Scoring of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability

Scoring of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability

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How is the global test score supposed to be computed based on the individual scores in the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability?

Let's say the sub-test scores are A, B, C, and D.

From there:

  • how do we obtain the global score? is it age dependent?
  • I understand that the standard deviation on the total score is 15. Is this correct?
  • how is the confidence interval computed? is it symmetric around the "measured" value?



Designed to measure cognitive processing abilities that are important for a broad range of differential diagnoses and instructional planning, the Cognitive Assessment System, Second Edition (CAS2) is a norm-referenced measure based on the well-researched cognitive/neuropsychological theory called PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive). It provides practitioners with a valid and reliable tool to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of children and adolescents in important areas of cognitive processing

  • Authored by Dr. Jack Naglieri, Ph.D., J. P. Das, Ph.D., and Sam Goldstein, Ph.D, internationally recognized leaders in assessment development
  • Evaluates strengths and weaknesses in the cognitive processing of children and adolescents
  • Normative data sample represents the U.S. population
  • Offers validity with special populations including those with speech or language impairments, learning disabilities, gifted or talented designations, ADHD, anxiety disorder, and Asperger’s syndrome
  • Provides a new Spanish supplements kit

Learn More

To find out more about the Cognitive Assessment System visit ProEd.

Cognitive Assessment System: Second Edition (CAS2™)


The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is a well-researched cognitive/neuropsychological theory called PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive). The CAS2 was designed to measure cognitive processing abilities important for broad range of differential diagnoses and instructional planning in individuals ages 5-0 through 18-11. CAS2 provides practitioners with a valid and reliable tool to evaluate children's strengths and weaknesses in important areas of cognitive processing.

CAS2: Brief

The CAS2: Brief is a norm-referenced measure of cognitive ability based on the well-researched cognitive/neuropsychological theory called PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive). PASS abilities are evaluate using four subtests (Planned Codes, Simultaneous Matrices, Expressive Attention, and Successive Digits) which are combined to yield a Total Score. Each subtest yields a scaled score based on a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The sum of scaled scores can be converted a percentile rank and index score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

CAS2: Rating Scale

The CAS2: Rating Scale is a norm-referenced measure of behaviors related to cognitive/neuropsychological theory called PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) completed by teachers. The rating scale provides scores for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive scales as well as Total Score. Each PASS Scale as well as the CAS2 Full Scale yields a percentile rant and standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

CAS2: Online Scoring and Report System

The PC, Mac™, and iPad™ compatible CAS2 Online Scoring and Report System program is an efficient and easy way to obtain CAS2 scores and corresponding narrative.

CAS2: Spanish Supplement Package


The new optional CAS2 Spanish Supplements Package includes (a) a three-hole-punched Spanish translation of Chapters 1 through 3 of the Administration and Scoring Manual for insertion into the English three-ring binder, (b) a Spanish Expressive Attention and Verbal-Spatial Relations Stimulus Book, and (c) a pack of 10 Spanish CAS2 Examiner Record Forms.

Cognitive Assessment System- Adattamento italiano a cura di S


Cognitive Assessment System- Norwegian Adaptation

Cognitive Assessment System- Korean Adaptation

Cognitive Assessment System- Japanese Adaptation

Cognitive Assessment System- Norwegian Adaptation


CAS Rapid Score Software

Child Learning Programs for Young Students

Dr. J.P. Das has developed three new learning systems MATH, PREP and COGENT that were created to improve reading, math, and comprehension skills for children in grades 2-6. These modules, based on his pioneering PASS theory of intelligence, are now available.


The NNAT provides a nonverbal, culturally neutral assessment of general ability that is ideal for use with a diverse student population. With the use of progressive matrices for seven grade-based levels, this versatile test is well-suited for identifying gifted and talented students.

The NNAT3 is a nonverbal measure of general ability for students in kindergarten through grade 12, ideal for use with a diverse student population. NNAT3 is specifically developed for use by a variety of education professionals, including, but not limited to, bilingual educators, testing coordinators, gifted and talented teachers, special education teachers, functional life skills facilitators, counselors, and school psychologists.

What's New in NNAT3?

  • Newly developed items and normative data
  • Increased security with two unique forms per level (levels A-D)
  • Tablet administration options
  • A new and user-friendly online interface

NNAT3 has the same great features that you've come to know, such as a 30 minute administration time, 48 multiple-choice items per form, paper/pencil and online options, and group administration. Manual score entry and scoring service options are also still available.

Learn More

To learn more about the NNAT3 visit and for NNAT updates subscribe below.

Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test® - Individual Administration


Use the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test - Individual (NNAT-I) to assess general ability in children and adolescents. With quick and easy administration, it measures ability using diagrams and in a way that does not require verbal skills. Due to the simplicity of directions and the minimal use of language required to solve the items, the NNAT-I requires minimal motor requirements and is ideal for use with examinees from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, the deaf and hard of hearing, and those with low or high ability.

  • NNAT-I is especially appropriate to use for identification of gifted students, especially those from diverse backgrounds.
  • Uses progressive matrices, which are fair for all examinees, those with hearing impairments, and those with impaired color vision.
  • Ideal for children who do not speak English as their first language-requires no reading, writing, or speaking (examinees just point to the answer they believe is correct).

Effective and Reliable Format (Testing)

  • Two parallel forms
  • Wide range of difficulty levels
  • Independent of educational curricula (prior learning does not influence scores)
  • Requires child to rely on reasoning and problem-solving skills, not verbal skills
  • Engaging two-color shapes and designs
  • Simple instructions can be communicated nonverbally, if necessary

Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test- Second Edition (NNAT2)

Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test Online- Second Edition


Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)


Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test- Individual Form


NNAT: Test d'Aptitude Non Verbale de Naglieri

Learn More

For more information or to purchase the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test® - Individual Administration visit

Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory (CEFI)


The Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory™ (CEFI™) is a behavior rating scale designed to evaluate goal-directed behaviors controlled by executive function in youth aged 5–18 years. The CEFI can be used to guide assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. The CEFI is also useful in a variety of research contexts and can be used as an effective tool to evaluate the success of an intervention program.

The CEFI’s reliability and validity data indicate it has strong psychometric qualities. With 100 items on a Likert-type scale–90 are distributed among the CEFI Scales and 10 on the Positive and Negative Impression Scales – the CEFI offers Parent, Teacher, and Self- Report (12 to 18 years) Forms, allowing for a multi-rater perspective of a youth’s executive function.

Intended for use by professionals such as psychologists, school psychologists, clinical social workers, physicians, counselors, psychiatric workers, and pediatric/psychiatric nurses, the CEFI is an effective and reliable tool for evaluating executive function.


a group of memory tests, initially printed in 1945, which evaluates verbal and non-verbal memory in elder adolescents and adults by methods of recall and identification tests, the newest rendition of the test WMS-III, printed in 1997 is an edited, refreshed, and expanded-upon rendition of the original scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised WMS-R. The WMS- III consists of 11 subtests, many that gauge memory both immediately and after a delay. Six of these subtests are thought to be essential since they are utilized to compute summary index scores. The Immediate Memory Index, a combination of the Auditory Immediate Index and the Visual Immediate Index, supplies a gauge of total immediate memory performance. The General Memory Index, that is a combination of the Visual Delayed Index, Auditory Delayed Index, and the Auditory Recognition Delayed Index, provides a gauge of total delayed memory performance. The Working Memory Index supplies a gauge of a person's ability to manipulate data stored in short-term memory.

Scoring of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability - Psychology

Chapter 9 -- Intellectual and Neuropsychological Assessment

I. Definitions of Intelligence
A. Ability to learn (perceive)
B. Adaptation to new situations (respond)
C. Abstract thinking that uses symbols (plan)

II. Theories of Intelligence
A. Factor analyses with a “g” factor (general intelligence) and “s” factors (specific intelligences)
B. Fluid (nonverbal, adapt to new situations)
C. Crystallized (verbal, skills and knowledge of culture)
D. Multiple (linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal)

III. Measurement Issues
A. Innate capacity vs. current performance
B. A single, global, general ability vs. a set of specific abilities
C. Intelligence is independent of emotion, motivation, and personality vs. closely tied to these factors

IV. Correlates of IQ
A. Academic Grades correlate about .5 with IQ scores
B. Occupational status and achievement correlate about .3 with IQ scores
C. Parents’ IQ scores correlate about .4 with their children’s IQ
D. Males score higher on spatial ability and after puberty higher on quantitative ability
E. Females score higher on verbal ability

V. Intelligence Scales
A. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children &ndash Fifth edition (WISC-V)
1. 21 subtests (7 subtests for Full Scale IQ)
2. 5 factors (2 subtests per factor) a. Verbal Comprehension
b. Visual Spatial
c. Fluid Reasoning
d. Working Memory
e. Processing Speed
B. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales &ndash Fifth edition (SB-5)
1. 10 subtests (2 subtests per factor)
2. 5 factors
a. Fluid Reasoning
b. Knowledge
c. Quantitative Reasoning
d. Visual-Spatial Processing
e. Working Memory

VI. Achievement Testing
A. Accomplishments (grades) in reading, spelling, writing, and math
B. Learning Disability when achievement is less than ability and there is evidence of below average skills
C. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III measures reading, math, and written and oral language

VII. Neuropsychological Assessment
A. Tests of intelligence, language, attention, abstract reasoning, short- and long-term memory, and visual-spatial processing
B. Standard battery includes comprehensive set of measures
C. Hypothesis testing approach includes a limited set of measures
D. Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Batteries are comprehensive

VIII. Characteristics of the Brain
A. Brain Structure
1. Left hemisphere controls right side of the body and verbal ability
2. Right hemisphere controls left side of the body and spatial ability
B. Cerebral Cortex Functioning
1. Frontal lobe: executive functions, behavioral control, emotional modulation
2. Parietal lobe: tactile perception, spatial perception, some language understanding and processing
3. Occipital lobe: visual processing and visual memory
4. Temporal lobe: language expression, reception, and analysis, auditory processing


The results of intelligence tests follow the bell curve, a graph in the general shape of a bell. When the bell curve is used in psychological testing, the graph demonstrates a normal distribution of a trait, in this case, intelligence, in the human population. Many human traits naturally follow the bell curve. For example, if you lined up all your female schoolmates according to height, it is likely that a large cluster of them would be the average height for an American woman: 5’4”–5’6”. This cluster would fall in the center of the bell curve, representing the average height for American women. There would be fewer women who stand closer to 4’11”. The same would be true for women of above-average height: those who stand closer to 5’11”. The trick to finding a bell curve in nature is to use a large sample size. Without a large sample size, it is less likely that the bell curve will represent the wider population. A representative sample is a subset of the population that accurately represents the general population. If, for example, you measured the height of the women in your classroom only, you might not actually have a representative sample. Perhaps the women’s basketball team wanted to take this course together, and they are all in your class. Because basketball players tend to be taller than average, the women in your class may not be a good representative sample of the population of American women. But if your sample included all the women at your school, it is likely that their heights would form a natural bell curve.

Are you of below-average, average, or above-average height?

The same principles apply to intelligence tests scores. Individuals earn a score called an intelligence quotient (IQ). Over the years, different types of IQ tests have evolved, but the way scores are interpreted remains the same. The average IQ score on an IQ test is 100. Standard deviations describe how data are dispersed in a population and give context to large data sets. The bell curve uses the standard deviation to show how all scores are dispersed from the average score. In modern IQ testing, one standard deviation is 15 points. So a score of 85 would be described as “one standard deviation below the mean.” How would you describe a score of 115 and a score of 70? Any IQ score that falls within one standard deviation above and below the mean (between 85 and 115) is considered average, and 82% of the population has IQ scores in this range. An IQ score of 130 or above is considered a superior level.

The majority of people have an IQ score between 85 and 115.

Only 2.2% of the population has an IQ score below 70 (American Psychological Association [APA], 2013). A score of 70 or below indicates significant cognitive delays, major deficits in adaptive functioning, and difficulty meeting “community standards of personal independence and social responsibility” when compared to same-aged peers (APA, 2013, p. 37). An individual in this IQ range would be considered to have an intellectual disability and exhibit deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2013). Formerly known as mental retardation, the accepted term now is intellectual disability, and it has four subtypes: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychological Disorders lists criteria for each subgroup (APA, 2013).

Characteristics of Cognitive Disorders
Intellectual Disability Subtype Percentage of Intellectually Disabled Population Description
Mild 85% 3rd- to 6th-grade skill level in reading, writing, and math may be employed and live independently
Moderate 10% Basic reading and writing skills functional self-care skills requires some oversight
Severe 5% Functional self-care skills requires oversight of daily environment and activities
Profound <1% May be able to communicate verbally or nonverbally requires intensive oversight

On the other end of the intelligence spectrum are those individuals whose IQs fall into the highest ranges. Consistent with the bell curve, about 2% of the population falls into this category. People are considered gifted if they have an IQ score of 130 or higher, or superior intelligence in a particular area. Long ago, popular belief suggested that people of high intelligence were maladjusted. This idea was disproven through a groundbreaking study of gifted children. In 1921, Lewis Terman began a longitudinal study of over 1500 children with IQs over 135 (Terman, 1925). His findings showed that these children became well-educated, successful adults who were, in fact, well-adjusted (Terman & Oden, 1947). Additionally, Terman’s study showed that the subjects were above average in physical build and attractiveness, dispelling an earlier popular notion that highly intelligent people were “weaklings.” Some people with very high IQs elect to join Mensa, an organization dedicated to identifying, researching, and fostering intelligence. Members must have an IQ score in the top 2% of the population, and they may be required to pass other exams in their application to join the group.


The results overall provide evidence that memory (both STM and WM) and vocabulary (both expressive and receptive vocabulary) are associated with performance on non-verbal tests of IQ, both for children with TD and adolescents with ID of the same non-verbal mental age.

As expected there were no significant group differences on the three non-verbal test scores, although the mean scores of the ID group were slightly higher, and there was greater variability on all three non-verbal tests for the ID group than for the TD group and with a large effect size on the TONI. Nor was there a significant group difference for receptive vocabulary, but the expressive vocabulary scores differed with the younger, TD group achieving significantly higher scores than the adolescent ID group. For the memory tasks, there was a group difference on the visual WM task given the large effect sizes on both WM tasks it is likely that with a larger sample of individuals with ID, significant group differences would have been found for both the verbal and visual WM tasks.

No evidence for a significant relationship between STM and non-verbal problem solving was found for the TD group, whereas visual STM contributed significantly to all three non-verbal test scores for the ID group. This indicates that the participants with ID were more likely to be successful in problem solving on the non-verbal tasks if they had higher visual STM scores and that visual STM played a major role in their problem solving strategy.

In contrast, both visual WM and verbal WM contributed variance to the three non-verbal tests for the TD group but differently depending on the test involved. For solving the RCPM tasks, verbal WM was important. This indicates that the young children were rehearsing as they identified features of the patterns they needed to complete and held these in memory as they compared the alternatives in order to reach a decision on how best to complete the matrices. For the other two non-verbal tests, visual WM was more important for solving the problems. However, for older children than in our study (i.e., over 7 years), verbal WM is likely to be more involved since memory develops over the primary school years (52, 53).

Both visual WM and verbal WM played a role in solving the RCPM tasks for the ID group, but for solving tasks on the other two non-verbal tests verbal WM but not visual WM contributed significantly. Based on these results, non-verbal assessments cannot be viewed as “language free.” Success on solving the problems for individuals with ID depends on using their verbal WM. Of interest is that for both groups receptive and expressive vocabulary scores added significant variance to that contributed by memory to the non-verbal test scores for both groups but less so for the ID group.

Our findings clearly show that vocabulary (expressive and receptive) will impact on how well a child with TD in the early school years performs on non-verbal ability tests. The results show a greater contribution from vocabulary than memory when they are solving non-verbal problems. The WNV, in particular, showed a greater influence of vocabulary for the TD group. Four tasks of a different nature, drawing on different cognitive skills, make up the assessment, and we assume this had some influence on the result. In contrast, the results for the ID group support the view that visual STM as well as visual and verbal WM play a more important role than vocabulary in completing non-verbal tasks for adolescents with ID. Visual STM had a greater influence than verbal STM or WM (visual or verbal) on their non-verbal scores.

The study contributes to the literature by comparing performance on three non-verbal tests and considering the unique contributions of memory and vocabulary to the assessment results. However, the study is not without limitations. The ID participants were all recruited from one special school, and there were multiple diagnoses. The sample size was not large and could have been increased by extending recruitment to other schools. Even so, significant results were found. However, the results need to be replicated with larger samples from different educational environments. In past research testing intelligence, memory and language, principal components analysis identified that more variance loaded onto a fluid reasoning factor (i.e., higher order thinking skills) for younger children with TD than older children (31). Thus, while we were interested in comparing groups of similar mental age, inclusion of a TD group of comparable chronological age as the ID group could have provided valuable information about the roles of memory and vocabulary in problem solving for tasks included in non-verbal assessments of IQ.

What is intelligence test in psychology?

Rest of the in-depth answer is here. Moreover, what do you mean by intelligence test?

Intelligence test: A questionnaire or series of exercises designed to measure intelligence. There are many types of intelligence tests, and they may measure learning and/or ability in a wide variety of areas and skills. Scores may be presented as an IQ (intelligence quotient), as a mental age, or on a scale.

what is an example of an intelligence test? For example, the commonly used Stanford-Binet IQ test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) are all standardized tests designed to test intelligence. For example, many people mistakenly believe that the SAT is a test designed to measure intelligence.

Also Know, what is intelligence in psychology?

Human intelligence, mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one's environment.

How is IQ measured psychology?

The IQ score was calculated by dividing the test taker's mental age by his or her chronological age and then multiplying this number by 100. ?For example, a child with a mental age of 12 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 120 (12/10 x 100).

Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

Keywords: Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability adolescents autism spectrum disorder intellectual disability.

Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test Guide

The Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test (NNAT) is used to assess general reasoning ability in children and adolescents grades K-12. Published by NCS Pearson, Inc., the NNAT is a short (approximately 30 minutes in length) multiple choice test that does not require English language or math skills, but instead consists of problems using geometric shapes and designs.

Due to the simplicity of the test&rsquos directions and minimal use of language that is required to solve problems, the NNAT is a test that caters to students from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. It is especially well-suited for students who do not speak English as a first language for it does not require any reading, writing, or speaking. The NNAT is also accessible to students who are deaf or hard of hearing as well as to students who have impaired color vision.

The NNAT also functions as a test that screens students for gifted program entry across the United States and internationally. The test scores may be used for admission to various associations such as Mensa, the high IQ society.

The NNAT2 is the Second Edition of the test series. The NNAT2 is administered in two media formats, online and offline, whereas the NNAT (first edition) is administered via paper and pencil only. Both tests are very similar in terms of content. The NNAT is a 38 question test whereas the NNAT2 is a 48 question test.

Test Format
There are seven different levels of the NNAT which are administered to students depending on their current grade in school. Students at the preschool level can be tested using the test designed for kindergarten students.

The NNAT consists of 38-48 pictorial reasoning questions in four test areas:

Review of IQ/developmental tests in special populations

Commonly used measures of intelligence

Nonverbal measures of intelligence

Measures of early cognitive development

General intelligence tests

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -5th Edition (WISC-V), 2014 & WISC-V Integrated, 2015

  • Age range 6:0 to 16:11
  • Benefits:
    • Most common test of IQ in children is well known.
    • Most subtests can be completed without motor manipulation of items.
    • Has a Nonverbal Index (but this requires the motor ability to do Coding).
    • Q-interactive (iPad administration) makes administration and scoring simple and quick.
    • WISC-V Integrated can be used in conjunction with the WISC-V in order to “break down” the task demands of WISC-5 subtests. WISC-5 Integrated is designed to identify the underlying cognitive processes that may be impairing performance on the WISC-V (e.g., what happens when the child is given extra time, or given multiple choice instead of needing to generate responses).
    • Children with developmental level below 5 or 6 years may have difficulty understanding the task demands of some subtests on the WISC.
    • Only a few subtests are appropriate for children who are completely nonverbal and who do not have use of their hands (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles and possibly Picture Span). These subtests would require some adaptation depending on the child’s communication strategies (e.g., use of gestures, eye gaze, etc.)
    • WISC-V Integrated subtests should not be interpreted as measures of IQ. In some cases, it may be appropriate to administer a WISC-V Integrated subtest without first administering the corresponding WISC-5 subtests. For example, if a child is not able to speak, but is able to point or otherwise indicate choices, the verbal multiple choice subtests will give you an idea about the child’s language based knowledge and reasoning. However, WISC-V Integrated scores should never be interpreted as a measure of a child’s intelligence.

    Differential Abilities Scale, 2nd Edition (DAS-II), 2007

    • Age range 2:6 to 17:11.
    • Early years record form: 2:6 to 6:11, out-of-level normative data available for up to age 8:11.
    • School-age record form: age 7:0 and up.
    • Benefits:
      • Extended opportunities for teaching the tasks.
      • Abbreviated testing time due to special rules for start and stop points.
      • Out-of-level normative data can be very useful for children ages 7 and 8 as they can be administered the young child battery.
      • Some core subtests (Pattern Construction, Matrices, Recall of Digits) as well as quite a few Diagnostic subtests span the entire age range (2:6 to 17:11).
      • For the most part, the DAS does not require motor skills (except for early items on Verbal Comprehension, Copying and Pattern Construction). Other subtests can be easily adapted to give oral responses instead of motor responses (e.g., Picture Similarities).
      • Special Nonverbal Composite (SNC) is a 4 subtest composite, but is not appropriate for children with limited motor function. There is a 2 subtest Nonverbal Reasoning Index that is appropriate for children with limited motor functioning (Upper Level Early Years and School Age).
      • Includes signed nonverbal subtest administration instructions for children who use American Sign Language.
      • Early Years Verbal subtests are inappropriate for children with significant visual impairments, and at the earliest level, inappropriate for children with significant motor impairments.
      • No Canadian normative data.

      Stanford Binet – 5th Edition (SB-5), 2003

      • Age range 2:0-85+ within a single series of subtests.
      • Five areas (Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual Spatial, and Working Memory) are assessed in both the Verbal and the Nonverbal domains.
      • Benefits:
        • The fact that all subtests are given to all ages (at the appropriate level) makes this an excellent test for evaluating children whose developmental level is 2+, but whose cognitive functioning is highly discrepant from their age level.
        • Nonverbal routing subtest starts with manipulatives which can be helpful for children who do not understand concepts on paper (such as bigger/smaller).
        • Extensive guidance is provided in the manual on the use of SB-5 in hearing impaired individuals.
        • “Nonverbal” tasks require a fair bit of receptive and expressive language.
        • Some nonverbal tasks cannot be easily modified for individuals with motor impairments.
        • Early verbal tasks require visual inspection of pictures and visual manipulation of objects. Therefore, this limits the utility of this test in children with visual impairments. Adaptations can be made for motor impairments.
        • More difficult to administer than many other standard IQ tests.
        • Age equivalent scores are only available if you give both verbal and nonverbal portions of a domain and for the abbreviated battery.
        • No Canadian normative data.

        Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (2004), Normative Update (2018)
        (KABC-II NU, 2018)

        • Ages 3:0 – 18:11
        • Benefits:
          • Comprehensive measure of intellectual functioning designed to minimize verbal instructions and responses and limit “cultural content”.
          • Many subtests span the age range: Atlantis, Face Recognition, Number Recall, Gestalt Closure, Rover, Expressive Vocab, Verbal Knowledge, Rebus, Triangles, Word Order, Hand movements, Riddles.
          • In addition, out of age range norms are available for some ages (e.g. a 7 year old can be administered the 5 or 6 year old battery).
          • Extensive teaching is available.
          • Nonverbal scale available at each age point.
          • Most subtests have a sample item plus two teaching items (for children at the youngest age).
          • Most nonverbal subtests require pointing. Some can be adapted with use of a grid (to label response options) but other subtests are not easily adapted in this way.
          • No Canadian normative data.

          Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, 2nd Edition (RIAS-2, 2015)

          • Ages 3-94
          • 4 core intelligence subtests (2 verbal, 2 nonverbal), 2 processing speed (verbal/nonverbal), optional verbal + nonverbal memory subtests
          • Benefits:
            • Short administration time.
            • Minimizes need for motor skills.
            • Supplemental subtests are different by age.
            • No Canadian normative data.

            Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, 4th Edition, (WJ–IV Cognitive)

            • Ages 2 +
            • 10 core intelligence tests
            • Benefits:
              • Low floor.
              • 3 subtest Brief Intellectual Ability score.
              • Co-normed with Woodcock Johnson’s tests of Oral Language and Achievement.
              • Braille & Large Print versions available through American Printing House for the Blind.
              • No Canadian normative data.

              Nonverbal scales of intelligence

              Wechsler Nonverbal Scales of Ability (WNV), 2006

              • Age range – 4:0-21:11
              • Ages 4:0-7:11: Matrices, Coding, Object Assembly, Recognition
              • Ages 8:0-21:11: Matrices, Coding, Spatial Span, Picture Arrangement
              • Benefits:
                • Primarily pictorial/gestural instructions. Can be entirely nonverbal, but verbal instructions are provided.
                • Translations of verbal instructions (and prompts) are provided in 6 languages.
                • Completely nonverbal response format available.
                • There are Canadian norms available.
                • 2 subtest abbreviated scale option.
                • Only 1 of the 4 scales spans the age range, meaning that for the other subtests, there is the issue of floor effects.
                • As an abbreviated measure, it has limited coverage of cognitive abilities.
                • Only 2 subtests (Matrices, Recognition) are easily adapted for those with serious motor disability.

                Leiter International Performance Scale, 3rd Edition (Leiter-3), 2013

                • Ages 3 to 75
                • 4 Cognitive subtests, 4 attention/memory/processing speed subtests
                • Benefits:
                  • Completely nonverbal assessment. All instructions are conveyed via picture, gesture, and demonstration. There are no oral responses required.
                  • All subtests span the age range.
                  • The cognitive subtests are untimed and do not require careful placement of cards/blocks so that children with mild motor impairments may be fully capable of completing the tasks.
                  • Takes time to learn how to administer the Leiter correctly. There is a training DVD available.
                  • The examinee responds by moving small cards or blocks to indicate a response. Some children with severe motor impairments will not be able to do this.
                  • In our clinic, we have had the experience that the Leiter-3 sometimes over-estimates a child’s true capabilities. Therefore, we recommend the Leiter should always be administered in conjunction with another IQ test.
                  • No Canadian normative data available.

                  Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, 2nd Edition (Unit-2), 2016

                  • Age 5:0-21:11
                  • 6 subtests: Symbolic Memory, Nonsymbolic Quantity, Analogic Reasoning, Spatial Memory, Numerical Series, and Cube Design.
                  • Benefits:
                    • Entirely nonverbal administration and response format.
                    • Has a 2 subtest brief IQ score available.
                    • Attempts to limit cultural content.
                    • 3 of the 6 subtests require the child to manipulate task materials.
                    • One subtest (Cube Design) is timed, with no option for an untimed administration. This subtest is not appropriate for those with severe motor impairments.
                    • All other subtests require pointing to the correct response or moving tiles. This could be adapted to place letters/numbers below the responses for those who cannot point.
                    • Some subtests are reliant on the child understanding written numbers and having a basic understanding of numbers (e.g., counting by 5s).

                    Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 2nd Edition (C-TONI-2), 2009

                    • Ages 6:0-89-11
                    • 6 subtests: Pictorial Analogies, Geometric Analogies, Pictorial Categories, Geometric Categories, Pictorial Sequences, Geometric Sequences.
                    • Benefits:
                      • Can be entirely nonverbal administration, but verbal instructions are also provided.
                      • Response format does not require any verbal output.
                      • No manipulation of objects required.
                      • Completely untimed.
                      • All subtests require pointing to the correct response. This could be adapted to place letters/numbers below the responses for those who cannot point.
                      • No measurement of short term or working memory.

                      Matrices-based nonverbal tests

                      These are single domain tests of intelligence. Although they are quick and easy to administer, they are not generally appropriate as stand-alone diagnostic tests of IQ. They may be appropriately used in conjunction with another IQ test.

                      • Raven’s Progressive Matrices (Various). Child/Adult.
                      • Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (2003). Age 5:0-17:11.
                      • Test of Nonverbal Intelligence–4th Ed. (2010). Age 6:0-89.

                      Developmental Measures

                      These are standardized measures which provide information about a child’s developmental status by assessing specific developmental milestones. Use of a developmental measure in an older child can be a good way to provide a structure to your assessment of developmental level.

                      Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Fourth Edition (Bayley-4, 2019)

                      • Ages: 1 to 42 months (3 years, 6 months)
                      • Three scales administered with child interaction – cognitive, motor, language. Two scales conducted with parent questionnaires – social-emotional, adaptive behavior.
                      • Cognitive scale benefits:
                        • Play-based test with natural type interactions.
                        • Administration manual discusses accommodations/modifications.
                        • Takes some time to learn to administer.
                        • Starting from 13 months – requires giving verbal directions.
                        • Requires some motor coordination from child (cannot modify some items for lack of hand use, e.g., put pegs in pegboard).
                        • No Canadian normative data.

                        Batelle Developmental Inventory -2nd Ed., Normative Update (Batell-2-NU for the 2015 US census)

                        • Tests 5 global developmental domains and 13 subdomains: Adaptive behaviour, personal and social skills, motor skills, communication skills, and cognitive.
                        • Ages 0 – 7:11
                        • Benefits:
                          • Wide age range for a developmental measure
                          • Play-based test with natural type interactions.
                          • Challenging to learn and to administer
                          • No Canadian normative data

                          Mullen Scales of Early Learning – 1995

                          • Birth to 68 months
                          • Benefits:
                            • Play-based test with natural type interactions.
                            • Challenging to learn and to administer
                            • No Canadian normative data
                            • Older normative data

                            Watch the video: What is the Wechsler scale and its Versions (August 2022).