the communication revolution on sales as well as the history of selling. It contains case examples that justify incorporating social media in business. The final chapters of the book describe each social network, explain how they work, and create a road map for a social media sales strategy―including how to empower salespeople to overcome their resistance to change.

Top of Mind

What do many successful businesses and leaders have in common? They’re the first names that come to mind when people think about their particular industries. How do you achieve this level of trust that influences people to think of you in the right way at the right time?

By developing habits and strategies that focus on engaging your audience, creating meaningful relationships, and delivering value consistently, day in and day out.

It’s the winning approach John Hall used to build Influence & Co. into one of “America’s Most Promising Companies,” according to Forbes. Here, he shows you how to use content to keep your brand front and center in the minds of decision makers who matter.

“This one spoke to my Sales/marketing/business owner soul,” said Amy Volas. In this step-by-step guide, you’ll learn how to use content to keep your brand front and center in the minds of decision-makers who matter.

Business is always about relationships, about a human connection. This book will help you position yourself for success by staying top of mind.

How to Get a Meeting with Anyone: The Untapped Selling Power of Contact Marketing

The hard part just got easy!

You know how to sell — that’s your job, after all — but getting CEOs and other VIPs to call you back is the tricky part. So what if that impossible-to-reach person weren’t so impossible to reach after all?

Hall-of-fame-nominated marketer and Wall Street Journal cartoonist Stu Heinecke discovered that he could get past traditional gatekeepers and reach those elusive executives by thinking outside the box and using personalized approaches that he calls “contact campaigns.”

As John Stopper says, “I’m giving this to my sales team as it simply outlines what a focused professional needs to do. The approach of the emotional, fired up salesperson is not sustainable. The cool, analytical, professional is.”

Combo Prospecting

Unleash an incredible combination of old and new sales strategies.

How do you break through to impossible-to-reach executive buyers who are intent on blocking out the noise that confronts them every day?

Old-school prospecting tactics or new-school techniques alone won’t provide the answers.

But Combo Prospecting will… by showing how to combine time-tested sales processes with cutting-edge social media strategies and clever technology hacks.

The book reveals today’s new breed of Chief Executive Buyers, the channels they use, the value narrative you need, and the mix of methods that works.

High-Profit Prospecting: Powerful Strategies to Find the Best Leads and Drive Breakthrough Sales Results

Search engines and social media have certainly changed how prospecting pipelines for salespeople are built today, but the vitality of the pipeline itself has not. Even today, the key to success for every salesperson is his pipeline of prospects.

Top producers are still prospecting. All. The. Time.

However, buyers have evolved, therefore your prospecting needs to as well. In this sales book, Hunter shatters costly prospecting myths and eliminates confusion about what works today. Merging new strategies with proven practices that unfortunately many have given up (much to their demise), this is a must-have resource for salespeople in every industry.

For the modern salesperson, prospecting is still king. This book will help you take back control of your pipeline.

Smart Calling

Many argue that cold calling is dead, and in many ways it is. “Calling,” however, is alive and well, and salespeople NEED to know how to conduct a great phone call.

Sales trainer and coach, Art Sobczak, shares “dumb mistakes” most salespeople say in the first 10 seconds of their calls and offers new, better approaches to ensure you engage people on the phone vs. spilling info about you, your company, and your product all over them.

While other books on cold calling dispense long-perpetuated myths such “prospecting is a numbers game,” and salespeople need to “love rejection,” this book will empower readers to take action, call prospects, and get a yes every time.

Predictable Prospecting

If your organization’s success is driven by B2B sales, you need to be an expert prospector to successfully target, qualify, and close business opportunities. This game-changing guide provides the immediately implementable strategies you need to build a solid, sustainable pipeline ― whether you’re a sales or marketing executive, team leader, or sales representative.

It shows you how to target and track your ideal prospects, optimize contact acquisition, continually improve performance, and hit your revenue goals quickly, efficiently, and predictably.

Following this proven step-by-step framework, you can turn any B2B organization into a high-performance business development engine, diversify marketing lead generation channels, justify marketing ROI, sell into disruptive markets―and generate more revenue than ever.

Predictable Revenue

Known by many as “the bible” of SaaS sales development, this book provides a bevy of proven ideas for managing the top of the funnel.

Ross and Tyler unveil proven best practices created and used by Salesforce.

It’s a guide that remains relevant, by many standards, and is a must-read for anyone in demand generation and sales development.

New Sales. Simplified.: The Essential Handbook for Prospecting and New Business Development

No matter how much repeat business you get from loyal customers, the lifeblood of your business is a constant flow of new accounts. With refreshing honesty and some much needed humor, sales expert Mike Weinberg examines the critical mistakes made by most salespeople and executives and provides tips to help you achieve the opposite results.

You’ll learn how to: identify a strategic list of genuine prospects draft a compelling, customer-focused sales story perfect the proactive telephone call to get face to face with more prospects use email, voicemail, and social media to your advantage build rapport prepare for and structure a winning sales call stop presenting to and start dialoguing with buyers and make time in your calendar for business development activities.

Basically, it’s about overcoming and even preventing buyers’ anti-salesperson reflex by establishing trust. This easy to follow plan removes the mystery surrounding prospecting and have you ramping up for new business.


5 ways to motivate yourself to study a boring subject and/or complete a project

Update (January 2018): I have since written a number of other articles on strategies to help motivate yourself to study boring subjects. Check out this article on 10 ways to boost your motivation.
__________________________________________________________________________

How do I motivate myself to study? is one question I am constantly asked by students.

Having just completed my honours thesis (which turned out to be the hardest, most stressful and rewarding project I have ever done) I am happy to say that there are many ways to motivate yourself, but it may involve some pain, frustration and overcoming mental barriers to begin with (at least this was the case for me!).

Unfortunately, there are no quick and easy solutions to have you feeling totally inspired and energised about studying a subject or completing a project that may not be all that inspiring or interesting.

Here are some strategies you can apply to motivate yourself to get started with the work you need to do.

1. Make every thought serve you and move you forward

During the initial phase of my honours project I spent a lot of time in my head but it wasn’t time well spent. I would worry constantly about whether I’d be able to pull this project off, whether I’d get the response rate I needed, how I’d start writing it, etc.

In hindsight, this was a complete waste of my time and energy. It was only towards the end of my project that I tightened up my thinking. I heard Dr Sharon Melnick state that we have 60,000 conscious thoughts a day. Now for those of you who just thought What’s a conscious thought? that’s exactly what a conscious thought is. It’s a thought you’re aware of. Dr Sharon Melnick states that each of these thoughts are going to either be bringing you closer towards achieving your goals or further away from your goals.

After hearing this I decided to carefully watch what I was telling myself. I replaced negative thoughts, such as I can’t do this and My writing sucks!, with positive thought, such as I’m making progress and I’m doing the best I can and my writing will evolve and get better. This is a work in progress!

2. Visualise yourself taking action


Studies have found that visualisation makes a difference to professional athletes’ performance. so why don’t students practice doing it, too?

Visualise yourself taking the actions that need to be taken (e.g. see yourself typing up your work on your laptop, organising your files and being able to access the articles/materials you need with ease).

This simple strategy helps you to stay focus on what needs to be done. As Jesse Jackson said:

“If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it, I know I can achieve it”.


3. Small actions add up


My mum recently said to me:

“Every action is a cause which has an effect! If you put in the action, you’ll get the results!”

What great advice. Thanks mum!

Often we can get bogged down and feel overwhelmed/stressed by the enormity of the things we need to do (e.g. writing an 11,000 word thesis). I had to regularly remind myself that even if I wrote only one sentence each day, eventually all those sentences were going to add up to something really solid (my 11,000 word thesis).

But I was really committed to finishing my thesis on time and doing a good job. So in February I set myself a goal to write 500 words a day. This meant that if I stuck to my goal then my draft thesis would be written in 22 days. I said to myself:

It doesn’t matter how bad my writing is, just type up those 500 words!

This was an extremely empowering activity as it forced me to be in action. Every day.

Worry disappears in the face of action. So next time you start worrying about an assignment or exams, force yourself to do something (anything!), however small it might be.

4. Remind yourself that this won’t go on forever

I see a lot of students that are really overwhelmed and want to throw in the towel at this point in the year in regards to their studies. If you’re a student, remind yourself that this won’t go on forever, that everything changes and all you need to do is just keep taking action.

5. Get some supportive comrades and spend time with them

There’s something really comforting and energising about spending time with others who are going through or have gone through the same painful experience as you.

I found that it made a huge difference to be able to talk to other students who were doing their honours projects or had completed an honours project in previous years. A lot of these people gave me motivating pieces of advice such as You’re going to feel so good once you finish this project! We know it’s tough but just stick at it! as well as practical advice/tips (e.g. Make sure you don’t leave your referencing until the last minute!)

One of my lecturers suggested getting together with other honours students and having regular writing sessions each week (where you would all sit around at a table and write for an hour or so). While I never did this for my honours project, I have done this in previous years with friends when preparing for really difficult exams. Getting together with others can turn boring, stressful tasks into a fun, playful ones.

Update: Shortly after writing this post, I quickly forgot how painful writing my honours thesis was and I decided to do a PhD. That was even more challenging than honours but I got there in the end! I ended up joining a writer’s group to help me push through the pain barrier and get words down on paper. It made all the difference. You can read more about this here.

At my PhD graduation ceremony. I finished the beast! Phew!

Now it’s over to! What strategy will you test out to help you complete that boring project?
I recommend you start by picking just one strategy (only one!). Test it out and let me know how you go!


2021 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19

Due to the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, AP tests will now be held over three different sessions between May and June. Your test dates, and whether or not your tests will be online or on paper, will depend on your school.

One thing to keep in mind is that there are a few differences between the paper and digital versions of the exam . You can find a breakdown of all the differences on the College Board website.

To learn more about how all of this is going to work and get the latest information on test dates, AP online review, and what these changes means for you, be sure to check out our 2021 AP COVID-19 FAQ article.


External and Internal Motivation

Do you know what drives you to get good grades or put that extra bit of effort into your science project? What is it that makes us want to do well— both on tests and in our lives? Our reasons or desires to succeed are our motivations. There are two key types of motivations: intrinsic and extrinsic. The type of motivation that drives us actually affects how well we do.

Intrinsic motivation is the sort of desire that arises from within us. If you are an artist, you may be driven to paint because it brings you joy and peace. If you are a writer you may write to satisfy the need to create stories from the many ideas swimming around inside your head. These drives stem from an interest in the activity or job itself, without any external influence. Internal motivators often become defining qualities or characteristics of the person acting on them.

Extrinsic motivation compels you to act based on some outside force or outcome. The desire is not one that would arise naturally within you, but because of someone or some consequence. You might be motivated to do some extra credit to keep from failing your math class. Your boss might offer an incentive program to make you work a little harder. These external influences can have a great impact on why or how people do what they do, sometimes even things that seem out of character.

While it would seem intrinsic motivation would be better than extrinsic, they both have their advantages. Being internally motivated is most rewarding in that the activity or area of study naturally brings a person pleasure. The desire to perform an action requires less effort than an externally driven motivation. Being good at the activity is not necessarily a factor. Many people are motivated to sing karaoke despite their musical ability, for example. Ideally, people would be intrinsically motivated to do well in all aspects of their life. However, that is not the reality.

Extrinsic motivation is good for when someone has a job or an assignment to do that they do not really enjoy for its own sake. This can be beneficial in the workplace, school, and life in general. Good grades and the possibility of getting into a good college are good external motivators for a student. Receiving a promotion or a pay raise incentivizes employees to go above and beyond at work. Perhaps some of the most beneficial aspects of extrinsic motivators are that they encourage people to try new things. Someone that has never tried horseback riding may not know that it is something they might really enjoy. A teacher might encourage a talented young student to take classes they normally would not have, introducing them to a new area of interest.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations work in different ways but are equally important. It is really great to feel good about doing something you love and doing it well. However, no one can function in the world acting only on internal desires. Those external influences help people develop in all aspects of life.


The Power of Positive Internal Motivation

I was troubled by a conversation I had with my son this morning. My 10-year-old son came home from swim practice today and told me that he didn&rsquot want to swim again and he didn&rsquot want to go to another practice this season. When I asked why, he responded, &ldquoThe coach told us that for each mistake made by any 9 &ndash 10 year old swimmer in the swim meet tomorrow, we&rsquod all have to swim a 100 yard butterfly next week at practice.&rdquo He was sure there would be at least 10 mistakes made (e.g., taking a breath coming off the wall, etc.). If that came true, then the 9 &ndash 10 year olds will be made to swim 1000 yards (or 40 laps) of butterfly during the next practice.

I&rsquove done a number of sports psychology presentations. Part of my presentation focuses on positive versus negative motivation. In my opinion, the motivation discussed above is entirely negative and is punitive in nature. If you have ever swum, I think you&rsquoll agree 40 laps of butterfly is punishment for a 9- or 10-year-old child. And the worst part is that an individual swimmer has little to no control over all the behaviors which leads to the outcome. In other words, an individual may swim great races and not make a mistake, and still be punished for the mistakes of others.

This sort of negative motivation does nothing to instill a love of swimming. On the other hand, it does lead to burnout. It will cause a young athlete to turn his back on swimming altogether. This is nearly always the case when values clash.

Ideally, children enter into a sport to build competence, be with their friends, discover a passion for the sport, and have fun. When these values conflict with those of a more competitive environment where the emphasis is placed on beating an opponent, burnout and turnover are the natural consequences. Interestingly, the same holds true for the business world. Human beings respond well to positive motivation. We recoil and withdraw under the thumb of negative motivation.

In general, motivation refers to the start, the direction, the intensity and the persistence of behavior. Motivation means having the passion and the will to undertake some action. Motivation may be internal (i.e., intrinsic motivation) or external (i.e., extrinsic motivation).

Internal motivation is seen when a person undertakes an activity for its own sake without any sort of external reward, such as a hobby. Internal motivation can result from our feelings (e.g., happiness, anger, and sadness), thoughts (e.g., &ldquoI better finish the report before the deadline tonight.&rdquo), values and goals.

External motivation is evident when someone behaves a particular way for reasons external to, or outside of, the person, such as money or coercion. External motivation may come from parents, a boss, coworkers, friends, and siblings. It is most frequently thought of in terms of salary (i.e., money), promotions, grades, praise and punishment.

A second dimension of motivation has to do with the underlying intention of the motivation, as seen in Figure 1 below. Motivation occurs on a spectrum ranging from negative to positive.

Positive motivation is seen when people engage in an activity that has a virtuous end, such as volunteering, athletics, or art.

Negative motivation is evident when individuals act in a manner that is unethical or has a destructive end, such as judging others, physical altercations or vandalism. Negative motivation also occurs when individuals use destructive emotions, such as guilt and shame, to coerce others into acting.

Think of motivation as occurring on a scale that ranges from 1 to 10 with 1 being negative and 10 being positive.

If you are looking for the best results in your workforce, you will focus more of your time and energy on positive, internal motivation for yourself as well as others.

Positive internal motivation begins with a sense of purpose, knowing why you are doing what you are doing. Having a clear idea of your personal core values will help you immensely in answering the question &ldquoWhy am I doing this?&rdquo The amazing advantage of truly knowing your values is that you will experience a tremendous clarity and focus which you can use to make consistently wise choices and take decisive action. So the main reason for becoming aware of your top values is to improve performance in the areas that are most meaningful to you.

For instance, part of the work I do is motivated by my desire to give back to the community. Part of what I do is motivated by the core value of lifelong learning. Some possible core values include concepts such as creativity, open-mindedness, family, wisdom, courage, resiliency, and spirituality. Values change throughout your life, so it makes sense to do a quick values check up every 18 &ndash 24 months. For a list of the top 26 core values that exist throughout the world, regardless of culture, check out the values list at www.guidetoself.com.

Acting in accordance with your values is only one way to tap into the power of positive internal motivation. Another way to harness this power is to lay out your top five short-term and long-term goals and work towards them. Remember as you are in the process of achieving your goals that the enjoyment comes from the doing not the attaining. It is important to find contentment in the act of pursuing the goal while placing less weight on the actual fulfillment of the goal itself. We now know that once we attain a goal, we become accustomed to it. Once we become accustomed to it, we grow bored of it. Then it provides no additional pleasure or motivation. So focus on the pleasure inherent in the task itself.

In closing, there are a myriad of ways that you can inspire action using positive internal motivation. Much of the power of positive internal motivation comes from being aware of your core values then acting in accordance with them. Another major facet of positive internal motivation is the pursuit of meaningful goals. Look for opportunities where you can use positive, internal motivation. You will perform better, be more productive and feel happier.

Internal versus External and Negative versus Positive Motivations

Internal (Intrinsic)External (Extrinsic)
Negative One&rsquos own feelings of guilt, shame, embarrassment, or fear Perfectionism Destructive anger Debilitating stress Need for power Need to please others Worry Low self-esteem Person yelling at you Person shaming you Person threatening your job security or social status Punishment Withdrawal of love or friendship Aggressive show of strength from another, coercion Expectations of others
Positive Acting in accordance with your values Satisfaction Sensory pleasure Sense of competence Enjoyment Praise from self Self-respect Fulfillment of aspirations/dreams Sense of achievement Highly engaged in activity Constructive anger or stress Job satisfaction Goal setting Pursuing our natural tendency towards self-development Need for affiliation with others Perception that what you are doing is morally significant Money (only lasts a short period) Rewards Public recognition Empowerment from others Promotion Praise from others Respect from others Pleasant work environment Challenging work Some autonomy and input into decisions Appropriate responsibility Fringe benefits Friendships at work

About the Author

John Schinnerer, Ph.D. is President and Founder of Guide To Self, a company that focuses on coaching individuals and groups to their potential using the latest in psychology, psychoneuroimmunology and physiology. Most recently, Dr. John Schinnerer hosted over 200 episodes of Guide To Self Radio, a prime time radio show, in the San Francisco Bay Area. He graduated summa cum laude from U.C. Berkeley with a Ph.D. in psychology. Dr. Schinnerer has been a coach and psychologist for over 10 years.

Dr. Schinnerer is also President of Infinet Assessment, a psychological testing company to help firms select the best applicants. Infinet was founded in 1997 and has worked with companies such as UPS, CSE Insurance Group and Schreiber Foods.

Dr. Schinnerer&rsquos areas of expertise range from positive psychology, to emotional awareness, to moral development to sports psychology. He is a noted speaker and author on topics such as emotional intelligence, sports psychology, and executive leadership.


Sales Development and Prospecting

The Sales Development Playbook

This book is about not just growth, but high growth, explosive growth, the kind of growth that weather satellites can see from space.

The success of any business-to-business company is directly linked to how effectively they acquire new pipeline. To skyrocket growth, sales development is the answer.

This book encapsulates author Trish Bertuzzi’s three decades of practical, hands-on experience. It presents six elements for building new pipeline and accelerating revenue growth with inside sales.

Outbound Sales, No Fluff

This book is a step-by-step guide for the modern sales professional, giving you the framework, knowledge, and skills to fill a sales pipeline with highly qualified opportunities. It’s all practical advice — no cutesy stories, no rants, and no product pitches.

There are really only two ways to fill a funnel: inbound leads or outbound prospecting.

Biberson and Reisert focus exclusively on outbound prospecting, because it’s the half of the formula that an individual sales rep can control (that’s why so many sales job descriptions include the phrase “we’re looking for a hunter”)

Fanatical Prospecting

Fanatical Prospecting gives salespeople, sales leaders, entrepreneurs, and executives a practical, eye-opening guide that clearly explains the why and how behind the most important activity in sales and business development―prospecting.

The brutal fact is the number one reason for failure in sales is an empty pipe and the root cause of an empty pipeline is the failure to consistently prospect. By ignoring the muscle of prospecting, many otherwise competent salespeople and sales organizations consistently underperform.

Step by step, Jeb Blount outlines his innovative approach to prospecting that works for real people, in the real world, with real prospects.

Sales Development: Cracking the Code of Outbound Sales

Cory Bray and Hilmon Sorey

Sales development is one of the fastest growing careers in the United States. It is fast-paced, often on the leading edge of technology, and people in the role have the possibility of making a ton of money!

Unlike accounting, medicine, or law, most salespeople do not study their profession in college. Instead, they are tossed into the fray without much training, context, or support, and are left to sink or swim. This method proves neither efficient nor effective for the individual or the company.

Sales Development is written specifically for the job seeker or individual contributor who has aspirations of success in a sales development role, and beyond. This is your personal guidebook to the how, why, and what-to-do’s of the sales development profession. Written practically and tactically, this book shows you how to get the job, how to perform, and how to position yourself for advancement. Based upon ten years of teaching sales development representatives in the fastest-growing companies in the United States, this book will launch you on your path to becoming a rock star.

The New Handshake: Sales Meets Social Media

With more than 400 million active users on Facebook alone (50 percent of whom log in on any given day), today’s social media-oriented climate has redefined the way people communicate and interact. It’s also changed the way consumers operate in the marketplace. Unfortunately, as a whole, sales professionals have been slow to embrace the new technology.

In The New Handshake: Sales Meets Social Media, Curtis and Giamanco present Sales 2.0, a significant expansion from selling via the traditional face-to-face or telephone sales methods.

The book begins by examining the impact of the communication revolution on sales as well as the history of selling. It contains case examples that justify incorporating social media in business. The final chapters of the book describe each social network, explain how they work, and create a road map for a social media sales strategy―including how to empower salespeople to overcome their resistance to change.

Top of Mind

What do many successful businesses and leaders have in common? They’re the first names that come to mind when people think about their particular industries. How do you achieve this level of trust that influences people to think of you in the right way at the right time?

By developing habits and strategies that focus on engaging your audience, creating meaningful relationships, and delivering value consistently, day in and day out.

It’s the winning approach John Hall used to build Influence & Co. into one of “America’s Most Promising Companies,” according to Forbes. Here, he shows you how to use content to keep your brand front and center in the minds of decision makers who matter.

“This one spoke to my Sales/marketing/business owner soul,” said Amy Volas. In this step-by-step guide, you’ll learn how to use content to keep your brand front and center in the minds of decision-makers who matter.

Business is always about relationships, about a human connection. This book will help you position yourself for success by staying top of mind.

How to Get a Meeting with Anyone: The Untapped Selling Power of Contact Marketing

The hard part just got easy!

You know how to sell — that’s your job, after all — but getting CEOs and other VIPs to call you back is the tricky part. So what if that impossible-to-reach person weren’t so impossible to reach after all?

Hall-of-fame-nominated marketer and Wall Street Journal cartoonist Stu Heinecke discovered that he could get past traditional gatekeepers and reach those elusive executives by thinking outside the box and using personalized approaches that he calls “contact campaigns.”

As John Stopper says, “I’m giving this to my sales team as it simply outlines what a focused professional needs to do. The approach of the emotional, fired up salesperson is not sustainable. The cool, analytical, professional is.”

Combo Prospecting

Unleash an incredible combination of old and new sales strategies.

How do you break through to impossible-to-reach executive buyers who are intent on blocking out the noise that confronts them every day?

Old-school prospecting tactics or new-school techniques alone won’t provide the answers.

But Combo Prospecting will… by showing how to combine time-tested sales processes with cutting-edge social media strategies and clever technology hacks.

The book reveals today’s new breed of Chief Executive Buyers, the channels they use, the value narrative you need, and the mix of methods that works.

High-Profit Prospecting: Powerful Strategies to Find the Best Leads and Drive Breakthrough Sales Results

Search engines and social media have certainly changed how prospecting pipelines for salespeople are built today, but the vitality of the pipeline itself has not. Even today, the key to success for every salesperson is his pipeline of prospects.

Top producers are still prospecting. All. The. Time.

However, buyers have evolved, therefore your prospecting needs to as well. In this sales book, Hunter shatters costly prospecting myths and eliminates confusion about what works today. Merging new strategies with proven practices that unfortunately many have given up (much to their demise), this is a must-have resource for salespeople in every industry.

For the modern salesperson, prospecting is still king. This book will help you take back control of your pipeline.

Smart Calling

Many argue that cold calling is dead, and in many ways it is. “Calling,” however, is alive and well, and salespeople NEED to know how to conduct a great phone call.

Sales trainer and coach, Art Sobczak, shares “dumb mistakes” most salespeople say in the first 10 seconds of their calls and offers new, better approaches to ensure you engage people on the phone vs. spilling info about you, your company, and your product all over them.

While other books on cold calling dispense long-perpetuated myths such “prospecting is a numbers game,” and salespeople need to “love rejection,” this book will empower readers to take action, call prospects, and get a yes every time.

Predictable Prospecting

If your organization’s success is driven by B2B sales, you need to be an expert prospector to successfully target, qualify, and close business opportunities. This game-changing guide provides the immediately implementable strategies you need to build a solid, sustainable pipeline ― whether you’re a sales or marketing executive, team leader, or sales representative.

It shows you how to target and track your ideal prospects, optimize contact acquisition, continually improve performance, and hit your revenue goals quickly, efficiently, and predictably.

Following this proven step-by-step framework, you can turn any B2B organization into a high-performance business development engine, diversify marketing lead generation channels, justify marketing ROI, sell into disruptive markets―and generate more revenue than ever.

Predictable Revenue

Known by many as “the bible” of SaaS sales development, this book provides a bevy of proven ideas for managing the top of the funnel.

Ross and Tyler unveil proven best practices created and used by Salesforce.

It’s a guide that remains relevant, by many standards, and is a must-read for anyone in demand generation and sales development.

New Sales. Simplified.: The Essential Handbook for Prospecting and New Business Development

No matter how much repeat business you get from loyal customers, the lifeblood of your business is a constant flow of new accounts. With refreshing honesty and some much needed humor, sales expert Mike Weinberg examines the critical mistakes made by most salespeople and executives and provides tips to help you achieve the opposite results.

You’ll learn how to: identify a strategic list of genuine prospects draft a compelling, customer-focused sales story perfect the proactive telephone call to get face to face with more prospects use email, voicemail, and social media to your advantage build rapport prepare for and structure a winning sales call stop presenting to and start dialoguing with buyers and make time in your calendar for business development activities.

Basically, it’s about overcoming and even preventing buyers’ anti-salesperson reflex by establishing trust. This easy to follow plan removes the mystery surrounding prospecting and have you ramping up for new business.


The Power of Positive Internal Motivation

I was troubled by a conversation I had with my son this morning. My 10-year-old son came home from swim practice today and told me that he didn&rsquot want to swim again and he didn&rsquot want to go to another practice this season. When I asked why, he responded, &ldquoThe coach told us that for each mistake made by any 9 &ndash 10 year old swimmer in the swim meet tomorrow, we&rsquod all have to swim a 100 yard butterfly next week at practice.&rdquo He was sure there would be at least 10 mistakes made (e.g., taking a breath coming off the wall, etc.). If that came true, then the 9 &ndash 10 year olds will be made to swim 1000 yards (or 40 laps) of butterfly during the next practice.

I&rsquove done a number of sports psychology presentations. Part of my presentation focuses on positive versus negative motivation. In my opinion, the motivation discussed above is entirely negative and is punitive in nature. If you have ever swum, I think you&rsquoll agree 40 laps of butterfly is punishment for a 9- or 10-year-old child. And the worst part is that an individual swimmer has little to no control over all the behaviors which leads to the outcome. In other words, an individual may swim great races and not make a mistake, and still be punished for the mistakes of others.

This sort of negative motivation does nothing to instill a love of swimming. On the other hand, it does lead to burnout. It will cause a young athlete to turn his back on swimming altogether. This is nearly always the case when values clash.

Ideally, children enter into a sport to build competence, be with their friends, discover a passion for the sport, and have fun. When these values conflict with those of a more competitive environment where the emphasis is placed on beating an opponent, burnout and turnover are the natural consequences. Interestingly, the same holds true for the business world. Human beings respond well to positive motivation. We recoil and withdraw under the thumb of negative motivation.

In general, motivation refers to the start, the direction, the intensity and the persistence of behavior. Motivation means having the passion and the will to undertake some action. Motivation may be internal (i.e., intrinsic motivation) or external (i.e., extrinsic motivation).

Internal motivation is seen when a person undertakes an activity for its own sake without any sort of external reward, such as a hobby. Internal motivation can result from our feelings (e.g., happiness, anger, and sadness), thoughts (e.g., &ldquoI better finish the report before the deadline tonight.&rdquo), values and goals.

External motivation is evident when someone behaves a particular way for reasons external to, or outside of, the person, such as money or coercion. External motivation may come from parents, a boss, coworkers, friends, and siblings. It is most frequently thought of in terms of salary (i.e., money), promotions, grades, praise and punishment.

A second dimension of motivation has to do with the underlying intention of the motivation, as seen in Figure 1 below. Motivation occurs on a spectrum ranging from negative to positive.

Positive motivation is seen when people engage in an activity that has a virtuous end, such as volunteering, athletics, or art.

Negative motivation is evident when individuals act in a manner that is unethical or has a destructive end, such as judging others, physical altercations or vandalism. Negative motivation also occurs when individuals use destructive emotions, such as guilt and shame, to coerce others into acting.

Think of motivation as occurring on a scale that ranges from 1 to 10 with 1 being negative and 10 being positive.

If you are looking for the best results in your workforce, you will focus more of your time and energy on positive, internal motivation for yourself as well as others.

Positive internal motivation begins with a sense of purpose, knowing why you are doing what you are doing. Having a clear idea of your personal core values will help you immensely in answering the question &ldquoWhy am I doing this?&rdquo The amazing advantage of truly knowing your values is that you will experience a tremendous clarity and focus which you can use to make consistently wise choices and take decisive action. So the main reason for becoming aware of your top values is to improve performance in the areas that are most meaningful to you.

For instance, part of the work I do is motivated by my desire to give back to the community. Part of what I do is motivated by the core value of lifelong learning. Some possible core values include concepts such as creativity, open-mindedness, family, wisdom, courage, resiliency, and spirituality. Values change throughout your life, so it makes sense to do a quick values check up every 18 &ndash 24 months. For a list of the top 26 core values that exist throughout the world, regardless of culture, check out the values list at www.guidetoself.com.

Acting in accordance with your values is only one way to tap into the power of positive internal motivation. Another way to harness this power is to lay out your top five short-term and long-term goals and work towards them. Remember as you are in the process of achieving your goals that the enjoyment comes from the doing not the attaining. It is important to find contentment in the act of pursuing the goal while placing less weight on the actual fulfillment of the goal itself. We now know that once we attain a goal, we become accustomed to it. Once we become accustomed to it, we grow bored of it. Then it provides no additional pleasure or motivation. So focus on the pleasure inherent in the task itself.

In closing, there are a myriad of ways that you can inspire action using positive internal motivation. Much of the power of positive internal motivation comes from being aware of your core values then acting in accordance with them. Another major facet of positive internal motivation is the pursuit of meaningful goals. Look for opportunities where you can use positive, internal motivation. You will perform better, be more productive and feel happier.

Internal versus External and Negative versus Positive Motivations

Internal (Intrinsic)External (Extrinsic)
Negative One&rsquos own feelings of guilt, shame, embarrassment, or fear Perfectionism Destructive anger Debilitating stress Need for power Need to please others Worry Low self-esteem Person yelling at you Person shaming you Person threatening your job security or social status Punishment Withdrawal of love or friendship Aggressive show of strength from another, coercion Expectations of others
Positive Acting in accordance with your values Satisfaction Sensory pleasure Sense of competence Enjoyment Praise from self Self-respect Fulfillment of aspirations/dreams Sense of achievement Highly engaged in activity Constructive anger or stress Job satisfaction Goal setting Pursuing our natural tendency towards self-development Need for affiliation with others Perception that what you are doing is morally significant Money (only lasts a short period) Rewards Public recognition Empowerment from others Promotion Praise from others Respect from others Pleasant work environment Challenging work Some autonomy and input into decisions Appropriate responsibility Fringe benefits Friendships at work

About the Author

John Schinnerer, Ph.D. is President and Founder of Guide To Self, a company that focuses on coaching individuals and groups to their potential using the latest in psychology, psychoneuroimmunology and physiology. Most recently, Dr. John Schinnerer hosted over 200 episodes of Guide To Self Radio, a prime time radio show, in the San Francisco Bay Area. He graduated summa cum laude from U.C. Berkeley with a Ph.D. in psychology. Dr. Schinnerer has been a coach and psychologist for over 10 years.

Dr. Schinnerer is also President of Infinet Assessment, a psychological testing company to help firms select the best applicants. Infinet was founded in 1997 and has worked with companies such as UPS, CSE Insurance Group and Schreiber Foods.

Dr. Schinnerer&rsquos areas of expertise range from positive psychology, to emotional awareness, to moral development to sports psychology. He is a noted speaker and author on topics such as emotional intelligence, sports psychology, and executive leadership.


Reviews

Reviewed by Audrey Roberts, Assistant Professor, Bowling Green State University on 1/28/21

This text provides a relatively comprehensive overview of most foundational educational psychology theories. However, there are some important elements missing, as well as an over-emphasis on classroom management and assessment that veer away from. read more

Reviewed by Audrey Roberts, Assistant Professor, Bowling Green State University on 1/28/21

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

This text provides a relatively comprehensive overview of most foundational educational psychology theories. However, there are some important elements missing, as well as an over-emphasis on classroom management and assessment that veer away from the curriculum normally taught in an introductory educational psychology class for undergraduate students. I would argue that Chapters 1-6 and Chapter 9 would be the selections covered in an ed. psych class, with Chapters 7, 8, and 10-12 better suited for a more pedagogically focused or more assessment focused course. The two biggest concepts not covered in the text are information processing theory and memory, and any sort of mention of the LGBTQ+ community in regard to addressing diversity. I would've liked to see more attention paid to socioemotional learning theories as well.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

Content is accurate, error-free, and not significantly biased in any one section or area overall. Where appropriate, the foundational researchers are given credit, so that someone with knowledge in the field would concur.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

Content for many of the foundational educational psychology theories has not changed since the bulk of this material was released in 2009. So, in this way, the first 6 or so chapters could continue to be used, with some more recent articles to support it. However, almost all of the citations are now, in 2021, 15+ years old. This presents problems with some of the education policies they mention, and it also neglects the impact that technology has in the day to day classroom. Tech is mentioned, but almost 20 years have passed, so things are rightfully different, and classroom management is a bit different too. Many of the hyperlinks to appropriate websites do not work or lead you to a now incorrect page.

I do appreciate the writing style of these two authors. It is conversational, yet appropriate for an academic audience of young adult students. I appreciate the real-life classroom examples, and think a real effort has been made to make connections and the material more engaging for the reader. It's not bogged down with over-difficult vocabulary, but not too simple either.

The text is generally consistent in the way that material is presented. One issue I had was that there were often concepts brought up in the middle of one chapter that weren't really explained well until later chapters. For instance, discussing motivation at the same time operant conditioning is mentioned is confusing and motivation isn't broken down until chapter 6.

I think this text would be very easy to pull out certain sections, i.e., divisible. The glossary links in the PDF are useful as well.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

Overall, the organization isn't bad, however the text has a tendency to jump a bit over the place. Bold text is somewhat liberally used, which could be distracting for readers. I thought Chapter 9: Complex thinking should've been placed before it was in the text-it would've been a natural section after information processing theory/memory (which was not addressed).

Easy enough to navigate. Most of the hyperlinks do not work at the chapters' end. Very few images, but many tables, and they have all formatted well

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

There are no glaring grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive, but it does not address any information on the LGBTQ+ community, which is mentioned earlier.

This text has many strengths. It is free to use under a Creative Commons License, which is incredible for students who struggle with text costs. It is well laid out and would be easy to navigate. It covers most foundation educational psychology theories/material well. Last, it is an engaging read, and not filled with dry or overly academic language. This text also has weaknesses. Nearly all citations are 15+ years old. It does not properly address current technology use in the classroom, social development in adolescence and the importance of friends, information processing theory, memory, or the LGBTQ+ community. There is an overemphasis on classroom management, assessment, and even some research methodology that seems unnecessary. There is no test bank (understandable) or self-review questions to help students. Last, most of the hyperlinks in the pdf no longer work or go to the appropriate place described. Overall, as an instructor of an educational psychology course that has taught for years, I would feel comfortable using the first half of this text, supplemented with other articles. I think the fact that this textbook is free outweighs most of the negatives.

Reviewed by D F, Professor, Worcester State University on 6/30/20

Surface treatment of some topics. Out dated Bloom Model &amp references to learning styles missing discussion of memory passing reference to race (as part of culture), nothing about poverty, etc. Missing Social Cognitivism. Really missing links. read more

Reviewed by D F, Professor, Worcester State University on 6/30/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 2 see less

Surface treatment of some topics. Out dated Bloom Model & references to learning styles missing discussion of memory passing reference to race (as part of culture), nothing about poverty, etc. Missing Social Cognitivism. Really missing links to effective teaching

Content Accuracy rating: 2

Inaccuracies due to out of date information/theories Bias in the sense that White, western is normal diversity is other Right at beginning does not use person first language, instead referring to "disabled children"

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

Book needs major updating in terms of student diversity & students with disabilities. Needs to include the nature of memory, learning theories and give direct links to effective teaching

Tends to pack a great deal into brief sections. More examples and photos would certainly help.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

I prefer Ormrod's approach to Educational Psychology starting with research basics and looking at learning theories in depth and then diversity

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

Narrow, white, western treatment--not reflect US adult and student diversitIES

Good start. Needs updating

Reviewed by Elbert Davis, Assistant Professor, Marshall University on 2/5/20

This textbook aligns with another for-profit textbook that cost $220. The major concepts of educational psychology are present, including the major theories and theorists of education, along with assessments, student diversity, learners with. read more

Reviewed by Elbert Davis, Assistant Professor, Marshall University on 2/5/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This textbook aligns with another for-profit textbook that cost $220. The major concepts of educational psychology are present, including the major theories and theorists of education, along with assessments, student diversity, learners with special needs, and motivation. I was pleasantly surprised to see appendices concerning action research, licensure preparation, and critical evaluation of research articles. References were provided at the end of each chapter, as well as websites for additional information. At the end of each chapter are key terms, but no index or glossary was found.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

I saw nothing that was inaccurate or biased. Errors were not evident.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The major theories and theorists are covered. As most of these people have passed on, it is unlikely major changes will need to be made. It would be easy to add new theories or theorists if the issue arose. The only section that will need updating or overhauling would be the chapter on standardized testing. This seems to change every so often due to national, state, and local politics. It is possible that major overhauls may be needed when laws change, as with any textbook that discusses these laws. I do think these updates would be straightforward to implement.

The textbook is as accessible as similar books on educational psychology. Jargon is typically defined for the student in-text, along with examples where needed.

The framework is very consistent. Once a student reads the first chapter, he/she should be able to know what to expect in future chapters. In each chapter, headings are broken into subheadings, followed by a chapter summary, key terms, online resources, and references. Terminology is consistent throughout the textbook, and is on the level of college students in the education field should comprehend.

The textbook is organized into chapters with the major concepts. The chapters are organized into headings and subheadings. Each page is numbered. It should be easy to assign different chapters or even sections of a chapter, if necessary. Long blocks of text are interrupted by images, charts, and tables, along with subheadings. There are very few self-referential moments in the text, other than providing an example at the beginning of each chapter.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The organization of the textbook mirrors that of costly for-profit textbooks on the same subject. Major areas are divided into 12 chapters with relevant headings and subheadings in each chapter.

The textbook is free of navigational issues. Headings and subheadings are used throughout the book. In the table of contents, the headings and subheadings are clickable and linked to the appropriate section or subsection of the book, eliminating the need to endlessly scroll to find a certain page. The images and charts used are not distorted. If I had a minor complaint, it would have been to use page breaks to ensure tables were on the same page, rather than be split across two pages. Again, this is a very minor issue.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No grammatical errors were found.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

There is a section of the textbook that discusses cultural diversity and provides classroom examples based on different customs. Most of the examples outside of this section relate to the authors' personal experiences. The textbook is not insensitive or offensive in any way.

It is obvious that a love for educational psychology is the major motivation of authors Kelvin Seifert and Rosemary Sutton, as well as reviewer Sandra Deemer, and the editorial team (Marisa Drexel, Jackie Sharman, and Rachel Pugliese). Professor Seifert, in the preface, also explains his other motives for co-authoring the textbook (individualization of the content, the expense of the textbook, and eliminating the added features commercial textbook publishers use to increase the price).

Reviewed by Amanda Bozack, Associate Professor, Radford University on 1/6/20

This book covers the general areas explored in an introductory educational psychology course. The chapters are short but address the main concepts widely taught in this course and the reference list at the end of each chapter is comprehensive. read more

Reviewed by Amanda Bozack, Associate Professor, Radford University on 1/6/20

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This book covers the general areas explored in an introductory educational psychology course. The chapters are short but address the main concepts widely taught in this course and the reference list at the end of each chapter is comprehensive.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

On many main points, the text is accurate. However, the student diversity chapter plays into outdated thinking about learning styles and multiple intelligences. Because the chapters are short, the complexity of this discussion and the importance of combatting misconceptions are missed. Instructors who use this textbook should consider supplementing this section or omitting it. Additionally, the chapter on students with disabilities does not use the language of or discuss tiered levels of support--the basic building blocks for preservice teachers--and the chapter on classroom management is very traditional without any information about trauma-informed practices or restorative practices. The chapters on motivation, communication, and complex thinking are strong.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

Updates to the sections on learning styles and multiple intelligences, and the addition of tiered levels of support, trauma informed practices and restorative practices would increase the relevance of this textbook. Additionally, a section devoted to learning science and neuroscience would be useful given the many advances in recent years that help us understand learning from a neurological perspective.

This book is clearly and succinctly written. Terminology is bolded when appropriate and a list of key terms is provided after the chapter summary.

This book is consistent in format, terminology, and framework from one chapter to the next.

This text can easily be assigned in its entirety or for only specific chapters or topics. The information in one chapter is not dependent on information in another chapter. As such, instructors who use the whole text may find it useful to note where information from one chapter is aligned to information in another chapter.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The book and the chapters are organized logically, clearly, and follow the general arc of many educational psychology textbooks.

The interface for this text was appropriate. It is "low tech" and has a clickable table of contents.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

There were no grammatical errors evident in my review.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

This book did not address culture, race, or ethnicity specifically as part of the content. Educators looking to use a culturally responsive lens to teach educational psychology would probably want to supplement this text or use another text.

Reviewed by Adam Moore, Assistant Professor , Roger Williams University on 12/20/19

The text covers an overview of educational psychology. I wonder about some other areas within educational psychology that are not addressed such as universal design for learning (UDL) (Rose &amp Meyer), multiple intelligences (Gardner), backward. read more

Reviewed by Adam Moore, Assistant Professor , Roger Williams University on 12/20/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

The text covers an overview of educational psychology. I wonder about some other areas within educational psychology that are not addressed such as universal design for learning (UDL) (Rose & Meyer), multiple intelligences (Gardner), backward design (Wiggins & McTighe) and growth mindset (Dweck). While some of these theories are not without controversy, it might provide future educators and education professionals a more complete understanding of how one learns by including these topics. Even a critical analysis of these commonly known contemporary theories could help provide necessary background for future professionals.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

Some of the terminology used to discuss people with disabilities in the text are not in line with people first language and are not 100% accurate (i.e. use of term IEP ("P" means program, not plan). Additionally, authors might consider mentioning the movement to "end the r word" instead of using the term "retarded". It is also important that professionals are explicitly told the problem with calling students "slow learners" (from p. 96). These ideas tend to support ableist language and ideologies that are too often present in educational settings.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

This text will support the many education psychology courses offered at most institutions. The topics presented are almost universally taught in educational psychology courses.

The writing is clear and coherent.

The text is consistent in presentation, how terminology is presented, and how information is conveyed.

Many subheadings and bold-face print allow the reader to find information in manageable chunks.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The organization of the text is similar to other educational psychology texts. Clear and logical presentation of information.

The text is easy to read, provides some charts and photos, and is clear in presentation.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No grammatical errors that I found in my reading of this text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

There is not a substantial focus on historically minoritized people in this text. While some of the chapters mention race/ethnicity, there is not a consistent focus on people who have minoritized in educational settings (LGBTQ community, racially minoritized people, gender, people from the disability community, etc) nor is there a focus on equity.

Reviewed by Cassie Bergstrom, Assistant Professor, University of Northern Colorado on 12/14/19

The text covers a wide variety of topics typical to intro to educational psychology texts. The main topics of development, learning, student differences, motivation, classroom environment, and assessment are all covered in what I thought was. read more

Reviewed by Cassie Bergstrom, Assistant Professor, University of Northern Colorado on 12/14/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

The text covers a wide variety of topics typical to intro to educational psychology texts. The main topics of development, learning, student differences, motivation, classroom environment, and assessment are all covered in what I thought was appropriate depth. There were a few topics that I think could be more strongly emphasized, particularly related to how the brain works in the context of learning, information processing theory, and some additional cognitive topics. But I could also see these as topics that teachers could supplement. I did not see an index, but the table of contents is detailed and linked to the subtopics in the chapters. Each chapter has a list of “key terms” at the end (although they are not linked back to the area in the chapter). No overall index or glossary is present.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

I did not find any content that was inaccurate. There are many citations throughout the text that I was familiar with in the context of the topics being discussed. References are listed by chapter, so the content is supported by outside sources that students can access. I didn’t detect any biased coverage, most of the commentary speaks to how the topics are currently seen in the field of educational psychology.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Overall, I do think the text is written broadly enough to be relevant for a number of years. Content in a few areas could be updated, as it is now at least 10 years old. There could definitely be more information on a few topics, for example the role of the brain in learning and memory, growth mindset, grit, autism spectrum, self-regulated learning, etc. These are topics that the field of ed psych has expanded on within the last decade. Other topics could be better positioned to reflect the general thinking in the field (ex. the content on Gardner's multiple intelligences could include more than one sentence of criticism…). I do think the text could be updated fairly easily, and would recommend the authors consider doing so within the next few years.

I really enjoyed the writing style of this text. The authors wrote in a clear, but concise manner. They did a nice job blending their writing styles (as opposed to some texts that feel distinctly written by more than one person). Additionally, the terminology and topics are explained at a level that someone without a background in psychology could understand. There is lots of context for the new ideas and terminology.

The internal consistency of this text is strong. Each chapter has the same organization, beginning with a vignette/story and followed with a number of subsections on different topics. The terminology and framework seem to be consistent across all chapters. Additionally, the headings provided follow the same pattern in chapters, also aiding consistency.

There are many headings and subheadings in this text, dividing main ideas into smaller chunks that could be assigned. The text is not overly self-referential—but honestly I think a bit more reference would be helpful at some points (for example connecting the info on gifted learners with special needs, mentioning the focus on multicultural and anti-bias education within the chapter on diversity). I do think the chapters could be assigned in a variety of orders, and the many headings improve the modularity of this text.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Yes, I think the topics presented in the chapters of the text flow logically, both across and within chapters. Providing the basis for learning up front (in Chapter 2) is a strength, as is following it with the information on development. Within each chapter, the topics logically follow one another, but not to the extent that assigning one chunk would disrupt the flow.

Overall, I think the PDF of this text looks really good. The interface feels more streamlined than many published texts, as there are no boxes, unnecessary graphics, or other distractions. The addition of a few more hyperlinks within the text (to help navigate) would be beneficial. Since the text is a bit dated, there were a few links at the end of chapters that didn’t work for me—which might confuse readers. I do wish the text was available in a format other than just a PDF. I have found it beneficial to provide the OER texts directly within the LMS, as opposed to linking out to another source. With the interface of a PDF, I believe this would be more difficult (I’m less likely to cut and paste PDF content, because of the formatting issues and needing to clean up the copy).

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I found no grammatical errors in my reading of this text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I didn’t detect any insensitivity or offensive handling of cultural issues within this text. The focus was often not on cultural diversity, and I think this could be improved. There is a full chapter on student diversity, but the section on culture is almost entirely devoted to language (while important, doesn’t encompass everything about culture). I did enjoy that the vignettes at the beginning of the chapters were authentic to the authors, but I think this could be an area that would benefit from including more diversity of representation (particularly the vignette at the beginning of Chapter 4…I’m not sure it’s the best way to speak to diversity).

I think this is a strong basic educational psychology text. The writing is clear and easy to read. If I was using this text, I would supplement it with a few topics that are either a bit dated or not covered in the text. But overall, I think it is a strong option for an intro to ed psych OER.

Reviewed by Jose Martinez Molinero, Assistant Professor of Secondary Education, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 11/11/19

In terms of covering all areas, this text provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of teaching. It is organized effectively—it takes the readers through a journey of the joys, challenges, nuances, and realities associated with the. read more

Reviewed by Jose Martinez Molinero, Assistant Professor of Secondary Education, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 11/11/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

In terms of covering all areas, this text provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of teaching. It is organized effectively—it takes the readers through a journey of the joys, challenges, nuances, and realities associated with the teaching profession. The additional materials at the end of the text (Preparing for licensure, Deciding for your self about the research, and Reflective practitioner) provide resources that students in education preparation programs can refer back to as they progress in their respective programs. Although, the text could benefit from presenting other major licensure exam bodies other than Praxis. The text does not include an index or glossary in the traditional sense, however, at the end of each chapter key terms and a works cited is provided.3

Content Accuracy rating: 5

From my perspective, the content of this text is accurate, error-free, and is unbiased. Furthermore, the authors invite readers to apply a critical lens on the content and research by providing open-ended questions regarding each chapter in the ‘Deciding for Yourself About the Research’ section in the additional materials section in the end.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The text is written in broad terms that allow longevity in its relevance. This is mostly achieved by presenting various/multiple theories and approaches when explaining how concepts may be applied in the classroom. Also, the authors recognize and address the differences in the classroom diversity and demographics within the text—although some of the content may not apply to one’s specific situation, other areas of the text will apply.

The text is accessible to students entering a teacher education program. As I reflect on the students I have had, I can envision my students reading this book and having ‘something to say’ about the content based on their own experiences as students and in their field experiences. What I appreciate the most is the teacher ‘scenarios’ that are presented in the beginning of each chapter and how authentic/realistic they are—this sets the tone for the chapter and captures the reader’s attention—answers the ‘why’ the chapter is important.

The text is consistent in its terminology and framework. One example of this, is once a concept(s) presented within the text, a visual chart or graph of the same information is provided for additional clarity. Moreover, I can expect a list of key terms and works cited at the end of every chapter.

The modularity of the text makes chapters easy to read and therefore makes the content accessible. Although there are some key terms I would like to see bolded versus italicized, the bullet points and section headers will make it easy for me to section off, focus on, or assign certain elements of the chapter to my students.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

The topics are presented in a logical, clear fashion. Although, I would say this is true for teacher educators—some of the students in our programs may be completing their field experiences or student teaching in school districts that emphasize (or even romanticize) standardized testing—and this dominates their concerns and questions. Therefore, I would ask those considering the text to reflect on to what extent or where in the curriculum an honest discussion about the value that is (mis)placed on standardized testing should take place.

The navigation is appropriate and accessible from the Table of Contents. It would be helpful to include a navigation link at the end of chapter that takes the reader back to the Table of Contents instead of having to manually scroll back up. The use of pictures and charts are appropriate and helpful for the readers however, they appear as simple or basic—not as vivid as in a traditional textbook. Typically, this is not an issue—however, the current generation of students’ focus is on ‘clout’ and aesthetics in determining the value of something.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

From my reading of various chapters, I did not find any evident grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I appreciate how inclusive and authentic this text was in discussing the different types of learners. For example, I have use multiple multi-cultural education textbooks in the past, and not one has mentioned the phenomenon of ‘language loss’ that ELLs experience and its implications in the classroom.

Reviewed by Mistie Potts, Assistant Professor, Manchester University on 10/28/19

While the text offers a clear table of contents, no evidence of an index was observed. The reader can clearly locate topics that are relevant to teaching by using the table of contents, however finding specific theorists may be more challenging. read more

Reviewed by Mistie Potts, Assistant Professor, Manchester University on 10/28/19

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

While the text offers a clear table of contents, no evidence of an index was observed. The reader can clearly locate topics that are relevant to teaching by using the table of contents, however finding specific theorists may be more challenging without an index of terms/names. The text appears to cover all relevant topics necessary to preservice or in-service teachers.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The content covered in this text appears to be accurate and aligns with recent peer-reviewed research in the field of educational psychology. The text clearly cites relevant research to support concepts covered. Each section concludes with references that direct the reader to recent research in the field. This research-based approach appears to be unbiased and consistent with commonly accepted views in the field of educational psychology.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The content of this textbook compliments the needs of today’s teachers. In this context, the content is relevant and applicable in a way that will allow it to remain relevant for years to come while providing a realistic way for teachers to utilize the theories and research findings. As research continues to unfold in the field of educational psychology, necessary updates may include small adjustments and manageable changes.

Written with a focus on practitioners, the text is clear and understandable. In this way, the text allows access to important topics in the field of educational psychology without bogging down the reader with complicated prose/jargon. The text calls upon a mild level of background knowledge (e.g., Pavlov and classical conditioning) yet provides contextual clues to include readers lacking this background. In my experiences, most undergraduate teacher preparation students come to the classroom with basic understandings of these topics. The clarity of the text is sufficient for this level of learners.

Terms and conceptual frameworks appear consistent throughout the breadth of the text. Tables with terms common to specific theories/concepts are provided to add clarity throughout the text. The terminology is highlighted with bold print making them easy to identify for the reader. No conflicting terminology or definitions were found during this review of the text.

The layout of the text provides clear sections identified with headers and subheadings. These make the text easy to divide and study in specific sections/topics. It could easily be read in chunks rather than front-to-back without disrupting comprehension of the text.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Similar to other textbooks I have explored in the field of educational psychology, the topics in the text are presented in a logical fashion that lays the groundwork for how individuals learn, educational diversity, development, and commences with topics surrounding the assessment of learning. The flow of text and tables is consistent and clear throughout the text. Distracting content is minimized by excluding sidebars and unnecessary graphics. The organization of the text fosters cognitive processing of the information with little distraction from supplemental information. A clear format for the licensure preparation section allows readers to access important test preparation information as needed. These take the form of sample questions from Praxis II exams, which will assist the reader in practice testing to prepare for the licensure exams.

The text is free from distracting content such as sidebars, photographs, or text boxes that may detract from comprehension of the material. Links from the table of contents direct the reader to specific sections in the text. The tables provide clear explanations of terms and theories. No displays or distortions of the images/charts/text were noticed in review of this text.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

In review of this text, no grammatical errors were observed.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

This text embraces multicultural education and is free from offensive or insensitive material. The omission of photographs alleviates the need to include a diverse array of examples to represent all cultures. The text discusses research relevant to diverse groups of learners and provides culturally relevant concepts to support multicultural education in schools. The examples provided throughout the text are inclusive of race, ethnicities and students from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. Specifically, this text focuses on subject matter that will support educators as they provide educational experiences for all types of learners.

Reviewed by Nautu Leilani, Asst. Prof. of Education/Exec. Dir. of K12 Programs, Southern Utah University on 6/19/18

This resource is very comprehensive. It actually covers the content for several of our courses at our institution (introduction to teaching, principles of learning and teaching, educational psychology, classroom management, and instructional. read more

Reviewed by Nautu Leilani, Asst. Prof. of Education/Exec. Dir. of K12 Programs, Southern Utah University on 6/19/18

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

<p> This resource is very comprehensive. It actually covers the content for several of our courses at our institution (introduction to teaching, principles of learning and teaching, educational psychology, classroom management, and instructional planning/assessment). With a resource like this and being so comprehensive we could definitely remove the barrier of cost for our students.</p>

Content Accuracy rating: 5

<p> The content in this resource is accurate. I was not able to find any errors and did not find biases. We already have professors in our department using this resource and I have not heard from them that there has been any issues in these areas either.</p>

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

<p> The content is up to date and will not become obsolete. Since the book is so comprehensive I don&#39t believe the authors could go in depth on many of the topics. They discuss the topics very well. The only suggestion I would have is that they add to each section actual strategies to help teachers with applicability.</p>

<p> The text is written so that a student new to the field could understand it - the authors take time to explain terminology that is specific to the field.</p>

<p> I did not find any inconsistencies in terminology or the framework provided. I believe that in using this text in our classes, we will be more equipped to add further comment on this section.</p>

<p> One of the biggest concerns we have now in our College is overwhelming our students with too much reading. The problem when we do this is that the students choose to do none of it. The smaller chunks that the author provided makes this a resource that helps us address this concern. We could definitely use this resource as an introduction to all these topics and then jump off from there. Since the chunks of reading are small the students will likely read it and get the foundation we need them to have to go deeper.</p>

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

<p> We just did a scope and sequence of our courses in Teacher Education and when I compare the flow of this resource to our outcomes from our scope and sequence, I found that the flow matched what we thought should be the flow of our courses in general.</p>

<p> I would have liked to see more graphics and visuals and flowcharts to attract the attention of the reader. I think also the very narrow margins makes it feel like there is too much to read on a page. At the expense of having more pages to read for each chunk I would probably make the margins at least a little bigger.</p>

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

<p> I didn&#39t necessarily read for grammatical errors - because that would be a read of it just for that - but as I read each part I didn&#39t find any grammar errors that would prevent comprehension.</p>

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

<p> I would say that the cultural relevance/sensitivity of this book is a good surface attempt. I would have liked the authors to go deeper in other areas of culturally responsive teaching like they did with the english language learner sections.</p>

<p> Thank you to the authors for helping us compile such a wonderful resource, and for being willing to share it with us inexpensively. They should be commended. This was a lot of work on their part - and then to be willing to share it liberally is noteworthy. My suggestions were meant to only add to the wonderful work they have done. Thank you again.</p>

Reviewed by Stephen Vassallo, Associate Professor, American University on 2/1/18

The book covers most of what one might expect in an conventional educational psychology text for teacher education. However, I am surprised that self-regulated learning is not included in the book. This notion has been an important area of study. read more

Reviewed by Stephen Vassallo, Associate Professor, American University on 2/1/18

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

The book covers most of what one might expect in an conventional educational psychology text for teacher education. However, I am surprised that self-regulated learning is not included in the book. This notion has been an important area of study for educational psychologists for about 4 decades now. Self-regulated learning is often discussed in the section on "higher order thinking." There are also other ideas such as growth mindset and grit that are more contemporary than self-regulated learning. I would like to see these concepts discussed in an educational psychology text. I would also like to see some text on embodied cognition, which is a perspective of memory that is contrasted with the information processing perspective, which also happens to not be discussed. Although the information processing theory is philosophically and conceptually limited, it can be helpful for thinking about teaching. There are also sociocultural theories, beyond Vygotsky, that can be helpful for getting a broad and diverse representation of the field.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Educational psychology is never unbiased. The one major error in this book is that this bias is not acknowledged. However, I am hesitant to call that an error of the authors and the text an error of the field. I did not find any errors in representing the elements of the field that are typically taught to teachers. However, what is typically taught to teachers relating to educational psychology misses a great deal of complexities--including those biases that underpin theories, perspectives, methods, ways of reasoning, and models. The authors are accurate in explaining the theories and concepts that are taught in an educational psychology text.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

The text is written in a way that can support adding contemporary ideas. For example, grit and growth mindset are getting a good deal of attention among educational psychologists, psychologists, administrators, and policy makers. These notions can easily be integrated in the chapter on motivation. These notions are also problematic. I would suggest integrating not just explanations of these ideas but their philosophical and ideological complexities. As another example, researchers have recently debunked the learning styles framework. I think it is worth talking about "learning styles" but offer different perspectives related to this way of reading and naming students. I am not suggesting that authors shape their texts in response to every educational fad that emerges, but I think authors should try to capture as best they could the critical nuances with the ideas they present to teachers. One of the major shortcomings of this book is the contemporary relevance but I rated this high because the structure of the book lends itself well to integrating new content.

The text is clear and lucid. All terminology is explained well.

The book is consistent. And although consistency is generally a positive quality of a book, I would like to see competing and contradictory text. For example, developmental frameworks can be useful for teaching but they can also be implicated in a number of problematic student evaluations and educational interventions. It is useful and valuable to capture the inconsistencies with thinking about learning, development, and teaching. With that said, the authors are consistent within their frame of reference. They present educational psychology ideas that are intended to improve teaching and learning.

The authors do a fine job at partitioning the text and labeling sections with appropriate headings. Although topics and concepts across chapters are related, each chapter can stand on its own and does not have to be assigned in chronological order. The text is not overly self-referential. In fact, I argue that it lacks self-reference. There are many ideas that need to be considered together and hyperlinks can help students make those connections. For example, the chapter on complex thinking should be considered in the context of development. I would like to see links between chapters.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

This book conforms to the general organization of educational psychology texts. Early in the book the authors introduce readers to theories of learning and then move into development. Following are two chapters on learner differences. One is related to cognitive differences such as learning styles and intelligence. The other is related to special learning needs. The middle chapters center on big topic, including classroom management, motivation, and complex thinking. Like many other books, the last chapters are dedicated to application by focusing explicitly on pedagogy and assessment. Although chapters are dedicated to pedagogy toward the end of the book, the authors integrate suggestions throughout for applying ideas to the classroom. The organization and flow makes sense. I might consider, however, having the "complex thinking" chapter follow learning and development. The book is organized and written in such a way to support assignment chapters out of the listed order. I think that is more important than having the book chapters conform to how I might organize topic. Instructors will likely have different ideas about topic organization and this book allows for that possibility.

The images, charts, and tables are clear. There was nothing that distracted me as a reader. I did experience any problems with navigation. One very minor interface issue was that the tables were a little drab. Reviewing the tables felt like I was reviewing a quickly constructed table on a Word file. Perhaps shading title boxes or different rows or columns, for example, might make for targeted attention and aesthetic pleasure.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I did not find any grammatical errors in this book.

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

I do not believe the authors say anything explicitly offensive or insensitive. There are some examples and discussion of cultural groups and variation. Some educational psychology textbooks have a chapter dedicated to cultural differences in learning and development. This book does not have such a chapter, but rather has evidence of cultural relevance sprinkled modestly throughout. The issue of culture has not quite been handled well in general within educational psychology texts. This limitation is characteristic of the field in general and not specific to the text.

I would like to see some hyperlinks in the text. There are many ideas that are related to each other but are in different chapters. If hyperlinks are not possible to refer students to other chapters, perhaps not just refer students to outside sources at the end of the chapter, but also point them to different chapters within the book. This textbook is a solid educational psychology book. Aside from missing discussion of some contemporary ideas, concepts, and critical perspectives, the authors provide a good overview of the field. I recommend using this book for a course but supplementing some of the material. I suggest certainly bringing in readings on grit, growth mindset, self-regulated learning, and embodied cognition. I also suggest bringing in text about critical educational psychology, which can support the reflections on the ways ideology, history, culture, and politics operate in and through educational psychology.

Reviewed by Cecelia Monto, Dean, Education and Humanities, and Adjunct Instructor in Education, Chemeketa Community College on 4/11/17

This book provides an overall comprehensive look at educational psychology, but I think it could be updated. If I use this text, I would supplement this text with current sources on: • Educational neuroscience • Poverty and the brain (use Eric. read more

Reviewed by Cecelia Monto, Dean, Education and Humanities, and Adjunct Instructor in Education, Chemeketa Community College on 4/11/17

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

This book provides an overall comprehensive look at educational psychology, but I think it could be updated. If I use this text, I would supplement this text with current sources on: • Educational neuroscience • Poverty and the brain (use Eric Jensen and other sources) • The need for greater diversity in the teaching force (use Linda Darling-Hammond and others) • Bilingualism in the U.S. • The concept of grit (use Duckworth), and for U.S. use I would fold in current legislation and historical pieces. • Communication during conflict Each chapter begins with an inviting story on the opening pages, and then moves on to the core topic. The stories seem a little simplistic, but they do provide a welcoming beginning to each chapter. Some of the openers (such as journals kept by author Kelvin Seifert) would not relate well to U.S. students. I would have liked a “social justice perspective” woven into the book. This could be related to students as they imagine their future teaching role, and the contribution they will make to kids, and to greater society. In the U.S., education has a solid link to democracy, and the historical foundation is powerful to students. Arne Duncans’ quote could be used to lead this idea. ““I believe that education is the civil rights issue of our generation. And if you care about promoting opportunity and reducing inequality, the classroom is the place to start. Great teaching is about so much more than education it is a daily fight for social justice.” There are no photos or eye-catching items in the text. The authors comment that this is for cost reduction purposes, however, since the text is offered digitally it could add a needed dimension to the text. Chapters 1, 2 and 3 The first chapter would be a good place to lay the ground work for education as a vehicle for social justice. The “trends in teaching” paragraphs should be updated. I actually thought the first chapter was a little short. There was good coverage of the learning process, although I would add information about learning and the brain. and the major learning theories (behaviorism, Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner), as related to educational psychology and the implications to teaching. The Student development chapter was appropriate for a course on educational psychology, but may present too much information for more introductory courses. I would have liked a more straight forward piece written about stages of development, with a clear outline of physical, cognitive, social and character development, and I would have included a clear graph of Piaget’s model for cognitive development with this section. They do cover this, but the writing is less clear for me in this section. Same on Maslow- I would have liked a simpler hierarchy of needs chart. Erik Erkison’s psychosocial development section is good. The outline for Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, and linkage to ethical thinking and justice was good, with Gilligan’s framework included. For US use, I would add in examples from US schools and even court cases to exemplify points. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 The student diversity section was not comprehensive. The content on learning styles, and multiple intelligences was fine. There was some information on Talented and Gifted, but it was not linked to learning disabilities. I would have folded in Chapter 5 into Chapter 4, instead of making it a separate chapter on Students with Special Educational Needs. The separate chapter on Students with Special Educational Needs offered pretty good detail for an overview class. The ADHD section was good. I would recommend more content on dyslexia. The segment addressing behavioral issues could be linked to societal and SES issues. I appreciated the inclusion of hearing loss and vision impairment, because I have not seen that in many texts. I would have introduced the concept of differentiated learning in this section, and then revisited it in the later section. The Gender roles section of chapter 4 is incomplete and dated, more information is needed on different sexual orientations. I would have liked to see deeper content related to the bilingual and second language learners. The initial chapter mentions language diversity, but too briefly. There is no mention of the need of greater diversity in the teaching force itself. Authors could use research from Linda Darling-Hammond to write about this topic. In Chapter 4, the Student Diversity section., there is discussion of bilingualism, but seemed too clinical. I would have liked discussion of why language learners need models ….. and more coverage of English language learners in relation to motivation would have been helpful. The part on cultural identity development was good. This could be addressed by adding journal articles on this topic into supplementary coursework. Content related to low SES and the role poverty plays in the psychological profile of students is missing. The Student Motivation chapter would be appealing to students. I think this could be inserted into any time frame of the class. Perhaps this information would have been better if directly linked to the learning theory section, ie Skinner’s behaviorism, or to the Student Motivation Chapter. I would have liked to see more about making learning relevant and placed in the real world context in this chapter. Motivation linked to self-efficacy was good, but the self-determination section seemed a little esoteric and I don’t think would resonate with U.S. students. This might be a good chapter to include a piece about “grit” (by Duckworth) and learning. Chapter 7 and 8 I would re-title this section, to use words such a Creating a Positive and Productive Learning Environment, and fold in the student motivation section and the classroom communication section. This chapter could be shorter, and written in a way that made inquiry with the reader to make it more relevant. That would leave more room to fold in the other chapters. The segment on focusing on future solutions rather than past mistakes is excellent. I would have liked to see the use of the word pedagogy in this section. I would remove the section on “functions of talk”, and reduce down the section on nonverbal communication. That would leave more room for additional information about communication and conflict and also cross cultural communication, which are areas where students need help. I would also shorten the section on classroom communication, and build in more inquiry for student readers in this section. Chapter 9, 10, 11 and 12 Facilitation Complex Thinking and Planning instruction and Assessment could be combined. I would like to see the concepts of diagnostic, formative and summative assessment included, and then linked to current examples. This would align with the concepts of student-centered and teacher-centered learning, with discussion on the methodology such as inquiry based learning, cooperative/collaborative learning. Setting learning goals and “backward design” could be added to the curriculum section. The section outlining Bloom’s Taxonomy with examples and revisions is excellent. I am glad you included Marzano. I would revisit the concept of differentiated instruction with the information presented on response to intervention. I would move the multicultural education and anti-bias education section out of this chapter, and in to the earlier section on student diversity. Information on alternative approaches to learning, like online learning and service learning is good. The assessment section was thoughtfully written, and would challenge students to consider how they are making assessment decisions. Getting students to consider the validity and reliability of assessment is critical, and revisiting the concept of bias as related to assessment is important. I would reduce the content related to teacher made assessments, and perhaps have the students evaluate existing assessments

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Overall, information was accurate. Some sections that are dated presented slightly inaccurate information. For example, the authors give data about the Hispanic population in the U.S. from 2005, which was 14%. This should be adjusted to 18%, and notice of the growth of this segment should be noted to represent the true picture. The U.S. National Center for Educational Statistics notes about 25% of students in public school are Hispanic (and even that information is 3 years old). The licensing chapter is also dated and therefore inaccurate. The sections on “deciding for yourself”, which explained the research procedures used and gave more content information, were a great vehicle to encourage students to consider the complexities of research, and demonstrate their ability to evaluate and critically consider complicated topics, thus improving the accuracy of their own thinking.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

The authors bring a unique perspective to educational psychology because they are from outside the U.S. I appreciate their candor in acknowledging that most major textbooks in this area cover similar content, but are quite expensive when printed and published via conventional manner. However, there are some content issues that jeopardize the relevance and longevity of the book. I would like to see the concept of educational neuroscience addressed in the early sections on cognitive development. The Student Development Chapter 3 would need to be re-worked for greater relevance for U.S. use. I would have liked to see development issues tied to social factors. The authors did some of this when they discussed health issues, but for the most part social links are missing. To improve relevance, I would like to see information on how poverty affects the brain and learning. I would also like to see a section devoted to the importance of having a diverse teaching workforce. The section on technology use in schools is quite dated and unrealistic. Discussion of single-computer classrooms is outdated. Although they must exist, I have never observed such a classroom in at least 10 years. There needs to be more emphasis on using technology in a myriad of ways, from harnessing the power of smart phones, tablets, and internet resource gathering was not fully covered. Chapter 10 references online learning, but it could have been made more relevant by explaining this book as an example. The final section on licensing requirements was outdated. Our state no longer uses PRAXIS. Perhaps because licensing is done on a state-by-state basis, this section should encourage instructors to use their own state resources in this area. Other topics that would improve relevance would be the topic “grit”, and the development of communication skills that address conflict. The citations seem dated, not much past 2006. The publication date is 2011. Relevant current publications and issues should be brought in.

Due to the consistent writing style and predictable format, the book was clear and easy to follow. Additional charts or graphs could reinforce points made in the book, and thus might improve clarity for visual learners. Chapter summaries clearly reinforce main points for students to grasp. Lists of key points and terminology also added clarity, such as the listing at the end of Chapter 3.

Overall consistency was good. Writing style was straightforward and standardized throughout the text, which made reading easier. The links to additional articles were consistently presented, and therefore would be easy to reference.

The text is designed in a modular framework, and authors note that chapters can be taught in any order. Some of the repetition crosses over modules, which helps with clarity.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

The text flowed in a logical manner, and as a reader I would recommend teaching from it from the structure already presented. In terms of organization, I would move the Action Research table to a different section, not right up front. The first three chapters fit together nicely as a unit. In this early section, I would also like to see more on changes in the brain that occur from learning new information. Chapters 4 and 5 meshed well. As I already noted, I suggest linking the learning section with the motivation section .I would organize the material in Chapter 6 to fold into the later Chapters 7 or 8. The final chapters regarding instructional planning, assessment and facilitation of complex thinking could be reorganized. Each chapter finished with a summary, which could help students organize their thinking. I would change the layout of the summary into bullet points, to make it more readable. Key vocabulary was also highlighted, so that students could focus on the language specifics of the education field.

The online resources, with examples of assignments, are beneficial. Simple assignments, such as creating a chart summarizing human development, would be easy for students to follow and reinforce their reading. There was a large array of resources and articles, which would allow instructors to supplement and make the chapters more relevant. I would like to see more reflection pieces, like journals on certain topics. The autobiography assignments were too vague. The assignment on “true confessions” from students regarding moral development would be too risky in a community college setting. I would also like to see some video pieces attached as additional resources. In the communication section towards the end of the book, it would have been great to observe examples of communication styles in the classroom, or include interviews with teachers. Video clips demonstrating children in varying stages of development would also be useful. I know it’s always easier to ask for more resources than to provide them. But these additional elements would provide variety to the course.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

The grammar was correct and accurate.

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

Greater relevance could be achieved by updating resources used and broadening topics to include current issues in the United States. Some opening stories did not mesh well with current student experience. For example, the Chapter 4 opening story would not be relate-able to the students in my class. As noted earlier, more emphasis on the importance of a bicultural and bilingual teaching workforce was not mentioned, and this perspective is critical. Lead in stories could provide a venue for greater cultural perspectives on teaching and student experience, and is needed. The text also lacks mention of social justice issues as they relate to teaching, which is an important point in proving cultural relevancy. Reflective assignments and inquiry based writing could be added to challenge students to broaden their thinking and relate content to their own circumstances.

Many sections of the text are solid, and I would like to use content for an online book that I will create for our Foundations of Education course. I read this text through the lens of that course need, and I was looking for some elements that are understandably not covered in this text. The current text I am using incorporates a lot of student reflection, and I think including that aspect into this text would make it more engaging. I also noted that the lack of content related to social justice and the teaching field is a concern.

Reviewed by Maite Correa, Associate Professor, Colorado State University on 12/5/16

This textbook is very comprehensive. Any prospective or current teacher could use it as an introduction or a refresher (respectively). The topics covered are ample and the references and additional readings provided at the end of each chapter help. read more

Reviewed by Maite Correa, Associate Professor, Colorado State University on 12/5/16

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

This textbook is very comprehensive. Any prospective or current teacher could use it as an introduction or a refresher (respectively). The topics covered are ample and the references and additional readings provided at the end of each chapter help the reader expand on the topic if needed. The text provides an effective index at the beginning and a glossary for each unit.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

Content is accurate. Drawing from different pedagogical approaches, the authors manage to create a balance that helps the reader make their own choices.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Content is relatively up-to-date. Although chapter 12 might become obsolete depending on state requirements for standardized tests, overall, the text can stand the test of time (taking into account that pedagogy is an area that changes rapidly).

The text is accessible for any reader. All jargon or terminology is explained. It is suitable for teacher candidates, for teachers who want a refresher and for anyone interested in pedagogy.

The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework. Chapters flow into each other very well, although they could be used separately (see modularity below).

The text could be used as a whole textbook divided by units (the order seems appropriate for an "Intro to Pedagogy" course), but it could also be divided into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. It could also be used as a companion to any other handbook that is discipline-specific (Math, Language Arts, World Languages, etc.). Case studies at the end make it very easy to assign them at any point.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The topics in the text follow a logical fashion. From the introduction (learning process and student development) until the end (assessment and standardized tests), the text increases in specificity/complexity. The case studies in the appendices are very conveniently located at the end for easy access in case the chapters are assigned in isolation.

Although the indentation in the tables could be improved and some images could be formatted to be more visually appealing, the interface in general is appropriate.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

The text contains no grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. On the contrary, it follows pedagogies that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds.

This is a great textbook that can be used in any education course at both undergraduate and graduate levels. It can be complemented with research articles in each discipline if needed, but it can be perfectly used on its own.

Reviewed by Kelly Lynch, Teacher - Elementary Education, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

Text covers all aspects of what a teacher would encounter throughout the year in a classroom. Very comprehensive. read more

Reviewed by Kelly Lynch, Teacher - Elementary Education, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

Text covers all aspects of what a teacher would encounter throughout the year in a classroom. Very comprehensive.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

To my knowledge and experience, this text is very accurate on all fronts. It is up-to-date when it addresses standardized testing, management challenges, and student diversity.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The content in this text will need to be updated at times to keep in step with changes in standardized testing. Other than that particular section, I don't believe there will be signifigant updating needed regularly.

Text is easy to read, comprehend, and offers varied examples to address multiple ages of children and adults.

Consistency is not an issue. Text is in step with current terminology.

Text is clearly divided into smaller sections. Very easy to assign.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Text is well organized and easy to follow. Topics are clear and easily defined.

Text is very clear and easy to read. Information is easy to interpret.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No signifigant grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

Text is culturally diverse.

Reviewed by Selma Koç, Associate Professor, Cleveland State University on 1/12/15

"Educational Psychology” by Seifert and Sutton covers a wide variety of topics providing examples from everyday classroom situations. The authors need to be commended for a book that can lay a strong foundation in the area for prospective. read more

Reviewed by Selma Koç, Associate Professor, Cleveland State University on 1/12/15

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

"Educational Psychology” by Seifert and Sutton covers a wide variety of topics providing examples from everyday classroom situations. The authors need to be commended for a book that can lay a strong foundation in the area for prospective teachers. The structure of the book, the contents, the easy-to-read approach, how the authors make connections relevant to theory and practice and among the topics will be of value to the educational psychology courses. The language of the book makes it clear for the prospective teachers develop an understanding of how major theories of learning and models can be relevant and useful in teaching and learning. The inclusion of the chapters on the nature of classroom communication, facilitating complex thinking, teacher-made assessment strategies and examples provided as well as the appendices with respect to preparing students for licensure, research and the reflective practitioner complement the book compared to the other outlets in the area. For example, in the appendix titled "deciding for yourself about the research," the readers are provided with examples of several research problems, how they were conducted and their implications that reflect many of the themes of the book chapters.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The content seems to be accurate, error-free and unbiased.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The book starts with a chapter about the changing teaching profession: new trends in education such as diversity in students, use of technology to support learning, accountability in education, increased professionalism of teachers. Updates can easily be made if necessary if new trends or influences in education were to occur.

The book is written in a clear and easy-to-understand style that is adequate for those who are novice to educational psychology. The language of the text makes it appealing for exploring the book content further. Although the book is written by two authors, it's hard to detect the difference between the authors' writing.

The book is consistent in terms of terminology and framework.

The table of contents is well organized and easily divisible into reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. The authors do a great job providing headings and subheadings to avoid reader fatigue or overload that contibute to the the reading of the content more appealing.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The topics are presented in a manner that is suitable for an educational psychology course that flows with the course content and activities.

The text does not have any interface or navigation issues when read on-screen or in print.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I have not noticed any grammar mistakes or issues with the writing mechanics that will disrupt the meaning of the text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

The book makes use of diversity and cultural relevance as it provides numerous examples from everyday classroom situations as well as the research it discusses.

This is a book that can rivet the attention of teacher candidates because of its easy-to-understand style. I commend the authors for a book that clearly communicates the purpose of studying educational psychology and how it relates to teaching and learning.


External and Internal Motivation

Do you know what drives you to get good grades or put that extra bit of effort into your science project? What is it that makes us want to do well— both on tests and in our lives? Our reasons or desires to succeed are our motivations. There are two key types of motivations: intrinsic and extrinsic. The type of motivation that drives us actually affects how well we do.

Intrinsic motivation is the sort of desire that arises from within us. If you are an artist, you may be driven to paint because it brings you joy and peace. If you are a writer you may write to satisfy the need to create stories from the many ideas swimming around inside your head. These drives stem from an interest in the activity or job itself, without any external influence. Internal motivators often become defining qualities or characteristics of the person acting on them.

Extrinsic motivation compels you to act based on some outside force or outcome. The desire is not one that would arise naturally within you, but because of someone or some consequence. You might be motivated to do some extra credit to keep from failing your math class. Your boss might offer an incentive program to make you work a little harder. These external influences can have a great impact on why or how people do what they do, sometimes even things that seem out of character.

While it would seem intrinsic motivation would be better than extrinsic, they both have their advantages. Being internally motivated is most rewarding in that the activity or area of study naturally brings a person pleasure. The desire to perform an action requires less effort than an externally driven motivation. Being good at the activity is not necessarily a factor. Many people are motivated to sing karaoke despite their musical ability, for example. Ideally, people would be intrinsically motivated to do well in all aspects of their life. However, that is not the reality.

Extrinsic motivation is good for when someone has a job or an assignment to do that they do not really enjoy for its own sake. This can be beneficial in the workplace, school, and life in general. Good grades and the possibility of getting into a good college are good external motivators for a student. Receiving a promotion or a pay raise incentivizes employees to go above and beyond at work. Perhaps some of the most beneficial aspects of extrinsic motivators are that they encourage people to try new things. Someone that has never tried horseback riding may not know that it is something they might really enjoy. A teacher might encourage a talented young student to take classes they normally would not have, introducing them to a new area of interest.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations work in different ways but are equally important. It is really great to feel good about doing something you love and doing it well. However, no one can function in the world acting only on internal desires. Those external influences help people develop in all aspects of life.


5 ways to motivate yourself to study a boring subject and/or complete a project

Update (January 2018): I have since written a number of other articles on strategies to help motivate yourself to study boring subjects. Check out this article on 10 ways to boost your motivation.
__________________________________________________________________________

How do I motivate myself to study? is one question I am constantly asked by students.

Having just completed my honours thesis (which turned out to be the hardest, most stressful and rewarding project I have ever done) I am happy to say that there are many ways to motivate yourself, but it may involve some pain, frustration and overcoming mental barriers to begin with (at least this was the case for me!).

Unfortunately, there are no quick and easy solutions to have you feeling totally inspired and energised about studying a subject or completing a project that may not be all that inspiring or interesting.

Here are some strategies you can apply to motivate yourself to get started with the work you need to do.

1. Make every thought serve you and move you forward

During the initial phase of my honours project I spent a lot of time in my head but it wasn’t time well spent. I would worry constantly about whether I’d be able to pull this project off, whether I’d get the response rate I needed, how I’d start writing it, etc.

In hindsight, this was a complete waste of my time and energy. It was only towards the end of my project that I tightened up my thinking. I heard Dr Sharon Melnick state that we have 60,000 conscious thoughts a day. Now for those of you who just thought What’s a conscious thought? that’s exactly what a conscious thought is. It’s a thought you’re aware of. Dr Sharon Melnick states that each of these thoughts are going to either be bringing you closer towards achieving your goals or further away from your goals.

After hearing this I decided to carefully watch what I was telling myself. I replaced negative thoughts, such as I can’t do this and My writing sucks!, with positive thought, such as I’m making progress and I’m doing the best I can and my writing will evolve and get better. This is a work in progress!

2. Visualise yourself taking action


Studies have found that visualisation makes a difference to professional athletes’ performance. so why don’t students practice doing it, too?

Visualise yourself taking the actions that need to be taken (e.g. see yourself typing up your work on your laptop, organising your files and being able to access the articles/materials you need with ease).

This simple strategy helps you to stay focus on what needs to be done. As Jesse Jackson said:

“If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it, I know I can achieve it”.


3. Small actions add up


My mum recently said to me:

“Every action is a cause which has an effect! If you put in the action, you’ll get the results!”

What great advice. Thanks mum!

Often we can get bogged down and feel overwhelmed/stressed by the enormity of the things we need to do (e.g. writing an 11,000 word thesis). I had to regularly remind myself that even if I wrote only one sentence each day, eventually all those sentences were going to add up to something really solid (my 11,000 word thesis).

But I was really committed to finishing my thesis on time and doing a good job. So in February I set myself a goal to write 500 words a day. This meant that if I stuck to my goal then my draft thesis would be written in 22 days. I said to myself:

It doesn’t matter how bad my writing is, just type up those 500 words!

This was an extremely empowering activity as it forced me to be in action. Every day.

Worry disappears in the face of action. So next time you start worrying about an assignment or exams, force yourself to do something (anything!), however small it might be.

4. Remind yourself that this won’t go on forever

I see a lot of students that are really overwhelmed and want to throw in the towel at this point in the year in regards to their studies. If you’re a student, remind yourself that this won’t go on forever, that everything changes and all you need to do is just keep taking action.

5. Get some supportive comrades and spend time with them

There’s something really comforting and energising about spending time with others who are going through or have gone through the same painful experience as you.

I found that it made a huge difference to be able to talk to other students who were doing their honours projects or had completed an honours project in previous years. A lot of these people gave me motivating pieces of advice such as You’re going to feel so good once you finish this project! We know it’s tough but just stick at it! as well as practical advice/tips (e.g. Make sure you don’t leave your referencing until the last minute!)

One of my lecturers suggested getting together with other honours students and having regular writing sessions each week (where you would all sit around at a table and write for an hour or so). While I never did this for my honours project, I have done this in previous years with friends when preparing for really difficult exams. Getting together with others can turn boring, stressful tasks into a fun, playful ones.

Update: Shortly after writing this post, I quickly forgot how painful writing my honours thesis was and I decided to do a PhD. That was even more challenging than honours but I got there in the end! I ended up joining a writer’s group to help me push through the pain barrier and get words down on paper. It made all the difference. You can read more about this here.

At my PhD graduation ceremony. I finished the beast! Phew!

Now it’s over to! What strategy will you test out to help you complete that boring project?
I recommend you start by picking just one strategy (only one!). Test it out and let me know how you go!


2021 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19

Due to the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, AP tests will now be held over three different sessions between May and June. Your test dates, and whether or not your tests will be online or on paper, will depend on your school.

One thing to keep in mind is that there are a few differences between the paper and digital versions of the exam . You can find a breakdown of all the differences on the College Board website.

To learn more about how all of this is going to work and get the latest information on test dates, AP online review, and what these changes means for you, be sure to check out our 2021 AP COVID-19 FAQ article.


Environment at home and at school

The American Psychological Association conducted a study on how motivation can be a big factor in achieving academic goals in a classroom setting. There were 176 junior high school students who were selected randomly and were asked to answer a questionnaire that talked about their views on some motivational processes and strategies that were deemed effective for them. The findings demonstrate that motivating students depends on their willingness and open-mindedness about these kinds of strategic undertakings as well as the environment they are in.


Introduction

Achievement motivation energizes and directs behavior toward achievement and therefore is known to be an important determinant of academic success (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004 Hattie, 2009 Plante et al., 2013 Wigfield et al., 2016). Achievement motivation is not a single construct but rather subsumes a variety of different constructs like motivational beliefs, task values, goals, and achievement motives (see Murphy and Alexander, 2000 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010 Wigfield et al., 2016). Nevertheless, there is still a limited number of studies, that investigated (1) diverse motivational constructs in relation to students’ academic achievement in one sample and (2) additionally considered students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). Because students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement are among the best single predictors of academic success (e.g., Kuncel et al., 2004 Hailikari et al., 2007), it is necessary to include them in the analyses when evaluating the importance of motivational factors for students’ achievement. Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) did so and revealed that students’ domain-specific ability self-concepts followed by domain-specific task values were the best predictors of students’ math and German grades compared to students’ goals and achievement motives. However, a flaw of their study is that they did not assess all motivational constructs at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. For example, achievement motives were measured on a domain-general level (e.g., 𠇍ifficult problems appeal to me”), whereas students’ achievement as well as motivational beliefs and task values were assessed domain-specifically (e.g., math grades, math self-concept, math task values). The importance of students’ achievement motives for math and German grades might have been underestimated because the specificity levels of predictor and criterion variables did not match (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977 Baranik et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the seminal findings by Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) will hold when motivational beliefs, task values, goals, and achievement motives are all assessed at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. This is an important question with respect to motivation theory and future research in this field. Moreover, based on the findings it might be possible to better judge which kind of motivation should especially be fostered in school to improve achievement. This is important information for interventions aiming at enhancing students’ motivation in school.

Theoretical Relations Between Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement

We take a social-cognitive approach to motivation (see also Pintrich et al., 1993 Elliot and Church, 1997 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). This approach emphasizes the important role of students’ beliefs and their interpretations of actual events, as well as the role of the achievement context for motivational dynamics (see Weiner, 1992 Pintrich et al., 1993 Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). Social cognitive models of achievement motivation (e.g., expectancy-value theory by Eccles and Wigfield, 2002 hierarchical model of achievement motivation by Elliot and Church, 1997) comprise a variety of motivation constructs that can be organized in two broad categories (see Pintrich et al., 1993, p. 176): students’ �liefs about their capability to perform a task,” also called expectancy components (e.g., ability self-concepts, self-efficacy), and their “motivational beliefs about their reasons for choosing to do a task,” also called value components (e.g., task values, goals). The literature on motivation constructs from these categories is extensive (see Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). In this article, we focus on selected constructs, namely students’ ability self-concepts (from the category 𠇎xpectancy components of motivation”), and their task values and goal orientations (from the category “value components of motivation”).

According to the social cognitive perspective, students’ motivation is relatively situation or context specific (see Pintrich et al., 1993). To gain a comprehensive picture of the relation between students’ motivation and their academic achievement, we additionally take into account a traditional personality model of motivation, the theory of the achievement motive (McClelland et al., 1953), according to which students’ motivation is conceptualized as a relatively stable trait. Thus, we consider the achievement motives hope for success and fear of failure besides students’ ability self-concepts, their task values, and goal orientations in this article. In the following, we describe the motivation constructs in more detail.

Students’ ability self-concepts are defined as cognitive representations of their ability level (Marsh, 1990 Wigfield et al., 2016). Ability self-concepts have been shown to be domain-specific from the early school years on (e.g., Wigfield et al., 1997). Consequently, they are frequently assessed with regard to a certain domain (e.g., with regard to school in general vs. with regard to math).

In the present article, task values are defined in the sense of the expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (1983) and Eccles and Wigfield (2002). According to the expectancy-value model there are three task values that should be positively associated with achievement, namely intrinsic values, utility value, and personal importance (Eccles and Wigfield, 1995). Because task values are domain-specific from the early school years on (e.g., Eccles et al., 1993 Eccles and Wigfield, 1995), they are also assessed with reference to specific subjects (e.g., “How much do you like math?”) or on a more general level with regard to school in general (e.g., “How much do you like going to school?”).

Students’ goal orientations are broader cognitive orientations that students have toward their learning and they reflect the reasons for doing a task (see Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Therefore, they fall in the broad category of “value components of motivation.” Initially, researchers distinguished between learning and performance goals when describing goal orientations (Nicholls, 1984 Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Learning goals (“task involvement” or “mastery goals”) describe people’s willingness to improve their skills, learn new things, and develop their competence, whereas performance goals (𠇎go involvement”) focus on demonstrating one’s higher competence and hiding one’s incompetence relative to others (e.g., Elliot and McGregor, 2001). Performance goals were later further subdivided into performance-approach (striving to demonstrate competence) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid looking incompetent, e.g., Elliot and Church, 1997 Middleton and Midgley, 1997). Some researchers have included work avoidance as another component of achievement goals (e.g., Nicholls, 1984 Harackiewicz et al., 1997). Work avoidance refers to the goal of investing as little effort as possible (Kumar and Jagacinski, 2011). Goal orientations can be assessed in reference to specific subjects (e.g., math) or on a more general level (e.g., in reference to school in general).

McClelland et al. (1953) distinguish the achievement motives hope for success (i.e., positive emotions and the belief that one can succeed) and fear of failure (i.e., negative emotions and the fear that the achievement situation is out of one’s depth). According to McClelland’s definition, need for achievement is measured by describing affective experiences or associations such as fear or joy in achievement situations. Achievement motives are conceptualized as being relatively stable over time. Consequently, need for achievement is theorized to be domain-general and, thus, usually assessed without referring to a certain domain or situation (e.g., Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009). However, Sparfeldt and Rost (2011) demonstrated that operationalizing achievement motives subject-specifically is psychometrically useful and results in better criterion validities compared with a domain-general operationalization.

Empirical Evidence on the Relative Importance of Achievement Motivation Constructs for Academic Achievement

A myriad of single studies (e.g., Linnenbrink-Garcia et al., 2018 Muenks et al., 2018 Steinmayr et al., 2018) and several meta-analyses (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004 Möller et al., 2009 Hulleman et al., 2010 Huang, 2011) support the hypothesis of social cognitive motivation models that students’ motivational beliefs are significantly related to their academic achievement. However, to judge the relative importance of motivation constructs for academic achievement, studies need (1) to investigate diverse motivational constructs in one sample and (2) to consider students’ cognitive abilities and their prior achievement, too, because the latter are among the best single predictors of academic success (e.g., Kuncel et al., 2004 Hailikari et al., 2007). For effective educational policy and school reform, it is crucial to obtain robust empirical evidence for whether various motivational constructs can explain variance in school performance over and above intelligence and prior achievement. Without including the latter constructs, we might overestimate the importance of motivation for achievement. Providing evidence that students’ achievement motivation is incrementally valid in predicting their academic achievement beyond their intelligence or prior achievement would emphasize the necessity of designing appropriate interventions for improving students’ school-related motivation.

There are several studies that included expectancy and value components of motivation as predictors of students’ academic achievement (grades or test scores) and additionally considered students’ prior achievement (Marsh et al., 2005 Steinmayr et al., 2018, Study 1) or their intelligence (Spinath et al., 2006 Lotz et al., 2018 Schneider et al., 2018 Steinmayr et al., 2018, Study 2, Weber et al., 2013). However, only few studies considered intelligence and prior achievement together with more than two motivational constructs as predictors of school students’ achievement (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). Kriegbaum et al. (2015) examined two expectancy components (i.e., ability self-concept and self-efficacy) and eight value components (i.e., interest, enjoyment, usefulness, learning goals, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals, and work avoidance) in the domain of math. Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) investigated the role of an expectancy component (i.e., ability self-concept), five value components (i.e., task values, learning goals, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals, and work avoidance), and students’ achievement motives (i.e., hope for success, fear of failure, and need for achievement) for students’ grades in math and German and their GPA. Both studies used relative weights analyses to compare the predictive power of all variables simultaneously while taking into account multicollinearity of the predictors (Johnson and LeBreton, 2004 Tonidandel and LeBreton, 2011). Findings showed that – after controlling for differences in students‘ intelligence and their prior achievement – expectancy components (ability self-concept, self-efficacy) were the best motivational predictors of achievement followed by task values (i.e., intrinsic/enjoyment, attainment, and utility), need for achievement and learning goals (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009 Kriegbaum et al., 2015). However, Steinmayr and Spinath (2009) who investigated the relations in three different domains did not assess all motivational constructs on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. More precisely, students’ achievement as well as motivational beliefs and task values were assessed domain-specifically (e.g., math grades, math self-concept, math task values), whereas students’ goals were only measured for school in general (e.g., “In school it is important for me to learn as much as possible”) and students’ achievement motives were only measured on a domain-general level (e.g., 𠇍ifficult problems appeal to me”). Thus, the importance of goals and achievement motives for math and German grades might have been underestimated because the specificity levels of predictor and criterion variables did not match (e.g., Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977 Baranik et al., 2010). Assessing students’ goals and their achievement motives with reference to a specific subject might result in higher associations with domain-specific achievement criteria (see Sparfeldt and Rost, 2011).

Taken together, although previous work underlines the important roles of expectancy and value components of motivation for school students’ academic achievement, hitherto, we know little about the relative importance of expectancy components, task values, goals, and achievement motives in different domains when all of them are assessed at the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria (e.g., achievement motives in math → math grades ability self-concept for school → GPA).

The Present Research

The goal of the present study was to examine the relative importance of several of the most important achievement motivation constructs in predicting school students’ achievement. We substantially extend previous work in this field by considering (1) diverse motivational constructs, (2) students’ intelligence and their prior achievement as achievement predictors in one sample, and (3) by assessing all predictors on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria. Moreover, we investigated the relations in three different domains: school in general, math, and German. Because there is no study that assessed students’ goal orientations and achievement motives besides their ability self-concept and task values on the same level of specificity as the achievement criteria, we could not derive any specific hypotheses on the relative importance of these constructs, but instead investigated the following research question (RQ):

RQ. What is the relative importance of students’ domain-specific ability self-concepts, task values, goal orientations, and achievement motives for their grades in the respective domain when including all of them, students’ intelligence and prior achievement simultaneously in the analytic models?


Best Personal Development Books For Creating a Better Life

1. The Art of War, by Sun Tzu

The Art of War may be the most widely read book that examines strategy and dispute resolution, equally studied by men and women, military, business executives and politicians alike. According to this book, strategy, preparedness and taking advantage of opportunities are key to achieving success by overcoming conflict.

“The wise warrior avoids the battle.”

“Thus those skilled in war subdue the enemy’s army without battle … They conquer by strategy.”

“To … not prepare is the greatest of crimes to be prepared beforehand for any contingency is the greatest of virtues.”

“What is of the greatest importance in war is extraordinary speed: One cannot afford to neglect opportunity.”

2. The Four Agreements: A Practical Guide To Personal Freedom, by Miguel Ruiz

According to author Miguel Ruiz, four agreements in life are fundamental steps on the path to freedom:

Be impeccable with your word.

Don’t take anything personally.

The motivational books basic premise is that the diligent application of these agreements will lead to personal freedom.

“Every human is an artist. The dream of your life is to make beautiful art.”

“Maybe we cannot escape from the destiny of the human, but we have a choice: to suffer our destiny or to enjoy our destiny.”

“You will find that you don’t need to trust others as much as you need to trust yourself to make the right choices.”


6 Trading Psychology Books to Improve Market Strategies

Trading is as much about psychology as it is about developing a solid strategy. Without the mental strength to stick to a plan, the best strategy in the world won't do any good. Good traders not only evolve and master a strategy, but they also become more aware of their own traits (such as discipline and patience) and grow them, which allows them to be more effective in implementing their strategies.

A variety of books can help traders take steps toward grasping how psychology works in investing.


Watch the video: Πως να διαβαζετε περισσοτερα βιβλια (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Maloney

    In any case.

  2. Arazuru

    Completely I share your opinion. In it something is also to me your idea is pleasant. I suggest to take out for the general discussion.

  3. Emir

    the information very entertaining

  4. Bawdewyne

    I with you completely agree.

  5. Scrydan

    to you curious mind :)



Write a message