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Difference between valence and sentiment

Difference between valence and sentiment



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Can someone please clarify for me the difference between valence and sentiment? I am from a computer science background. In our literature they seem to be used in the same sense.

Currently I am doing some natural language processing where I estimate both valence and sentiment using two separately established lexicon data sets. Surprisingly, for my data, the valence and sentiment scores are very different. Are they really the same?

The definition of valence as given here seems very similar to sentiment (intuitively). Here valence is defined as one aspect of sentiment (referring to a publication by Russell, 1979).


Basically, in the context of this research, "sentiment" can mean the same thing as "valence" if the analysis is unidimensional; that is "valence" is the usual "sentiment" analyzed. Otherwise "sentiment" can have a broader meaning, with "valence" being just one dimension of "sentiment".

As for why the two lexicons come with different valence values, that's a methodological question for the natural language processing community (e.g. https://ai.stackexchange.com) or even better, the author of the papers. What is obvious to me just from the web page is that the first "sentiment" lexicon has

Association scores: binary (associated or not)

whereas the 3-dimensional one with valence as one dimension has scores between 0 and 1.


In the context you have it, "sentiment" just refers to sentiment analysis, an endeavour in NLP (natural language processing) that most psychologists are probably completely oblivious to.

The previously linked Wikipedia page explains that "sentiment analysis" is an umbrella term for a fairly broad class of analyses:

Generally speaking, sentiment analysis aims to determine the attitude of a speaker, writer, or other subject with respect to some topic or the overall contextual polarity or emotional reaction to a document, interaction, or event. The attitude may be a judgment or evaluation (see appraisal theory), affective state (that is to say, the emotional state of the author or speaker), or the intended emotional communication (that is to say, the emotional effect intended by the author or interlocutor).

A paper accopmpanying the data you mentioned defines it as:

Sentiment Analysis involves determining the evaluative nature of a piece of text. For example, a product review can express a positive, negative, or neutral sentiment (or polarity).

Which is the most common instance of "sentiment analysis" in my experience.

As far as the psychology of "sentiments" goes, general terms used in psychology (and psychiatry) in this area are: mood, affect, emotion and (sometimes) feeling. I will not detail these here, because it's not what you are asking for (they all have Wikipedia pages). Only the first two (mood affect) have somewhat more scientific definitions but there's still a great deal of confusion over them.

If I were to propose a cross-field linkage, "sentiment analysis" tries to infer affect (and sometimes perhaps even mood) from text. In fact there is a notion in psychology of affect display, which is basically just the manifestation of affect that can be seen or read.

As for "valence", it is indeed a specific concept as used in that data page you link in a comment. From a companion paper they wrote

Russell (1980, 2003) showed through similar analyses of emotion words that the three primary independent dimensions of emotions are valence or pleasure (positiveness- negativeness/pleasure-displeasure), arousal (active-passive), and dominance (dominant- submissive). He argues that individual emotions such as joy, anger, and fear are points in a three-dimensional space of valence, arousal, and dominance. It is worth noting that even though the names given by Osgood et al. (1957) and Russell (1980) are different, they describe similar dimensions (Bakker et al., 2014).

So "valence" is indeed referring to Russel's core affect framework as you suggest. However, looking at Bakker et al. as well as Russel's own paper, he doesn't seem to use the word "valence", preferring "pleasure" instead. I'm not sure who came up with "valence" for "pleasure"; from Bakker, I see not even Osgood used that term.

Also Russell's (2003) conceptualization seems two dimensional. In his own words:

Core affect is a pre-conceptual primitive process, a neurophysiological state, accessible to consciousness as a simple non-reflective feeling: feeling good or bad, feeling lethargic or energised. There is something it is like to feel core affect. Its presence in consciousness varies from being focal to peripheral to out of sight. A structural description of core affect is an empirical matter, and I have proposed a circumplex with the two underlying dimensions of pleasuredispleasure and activationdeactivation (Russell, 1980, 2005; Yik, Russell, & Steiger, 2008). Although two-dimensional, core affect is, subjectively, a single feeling. That is, the two dimensions combine in an integral fashion to form one unified feeling. Pleasure and arousal combine to form the single feeling of ecstasy, for example. An analogy is the sensation of a specific colour, such as the red of the autumn leaf outside my window. The dimensions of hue, saturation, and brightness combine in an integral fashion to form one unified sensation of any particular colour.

From Bakker's illustration of that:

I looks like the 3rd dimension (dominance, not shown aboce) came from Mehrabian.

Also "valence" has a somewhat broader meaning in psychology that is reasonably close to the way it is used above by the author of those NLP lexicon studies:

Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation. The term also characterizes and categorizes specific emotions. For example, emotions popularly referred to as "negative", such as anger and fear, have negative valence. Joy has positive valence. Positively valenced emotions are evoked by positively valenced events, objects, or situations. The term is also used to describe the hedonic tone of feelings, affect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal attainment or nonattainment, and conformity with or violation of norms. Ambivalence can be viewed as conflict between positive and negative valence-carriers.

Having said this, it looks like few(er) psychology researchers actually use this term. The definition quoted right above originates in a book by Dutch psychologist Nico Frijda.


Conclusions, limitations, and future directions

In summary, the present database provides subjective ratings for 1,100 Chinese words for both affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) and various semantic variables (concreteness, imageability, context availability, and familiarity), and particularly focuses on the relationship between the affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) and concreteness after controlling other semantic variables. Descriptive statistics for all variables are supplied in a PDF file as supplementary materials to this article. The correlation analysis carried out confirmed the reliability and consistency of the present data. The hierarchical regression carried out suggests that the affective variable ratings can predict concreteness ratings, which supports the idea that abstract words might have more affective associations than do concrete words (Kousta et al., 2011 Vigliocco et al., 2009) and confirms the findings of recent behavioral and event-related potential studies (Barber et al., 2013 Kanske & Kotz, 2007 Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, & Del Campo, 2011 Tse & Altarriba, 2009 Yao & Wang, 2013, 2014).

However, we did not include a measure of the age of acquisition (AoA) and the mode of acquisition (MoA) of the words, which may be limitations of this study. In fact, studies have shown that AoA and MoA can be important contributions to lexical processing and are related to the affective properties of words (Citron et al., 2014 Della Rosa et al., 2010 Moors et al., 2013). Therefore, a future study could expand the present database to include AoA and MoA values. In addition, we used a scale from unfamiliar to familiar to measure familiarity, which may have led to the meaning of familiarity being interpreted in different ways by participants (Montefinese et al. 2014). Thus, the familiarity index should be based on “subjective measures” of how often participants both use or are exposed to a given word (e.g., very often, very rarely) in future studies.

To conclude, the present study will be a valuable source of information for emotion research that makes use of Chinese words. This database enables researchers to use highly controlled Chinese verbal stimuli for the study of emotion and will allow them to investigate the relation between cognition and emotion more reliably.


Results

Comprehension

There was a main effect of type of question (surface, paraphrase, inference), F(2, 60) = 61.28, p < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.67. The mean percentage of correct answers was significantly higher for surface questions (84%, SD = 15.18) than for paraphrase ones (70%, SD = 15.17), and significantly higher for paraphrase questions than for inference ones (63%, SD = 14.86). Planed comparisons analyses revealed significant differences between surface and paraphrase questions (p < 0.001), surface and inference questions (p < 0.001), and paraphrase and inference questions (p < 0.05).

The interaction between type of question and text valence was also significant, F(4, 120) = 11.82, p < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.28. Planned comparisons showed that participants answered surface questions less correctly for negative texts than for positive or neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 45.04, p < 0.001. No significant difference was found between the three emotional valences for paraphrase questions. Finally, participants answered inference questions better when they were about negative texts than when they were about positive or neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 9.34, p < 0.001. Moreover, for inference questions, there was a significant difference between negative and positive texts, F(1, 30) = 12.87, p < 0.001, but not between positive and neutral or negative and neutral texts (p > 0.05). In general, type of question had no impact on the rate of correct answers for negative texts, and the same pattern was observed for positive and neutral texts, namely, lower response rates for surface, paraphrase and inference questions.

In order to analyze the influence of the arousal intensity, we analyzed emotional texts only. So next, we focused on the emotional texts (positive and negative) and the effects of valence and emotional intensity on text comprehension. Analysis failed to reveal any major effect of emotional intensity on mean scores, F(2, 60) = 0.92, p = ns. However, an interaction effect was found between valence and emotional intensity, F(4, 120) = 2.71, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.08. Planned comparisons showed that for high-intensity texts, there was a significant difference between mean comprehension scores for negative and positive texts, F(1, 30) = 13.21, p < 0.01. These mean scores were significantly higher for positive texts (74%, SD = 25.93) than for negative ones (68%, SD = 22.56).

An interaction effect was also revealed between type of question and emotional intensity, F(4, 120) = 3.048, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.09. While there were no differences between the three intensity levels for the surface and paraphrase mean scores, there was a significant difference between medium and high intensity for the inference questions, F(1, 30) = 4.76, p < 0.05. For low intensity, there was a significant difference between surface and paraphrase mean scores, F(1, 30) = 20.866, p < 0.001, as well as between both paraphrase and inference mean scores, F(1, 30) = 14.012, p < 0.001, and surface and inference mean scores, F(1, 30) = 82.869, p < 0.001. For medium intensities, mean scores were significantly higher for paraphrase questions than for either surface questions, F(1, 30) = 16.831, p < 0.001, or inference questions, F(1, 30) = 16.167, p < 0.001. By contrast, for high-intensity texts, mean scores were significantly higher for surface questions than for paraphrase questions, F(1, 30) = 39.262, p < 0.001, but there was no significant difference between paraphrase and inference questions, F(1, 30) = 0.061, p = ns. Mean scores on inference questions were higher for high-intensity texts than for texts of either low or medium intensity.

Analysis of the triple interaction between valence, intensity and type of question revealed differences between the intensities of positively valenced texts for responses to paraphrase questions (low-medium vs. high, F(1, 30 ) = 9.72, p < 0.01), as well as for responses to inference questions (low vs. medium, F(1, 30) = 9.62, p < 0.01, low vs. high, F(1, 30) = 15.51, p < 0.001, and medium vs. high, F(1, 30) = 60.96, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found for surface questions (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Mean percentage of correct answers, depending on valence, intensity and type of question. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗∗ p < 0.01 ∗∗∗ p < 0.001.

For negative texts, we only found one difference for the inference questions (medium vs. high intensity, F(1, 30) = 15.08, p < 0.001), with poorer performances for high-intensity texts.

Remember/Know Task

Analysis reveal a main effect of the nature of the recall on the number of correct responses, with significantly more R responses than K responses, F(1, 30) = 36.61, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.92. There was also a main effect of the emotional nature of the word (emotional vs. neutral). Participants recalled significantly more emotional words than neutral words, F(1, 30) = 69.69, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.96. We also observed a main effect of the texts’ emotional valence (positive vs. negative vs. neutral), as the mean number of recalled words was significantly higher for positive texts than for either negative or neutral ones (Figure 2). Planned comparisons confirmed this significant result, F(1, 30) = 25.68, p < 0.01. No significant difference was observed between negative and neutral texts (p > 0.05).

Figure 2. Mean number of correctly recalled words, depending on the emotional valence of the texts. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗∗ p < 0.01.

We demonstrated an interaction effect between the emotional nature of the recalled words and R/K performances, F(1, 30) = 13.53, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.68. There were more R responses for emotional words than for neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 41.80, p < 0.01, whereas there were no significant differences in K responses, F(1, 30) = 1.56, p = ns.

There was also an interaction effect between the emotional nature of the recalled words and the valence of the texts, F(1, 30) = 12.19, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.91. There were no significant differences in the recall of emotional words between positive and negative texts, F(1, 30) = 5.62, p = ns, whereas neutral words were significantly better recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones, F(1, 30) = 107.58, p < 0.01.

There was no significant difference in the effect of emotional intensity between positive and negative texts.

The interaction between the emotional valence of the texts (positive vs. negative) and the emotional (or otherwise) nature of the recalled words was also significant, F(1, 30) = 40.35, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.91. More emotional words were recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones, F(1, 30) = 7.29, p < 0.05. We also found a significant difference for neutral words, F(1, 30) = 7.29, p < 0.001, which were better recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones (Figure 3). There was no interaction between valence and emotional intensity.

Figure 3. Mean number of correctly recalled words, depending on word type and the emotional valence of the texts. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗ p < 0.05 ∗∗∗ p < 0.001.


Sentimental interplay between structured and unstructured user-generated contents : An empirical study on online hotel reviews

User-generated content (UGC), i.e. the feedback from consumers in the electronic market, including structured and unstructured types, has become increasingly important in improving online businesses. However, the ambiguity and heterogeneity, and even the conflict between the two types of UGC, require a better understanding from the perspective of human cognitive psychology. By using online feedback on hotel services, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of satisfaction level, opinion dispersion and cultural context background on the interrelationship between structured and unstructured UGC.

Design/methodology/approach

Natural language processing techniques – specifically, topic classification and sentiment analysis on the sentence level – are adopted to retrieve consumer sentiment polarity on five attributes relative to itemized ratings. Canonical correlation analyses are conducted to empirically validate the interplay between structured and unstructured UGC among different populations segmented by the mean-variance approach.

Findings

The variety of cognitions displayed by individuals affects the general significant interrelationship between structured and unstructured UGC. Extremely dissatisfied consumers or those with heterogeneous opinions tend to have a closer interconnection, and the interaction between valence and dispersion further strengthens or loosens the relationship. The satisfied or neutral consumers tend to show confounding sentiment signals in relation to the two different UGC. Chinese consumers behave differently from non-Chinese consumers, resulting in a relatively looser interplay.

Practical implications

By identifying consistent opinion providers and promoting more valuable UGC, UGC platforms can raise the quality of information generated. Hotels will then be able to enhance their services through the strategic use of UGC by analyzing reviews with dispersed low-itemized rating and by addressing the differences exhibited by non-Chinese customers. This analytical method can also help to create richly structured sentiment information from unstructured UGC.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the variety of cognitive behaviors in the process when UGC are contributed by online reviewers, focussing on the consistency between structured and unstructured UGC. The study helps researchers understanding emotion recognition and affective computing in social media analytics, which is achieved by exploring the variety of UGC information and its relationship to the contributors’ cognitions. The analytical framework adopted also improves the prior techniques.


ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

  • Applied Emotion and Motivation Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

An important function of emoji as communicative symbols is to convey emotional content from sender to receiver in computer-mediated communication, e. g., WhatsApp. However, compared with real faces, pictures or words, many emoji are ambiguous because they do not symbolize a discrete emotion or feeling state. Thus, their meaning relies on the context of the message in which they are embedded. Previous studies investigated affective judgments of pictures, faces, and words suggesting that these stimuli show a typical distribution along the big two emotion dimensions of valence and arousal. Also, emoji and emoticons have been investigated recently for their affective significance. The present study extends previous research by investigating affective ratings of emoji, emoticons and human faces and by direct comparison between them. In total, 60 stimuli have been rated by 83 participants (eight males, age: 18� years), using the non-verbal Self-Assessment Manikin Scales for valence and arousal. The emotionality of the stimuli was measured on a 9-point Likert scale. The results show significant main effects of the factors “stimulus category” and 𠇍iscrete emotion” including emotionality, valence and arousal. Also, the interaction between these two main factors was significant. Emoji elicited highest arousal, whereas stimuli related to happiness were rated highest in valence across stimulus categories. Angry emoji were rated highest in emotionality. Also, the discrete emotion was best recognized in emoji, followed by human face stimuli and lastly emoticons.


Perception of valence and arousal in German emotion terms: A comparison between 9-year-old children and adults

Two major semantic features of emotion concepts have been shown to impact performance in emotion perception tasks: valence and arousal. To design psycholinguistic experiments with emotion terms as stimuli, norms are required that indicate valence and arousal values for individual words. Although such norms are usually obtained from ratings of adults, they are often also used in developmental studies. This procedure raises the question of whether children and adults perceive emotional valence and arousal of words in the same way, and consequently, whether adults’ ratings are adequate when constructing stimulus sets for children. The present study obtained valence and arousal ratings for 48 German emotion terms from three different groups: 9-year-old children and adults tested in a controlled laboratory setting, and adults tested via online survey. Results demonstrate high correlations for valence and arousal across settings. The comparison between children and adults also revealed high correlations, suggesting that children at the age of 9 already display adultlike behavior in their evaluation of emotion terms. A small difference was found for absolute rating values of arousal, with children rating words less arousing than adults. Overall, 9-year-olds and adults are sufficiently similar in their perception of emotion to warrant the use of adult valence and arousal ratings in the analysis of children data.


The impact of stimulus valence and emotion regulation on sustained brain activation: task-rest switching in emotion

Task-rest interactions, defined as the modulation of brain activation during fixation periods depending on the preceding stimulation and experimental manipulation, have been described repeatedly for different cognitively demanding tasks in various regions across the brain. However, task-rest interactions in emotive paradigms have received considerably less attention. In this study, we therefore investigated task-rest interactions evoked by the induction and instructed regulation of negative emotion. Whole-brain, functional MRI data were acquired from 55 healthy participants. Two-level general linear model statistics were computed to test for differences between conditions, separately for stimulation and for fixation periods, as well as for interactions between stimulation and fixation (task-rest interactions). Results showed that the regulation of negative emotion led to reverse task-rest interactions (decreased activation during stimulation but increased activation during fixation) in the amygdala as well as in visual cortex regions and to concordant task-rest interactions (increased activation during both, stimulation and fixation) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as in a number of brain regions at the intersection of the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. Thus, this first whole-brain investigation of task-rest interactions following the induction and regulation of negative emotion identified a widespread specific modulation of brain activation in regions subserving emotion generation and regulation as well as regions implicated in attention and default mode.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


What is VADER?

One of the most popular rule-based sentiment analysis models is VADER. VADER, or Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner, is a lexicon and rule-based sentiment analysis tool specifically attuned to sentiments expressed in social media.

VADER is like the GPT-3 of Rule-Based NLP Models.

Since it is tuned for social media content, it performs best on the content you can find on social media. However, it still offers acceptable F1 Scores on other test sets, and provides a comparable performance compared to complex statistical models such as Support Vector Machines, as you can see below:

Note that there are several alternative lexicons that you can use for your project, such as Harvard’s General Inquirer, Loughran McDonald, Hu & Liu. In this tutorial, we will adopt the VADER’s lexicon along with its methodology.

Now that you have a basic understanding of rule-based NLP models, we can proceed with our tutorial. This tutorial will approach a classic sentiment analysis problem from a rule-based NLP perspective: A Lexicon-based sentiment analysis on the IMDB Reviews Dataset.


Psychology Question Bank &ndash 440 MCQs on "Motivation and Emotions" – Part 4

440 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers on “Motivation and Emotions” for Psychology Students – Part 4:

301. The manufacture of adrenalin and noradrenalin is controlled by:

302. Repression is a common mode of resolving:

303. The defense mechanisms are reactions to:

304. Dynamic psychology is the psychology of:

(b) Perception and Attention

(d) Personality and Intelligence

305. Both the terms “emotion” and “motivation” came from the same Latin root:

306. According to Lewin, tensions are emotional states which accompany:

307. In avoidance-avoidance conflict, the indi­vidual is compelled to choose between:

(a) One positive and one negative alter­native

(b) Two negative alternatives

(c) Two positive alternatives

(d) Two negative alternatives and two posi­tive alternatives

308. A releaser is a highly specific stimulus that “triggers” or initiates:

(d) Species-specific behaviour

309. Who assumed that human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of potency?

310. Corpus luteum and placenta of pregnant women secret the hormone:

311. According to Maslow, the self-actualizing tendency is:

312. Need for achievement can be measured by:

(c) TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)

(d) Semantic Differential scale

313. The desire to be with one’s own kind is termed as:

314. The type of conflict in which the goal of the individual has both positive and negative valence of approximate equal intensity is known as:

(a) Approach-avoidance conflicts

(b) Avoidance-avoidance confects

(c) Approach-approach conflict

(d) Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts

315. A young woman who turns herself into a religious worker has a strong:

316. The author of the hierarchical theory of motivation is:

317. When progress towards a goal is blocked and underlying tension is unresolved, we speak of:

318. Survival needs activate the organism to:

(a) Provide for physiological deficits

(d) Gain status and recognition

(a) Inferred from behaviour

(c) Used to explain behaviour

(d) Used to predict behaviour

320. A motivated behaviour is directed towards:

321. Needs, drives or motives:

(a) Can be directly observed

(b) Cannot be directly observed

322. Gregariousness is a/an:

323. Individual’s life goal is:

324. When the motive has a biological or physiological basis, it is called a/an:

325. Motives are never observed directly but they are inferred from:

326. The first stage of motivational cycle is:

327. In studying motivation, we attempt to answer:

(a) The broadest “why” question of behaviour

(b) The innate releasing mechanism

328. The level of arousal is maintained by a structure in the brain stem called the:

(c) Reticular activating system

329. Motivation can be understood as an interaction between:

(c) Life space and Approach gradient

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gradient

330. Many years ago, an American Psychologist did a study in Orissa in which he found that achievement needs are higher in the business caste. What is his name?

331. A desire to achieve success and to meet some inner standard of excellence is a good definition of the:

332. The “need for success”, “expectancy for success” and the “incentive value of success” are three motivational factors which determine the strength of:

333. The need to achieve is jointly determined by:

(a) The expectation of success and the fear of failure

(b) The blocking of behaviour and fear of failure

(c) The drive stimulus and approach gradient

(d) The innate releasing mechanism and frustration

334. Social conformity can be described as a reverse:

335. F. H. Allport (1935) described social conformity as the:

336. As motivation is closely related to effort, the emotion is related to:

337. Fritz Heider, an Austrian psychologist, has given us a great deal of insight into:

(c) Interpersonal relationships

338. A motive ethnologically means that

339. Since motives activate the organism, they are also known as the:

340. The second stage of the motivational cycle is called the:

341. Prolactin, a hormone from the anterior pituitary gland plays an important role in motivating:

342. Behaviour of the mentally ill persons is greatly influenced by their:

(b) Innate Releasing Mechanism

343. Generally we infer needs and desires from:

344. Physiologists use the term homeostasis to describe the body’s tendency to maintain a balance or equilibrium among it’s:

(a) External physiological status and envi­ronment

(b) Internal physiological status and the en­vironment

(c) Displacement behaviour and encepha- lization

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gra­dient

345. The relative strength of the drives of hunger, thirst and sex have been studied experi­mentally in the white rat by:

(d) The choice and Preference Method

346. The technique by which the strength of need is measured in terms of readiness with which a task is learned under different conditions of motivation is known as:

(c) The choice and Preference Method

347. The technique for the measurement of needs by which the strength of a need is measured in terms of the magnitude of an obstacle or the number of times an obstacle of a given magnitude will be overcome in order to obtain a needed object is known as:

(d) The choice and Preference Method

348. A tension within an organism which tends to organize the field of the organism with respect to certain incentives or goals and to incite activity directed towards their attain­ment is called:

349. An intraorganic activity or condition of tissue supplying stimulation for a particular type of behaviour is known as:

350. Maslow viewed that motivated behaviour is:

351. “A goal refers to some substance, objects or environmental condition capable of reducing or temporarily eliminating the complex of internal conditions which initiated action.” This definition of “goal” was given by:

(c) Solomon and Corbit (1974)

352. Cannon called the concept of internal equilibrium and function as:

353. The expectations or goal that one sets to achieve in future keeping in view his past performance is called:

354. “The need for achievement” was first defined largely on the basis of clinical studies done by:

355. The achievement motivation theory of Mc Clelland is explained in terms of:

(a) “Affective Arousal model of moti­vation”

(c) Innate Releasing Mechanism

(e) Opponent Process Theory

356. Intrinsic Motivational Theory was propoun­ded by:

357. Psychoanalytic theory of motivation was developed by:

358. The goals which the person tries to escape are called:

359. A person’s need for feeling competent and self-determining in dealing with his environment is called:

360. When the motive is directed towards goals external to the person such as money or grade, it is called:

361. Steers and Porter (1975) in their text entitled “Motivation and work behaviour” identi­fied:

(a) Two major components of motivation

(b) Four major components of motivation

(c) Five major components of motivation

(d) Three major components of motivation

362. The conditions which influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviours relevant in work settings are called:

363. Intrinsic motivation as currently conceived is championed by:

364. Most of the research on intrinsic motivation has concentrated on the interaction between:

(a) Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards

(b) Instinct and imprinting

(c) Action specific energy and balance sheet grid

(d) Substitute behaviour and consummatory behaviour

365. An individual’s affective orientation towards particular outcomes is called the:

(b) Approach gradient of the outcome

(d) Avoidance gradient of the outcome

366. Dipboye (1977) distinguished between the strong and weak version of:

(a) Internal sources of behaviour

(b) External sources of behaviour

(c) Natural sources of behaviour

(d) Both subjective and objective sources of behaviour

368. Motives move a person from:

369. Literally, motivation means the process of inducing:

370. Motivation is defined as a state of the organism in which bodily energy is mobilised and selectively directed towards parts of the:

371. “Mobilisation of bodily energy” is otherwise known as:

372. The selected part of environment refers to the end results of behaviour sequence which are known as:

(a) Directional aspects of behaviour

(b) End result of instrumental behaviour

(c) Destination after conscious activities

374. When a motive is aroused and the organism is driven to a goal, a condition is produced within the organism called:

375. The tension increases when the goal is:

376. Those internal mechanisms of the body which, by controlling numerous highly complicated physiological processes, keep it in a state of equilibrium are known as:

377. Homeostasis is the overall term for equili­brium preserving tendencies with an orga­nism by which:

(a) Neurophysiological condition is main­tained

(b) Psychological condition is maintained

(c) Physiological condition is maintained

(d) Psychophysical condition is maintained

378. Curiosity comes under:

380. Maslow’s idea about the structure of needs is known as:

(a) Self-actualisation theory of motivation

(b) Physiological theory of motivation

(c) Psychological theory of motivation

(d) Psychophysical theory of motivation

381. “Intrinsic motivation theory” was developed by:

382. A person who is motivated displays:

383. The process of maintaining the biochemical balance or equalibrium throughout human body is referred as:

384. Which one of the following is not a psy­chological motive?

385. ‘The competition of two or more contra­dictory impulses, usually accompanied by emotional tension is called a/an:

386. An object or thing which directs or stimu­lates behaviour:

387. A pituitary hormone associated with the secretion of milk is known as:

388. A motive that is primarily learned rather than basing on biological needs is known as:

(c) Neurophysiological Motive

389. During 1950s, psychologists began to be disenchanted with the drive reduction theory of motivation as an explanation of:

(b) Only certain types of physiological behaivour

(c) Only certain types of psychological behaviour

(d) Both physiological and psychological behaviour

390. The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of:

(d) Both food and water intake

391. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is otherwise known as:

392. Research evidences indicated that vent­romedial hypothalamus (VMH):

(d) Inhibits eating expedites eating

393. Electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypo­thalamus (VMH) cells:

(d) Both expedites and inhibits eating

394. Injections of glucose (which raise blood sugar level):

(c) Both expedite and facilitate eating

395. Injections of insulin (which lower blood sugar level):

396. Studies indicated that the hypothalamus contains cells (glucoreceptors) sensitive to the rate of which:

(a) Glucose passes through them

(b) Glucose stimulates them

(d) Glucose both stimulates and inhibits them

397. An empty stomach produces the periodic contractions of muscles in the stomach wall which we identify as:

398. Obesity is thought to stem from disturbances during the:

(a) Phallic stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(b) Oral and Anal stages of psychosexual development

(c) Genital stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(d) Latency period of psychosexual deve­lopment

399. Dehydration of the osmoreceptors can be produced by depriving the organism of:

400. Water deficit in the body increases the concentration of:

401. Realistic anxiety is otherwise known as:

402. In “moral anxiety”, ego’s dependence upon:

403. Neurotic anxiety is one in which there occurs emotional response to a threat to ego that the impulses may break through into:

404. Sometimes the superego gives threats to punish the ego. This causes an emotional response called:

405. Always we want to protect ego from the ensuring anxiety. For doing this, ego adopts some strategies which are called:

406. Defense mechanisms help the person in protecting ego from open expression of id impulses and opposing:

407. Defense mechanisms operate at unconscious level. They occur without awareness of the individual. Hence they are:

408. A child scolded by his father may hit his younger sublings. This is an example of:

409. “A young woman after fighting with her husband returned to her parent’s home only to allow her parents to “baby” her and fulfil her every wish like that of a child”. This is an illustration of:

410. The last stage of psychosexual development is:

411. Sigmund Freud has regarded the first three stages of psychosexual development i.e., the period of 5 or 6 years of life, to be decisive for the formation of:

412. In the book “Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego”, Freud has explained the formation of:

413. Freud had published a book “Totem and Taboo” in 1913. By publishing this book, he has shown his concern for:

414. Who viewed, “A person is brown with sex, lives in sex and finally dies in sex” ?

415. Who said that after birth, the child has a strong frustrating experience?

416. “Penis envy” is found in girls in:

417. Homosexuality is a derivative of:

418. The Oral, Anal and Phallic stages of Psychosexual Development are called:

419. The genital stage is generally characterized by object choices rather than by:

420. In Anal Stage of Psychosexual Develop­ment, pleasure is derived from:

(d) Expulsion and Retention

421. The “Super ego” is the equivalent of what is more commonly known as the:

422. The psychoanalysis performed in a con­trolled setting is known as:

423. A state of deep unconsciousness, with non- responsiveness to stimulation, is known as:

424. In 1895, Freud and Breuer published a book entitled:

(b) Interpretation of Dreams

(d) Psychopathology of Everyday Life

425. Studies of Freud and Breuer reported successful treatment of hysterical symptoms by a method called:

426. The success of the cathartic method was regarded by Freud as evidence of the:

427. From the experiences in hypnotism and catharsis, Freud’s theory of:

(a) Unconscious was derived

428. Dreams represent demands or wishes stemming from the:

429. In a special book, Freud analyzed the psychology of error and found the source of errors in the conflict between:

(b) Unconscious wish and conscious censorship

(c) Conscious wish and unconscious censorship

430. The parts of the body that are capable of reacting to sexual stimuli are called:

431. The main erotogenic zone of our body is:

432. According to Freud, the entire activity of men is bent upon procuring pleasure and avoiding pain. This activity is controlled by:

433. The urethral development stage is an introductory period to the:

434. The very term “Phallic” is derived from “Phallos”, which means:

435. Urethral eroticism is mainly:

436. According to Freud, the negative Oedipus complex may lead to:

437. The idea of developmental stages was borrowed by Freud from:

438. The diversion of a part of the sexual energy into non-sexual activities is called:

439. The term “defense mechanism” was introduced by:

440. Moving away from the reality is called the mechanism of:

Answers

301. (a) 302. (c) 303. (a) 304. (a) 305. (d) 306. (a) 307. (b) 308. (d) 309. (d) 310. (c) 311. (c) 312. (c) 313. (a) 314. (a) 315. (b) 316. (d) 317. (a) 318. (a) 319. (a) 320. (c) 321. (b) 322. (a) 323. (c) 324. (a) 325. (d) 326. (a) 327. (a) 328. (c) 329. (a) 330. (d) 331. (a) 332. (d) 333. (a) 334. (a) 335. (d) 336. (a) 337. (c) 338. (a) 339. (c) 340. (b) 341. (a) 342. (c) 343. (d) 344. (b) 345. (b) 346. (d) 347. (b) 348. (a) 349. (c) 350. (a) 351. (b) 352. (c) 353. (d) 354. (a) 355. (a) 356. (c) 357. (a) 358. (d) 359. (a) 360. (a) 361. (d) 362. (a) 363. (c) 364. (a) 365. (c) 366. (d) 367. (a) 368. (a) 369. (a) 370. (d) 371. (a) 372. (c) 373. (a) 374. (b) 375. (c) 376. (a) 377. (a) 378. (b) 379. (c) 380. (a) 381. (a) 382. (d) 383. (c) 384. (d) 385. (a) 386. (b) 387. (a) 388. (d) 389. (a) 390. (a) 391. (c) 392. (d) 393. (a) 394. (d) 395. (a) 396. (a) 397. (d) 398. (b) 399. (b) 400. (d) 401. (a) 402. (a) 403. (a) 404. (a) 405. (a) 406. (a) 407. (b) 408. (a) 409. (b) 410. (b) 411. (b) 412. (b) 413. (a) 414. (b) 415. (b) 416. (d) 417. (b) 418. (a) 419. (b) 420. (d) 421. (a) 422. (c) 423. (a) 424. (a) 425. (c) 426. (a) 427. (a) 428. (a) 429. (b) 430. (a) 431. (b) 432. (b) 433. (b) 434. (a) 435. (a) 436. (b) 437. (a) 438. (d) 439. (a) 440. (b)

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Theories of Personality: 5 Theories | Children | Psychology

The following points highlight the five main theories of personality. The theories are: 1. The Factorial Theory (R.B. Cattle) 2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport) 3. Murray’s Theory of Personality 4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein) 5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin).

1. The Factorial Theory (R.B. Cattle):

This theory has been developed by R.B. Cattle. He has defined the term personality.

“Personality is that which permits a prediction of a person what will he do in a given situation.”

Main Features of his Theory:

It has the following main three characteristics:

1. He has restricted to ‘units of behaviour.’ It must be integrated into a larger whole, is the true picture of the functioning of personality.

2. Both types of traits physiological and psychological are possible units of behaviour. But Cattle favours the trait approach is more fruitful.

3. The traits are inferred from the individual behaviour i.e., personality is an integration of traits.

The traits are classified into categories:

Surface traits are revealed by correlating traits elements or traits indicators which are behaviour sample which go together, independence, boldness alertness with enthusiasm.

Source traits are revealed by factor analysis and represent deeper level viable and more significant aspect of personality.

He found by conducting experiments that units of behaviour found to correspond to most fundamental influence, physiological, temperamental and social which give rise to personality.

In repeated factorial studies Cattle has found evidences for as many as 15 source traits. However, only six are repeatedly confirmed and unmistakable.

1. Cyclothymic Vs Seluzithymic (constitutional)

2. General mental capacity Vs Mental defect.

4. Adventures cyclothymic Vs Anxiety seluzithymic.

5. Socialized, cultured Vs Boovishness

6. Bohemian concerned Vs Conventional or personality.

Further Classification of Traits:

The traits can also be classified into two major categories:

1. Environmental Mold Traits

2. Constitutional Traits (Hereditary determinants).

1. Environmental mold traits are of three types:

(a) Dynamic- Goal direct behaviour.

(b) Ability- How well he worked towards the goal.

(c) Temperament- Emotional activities. Speed or energy with which he reacts.

Dynamics of the Functioning of Personality:

It depends on two components:

(i) Base Ergs have five sources:

(a) A dynamic constitutional source trait.

(b) Selectively turned towards certain environmental objects.

(c) An ergic pattern carries with it a certain characteristic of emotion.

(d) The pattern results in a certain specific type of goal satisfaction.

(e) An innate preference for path leading to goal.

Examples of ergs are sex, self-assertion, fear, gregariousness parental, protectiveness, appear of self, abasement, play curiosity and narcissism.

(ii) Meta Ergs have two sources:

(a) In all respects like erg except that it is an environmental mold trait attitude, sentiments and motives.

(b) Meta erg is also learned.

Development of Personality:

It the development of personality R.B. Cattle has emphasized, unfolding maturational processes and their modification through learning and experience. He suggests four ways for developing personality of an individual.

2. Elaboration of Meta ergs.

3. Organization of self, and

4. Dynamic lattices involving subsidization, chaining ergs and Meta ergs.

In this way, Cattle have developed seventeen principles for developing personality of an individual.

Evaluation of the Factorial Theory:

1. He has used ‘factor analysis’ method for developing his theory of personality. Therefore, it is mainly influenced by demerits of factor analysis method.

2. He has given main stress on traits and ergs in his theory. Thus, the theory of dominated by traits and ergs. His theory seems to be very close to Murray’s theory.

3. A teacher has to modify the ergs of students and has to elaborate their meta-ergs to make his teaching effective.

4. He has not taken into consideration social variables in extracting the factors for personality interpretation.

2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport):

Allports theory of Personality is considered his significant contribution in psychology. It is also known as psychology of individuality. His approach in defining the personality is a synthesis of contemporary definitions.

Definition of Personality According to Allport:

“Personality is the dynamic organization within an individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environments.”

He has emphasized the following aspects of personality:

1. Personality as a dynamic or growing system of an individual.

2. It consists of psycho-physical system or factors.

3. Personality is the uniqueness of each individual.

4. The psycho-physical factors determine his adjustment to his environment. The adjustment is the function of the personality.

Allport views on personality span a period of 20 years duration.

He has been guided by the basic principles:

(a) To do justice for the complexity of personality compounded as it is hereditary, temperamental, social and psychological factors.

(b) To recognize or identify the uniqueness of each individual personality despite the many communities that exist among different people.

(c) Both nomothetic (universal laws) and ideography unique methods and combined to study the personality.

(d) He has opposed psycho-analytic view of personality dynamics in which present behaviour must be treated to its genetic origin.

Concept of Psychology of Individuality:

1. Functional autonomy of motives and

(1) Functional Autonomy of Motives:

It refers to the following sub-concepts:

It holds that adult motives are of varied nature.

“Self-sustaining contemporary systems, growing out of antecedent systems but functionally independent of them.”

It refers to the observation that a given activity originally serving a motive may becoming motivating in its own right, hence autonomous.

It explains the transformation of the selfish child into socialized adult. It accounts for the force e.g., phobia delusion and other forms of compulsive behaviour.

The driving force behind such complex activities as craftsmanship, artistic, endeavour and genius is explained as love of the activity for its own sake.

Traits and attitudes are both the central concepts in the psychology of personality.

Definition of a Trait:

“A trait is a generalized and vocalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour.”

(a) Traits are functionally autonomous reaction tendencies which are aroused by focal classes of stimulus situations.

(b) Such reaction tendencies are, in a sense unique for each individual personality, but because of common biological and environmental influences many traits may be considered as common traits, thus allowing for the measurement and prediction of behaviour.

Characteristics of Traits:

The following are the main characteristics of traits:

1. Traits are both general and focal.

2. Traits are around by certain classes of stimuli and not by specific stimuli.

3. Traits have dominance tendency in the presence of other people.

4. Traits are consistent or permanent in nature.

Classification of Traits:

Traits are classified into two categories- Individual traits, and Common trait.

In a sense every trait is an individual trait.

This may be of following types:

Cordial traits are outstanding all pervasive, dominant in the individual life a ruling passion.

Central traits are focal of personality, ordinary measured by rating scale, mentioned in conversation and described in words of recommendation.

Personality demonstrates a unity and integration of different type trait he shows his concerns with the problem of identifying the inner essence of personality.

The concept of self includes the bodily sense, self-identity, awareness of continuity of self, ego enhancement ego excitation, identification of external objects with the self, rational cognitive function, the self-images, appropriate striving refers to the self as opposed to behaviour which is peripheral to the self.

The forms of behaviour that serve self-realization represent growth or abundance motivation as opposed to deficiency of motivation.

Evaluation of Allports Theory:

It has the following merits and demerits of this theory:

(1) His theory is quite influential among those psychologists whose major concern is with area of personality.

(2) His theory seems to be more comprehensive to cover all aspects of an individual.

(3) He has tried to explain the phenomenon of self but self has been vindicated.

(4) He is very tender minded on theorizing the psychology of personality or individuality.

(5) He is greatly influenced by existentialism.

3. Murray’s Theory of Personality :

Murray’s theory of personality resembles with Allports in its humanistic, holistic and elective orientation to the problems involved in developing a theory of personality.

This theory of Murray has been greatly influenced by psycho-analytic theory of personality. He has placed great stress on the importance of environmental influence on the individual. It has consistently stressed on the physiological processes which are underlying in behaviour manifestation.

Definition of Personality:

According to Murray “Personality is the continuity of functional forms and press manifested through sequences of organized regiment processes and overt behaviours, from birth to death.”

This definition of personality includes the following characteristics of personality:

(a) Continuity in the functional forms.

(b) Regnant processes dynamically organized brain activities.

(c) Emphasis on functional forms i.e., overt behaviour.

Concept Related to Personality:

Murray’s theory is also known as ‘Theory of Need’. He has defined the term need.

“A need is a construct (hypothetical force) which stands for a force (the physic chemical nature which is unknown) in the brain region, a force which organized perception, apperception intellection, conation and action in such a way as to transform in certain direction an existing unsatisfying situation.

According to Murray, an unsatisfied need would arouse the person to work that would be sustained until satisfaction had been attained.

All needs have been classified into two broad categories:

Vicerogenic Needs are also known as primary needs which are essential for the survival of an organism. They include hunger, thirst, sex, water, food secretion, defecation, urination, warmth, etc.

Psychogenic Needs are the secondary which emerge out of primary needs. Murray has given a long list of these needs.

Some important Murray’s needs are as follows:

21. Proceedings-Internal and External

23. Development of Personality.

Evaluation of Murray’s Theory:

It has the following advantages and limitations:

1. Murray approach is elective to the theory of personality. He tries to integrate the concepts of theorists of personality.

2. He has emphasized on dynamic and perceptual factors, but he has ignored ‘self and individuality.

3. His theory appears to be more complex. The need press concept is very close to psycho-analytic theory.

4. He has given main stress on secondary needs in explaining the personality. Other aspects, intellectual, social and physical have not been considered.

4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein):

He takes biological view in explaining a person. He looks for mental and emotional factors operating in organic conditions. Psycho-biological concept is better working hypothesis for psychiatric work and mental metrics. The study of nervous system come of these developments proceeds from whole to the part.

Characteristics of the Theory:

The following are the main characteristics of this theory:

1. It emphasises on individual as whole. Individual is regarded as a unity in multiplicity.

2. An individual is to be described with regard to situation and the individual continually changes by environment to achieve optimal performance.

3. An individual has relationship with environment with three levels:

(a) Biological level concerns with needs hunger, thirst and sex.

(b) Psychological level reacts to the environment taking part in the environment.

(c) Valuation level concerns with appreciation and values for the effectiveness and tries to evaluation the environment.

According to Goldstein there is only one drive, the drive is self-actualization with in self. Making the hidden potential to make the self-real.

The self is the integrating factor in conscious experiences. Psychology of self means as conceived organized whole round the concept of self.

Goldstein recognizes five characteristics of self:

i. Self is complex, relates to functions as feeling of self, willing of self and thinking of self.

ii. Self is relatively persistence.

iii. Self is unique and replaceable. Two persons cannot feel in similar manner.

iv. Self-feeling, thinking and willing cannot be replaced by the individual experiences.

v. Self is an agent which is related to conscious of an object or person.

The function of an individual is the whole not a part of his experiences.

It is the characteristic in developing the child totality in the environment influences. One trait converses to the conversion. The conversion leads to personality. The group of traits leads to another traits of the personality. A person is the combination or bundle of traits. The traits react together. The person is endowed with traits.

Whatever is salient at the same time imrabbed in deeper layers of a person when we take on the topic ‘the deeper layers’ of conscious comes out? The salient has its roots in unconscious mind layers of personality.

Evaluation of Organismic Theory:

The following are the merits and demerits of this theory:

1. It has emphasized the biological and psychological levels or factors.

2. The environment plays significant role in the development of personality.

3. It has also stressed upon self. Self has been defined in detail.

4. The theory involves to sub-theory of conversion and salient.

5. The theory has emphasized the whole person not a part.

5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin):

This theory describes how a person gains understanding of himself and his world in a situation where he and his environment compose totality of mutual interdependent and coexisting fact.

This is also known as cognitive field theory of learning. Under this theory learning is defined as relativistic process by which a learner develops new insight or changes old once in no sense is learning a mechanistic automatic process of connecting stimulus and response within a biological organism. Insight consciously defined basic sense of feeling for relationship, insight into matter into its meaning persons insight collectively constitute, the cognitive structure of life space.

Cognitive structure the way of a person how he perceives i.e., psychological aspects of a personal physical and social world. Such a world includes a person and all his facts, concepts, beliefs and expectation, consequently the cognitive structure of life space, figures in the development language, emotion actions and social inter-correlation.

Cognitive Field Psychology:

The development of cognitive field psychology is attributed largely Kurt Lewin and his associates. Kurt Lewin considered psychology (Action research) as a science closely related to everyday life. The centre of Lewin psychological interest was in motivating conditions of a person environment situation and furthermore he was extremely in democratic practice and principles. Although field theory is applicable in all field of psychology it is particularly useful in social personality and educational psychology.

Lewin’s goal was to make the concept of field psychology of sufficient scope, applicable to all kind of behaviour and yet specific enough to permanent representative of definite person in concert situation. He observed that Laws of (S-R) association in psychology are based on statistical predication and that statistical prediction may apply to the average of children or to the typical behaviour age group, but they do anticipate what will do in specific situation.

To give prediction in specific situation man’s behaviour and ‘topology.’ He thought the objective psychology demands field adequately and accurately it exists for an individual at particular time, consequently to be objective field of Psychology:

Methods of Cognitive Field Psychology:

Kurt Lewin field psychology is more precisely called topological vector psychology is developing his psychology. He borrowed this idea and concepts from other subjects namely Physics and Geometry. The key concepts which he borrowed where topology from geometry, vector from physics. In using these related concepts he died add rigidly to the definite of mother science. But constitute them in manner most useful in system of psychology, through the use of topology and vector concept.

Lewin pictured the psychological reality in term of field relationship of a person and these environments in so doing he applied method of field theory, it had been developed physical science however, concept of physical sciences did not lend themselves. He did not use same concept and fact did field theory in sister sciences. The following terms summarized the concept of field theory.

A consciously behaving self centre of abilities and needs that child, when he says ‘I am.’

State of a person which they exist in relation to a goal and determination towards that goal, correspond to tension system inner person.

Ability means cognitive concept to know environment, exclusive capacity to manipulate environment. Everything in which person can make psychological moment to do anything about. Person and environment are mutually dependent one another.

4. Cognitive Structure:

An environment including a person as known by the person he has one dimension clarity (insight or understanding).

Foreign Hull of a life space complex of none psychological environment or facts which surrounds a life space that part of person’s physical environment particular environment which does not include in psychological environment, physical social raw material foreign hull tends behavioural possibilities.

Kurt Lewin and Hull are mathematician psychology. Hull verified 16 postulate by mathematical formula. Similarly, Lewin reduces his concept and proved by vector and by topology.

Values are of two types negative and positive. If an individual is drawn towards the life space positive valence and away from it negative valence. The person tends to move in that region or away from it i.e., valence.

It relates to the relative position of respective region of a person temporarily continue to life space when we consider a study of a person-environmental situation, behavioural adequately devotes changes which occurs in life space.

Which very closely related and descriptive to psychological needs, the state of one system relative to the stage of surrounding system. It is either created as result of opposed forces or induced by internal physiological changes or external stimuli and inner personal region may come into equilibrium in state of tension, release of tension may be achieved either through reaching goal, restricting the life space.

A region of valence it is common point toward which forces within a life space point. It is a region of life space to which a person has psychological attractive barrier it is dynamic part of environment which resists motion through it, that which stands in the way a person reaching to goal.

Essential Feature of Field Theory:

The unique approach to the study of perception and reality is one of the features of this theory other important characteristics are interpreted intelligence behaviour as propulsive.

It emphasizes psychological function rather than objects a situational approach a historical point of view and stress up the principle of contemporally:

1. Perception and Reality:

There is no absolute, it is defined relatives.

2. Purposiveness of Behaviour:

Simultaneous and mutual interaction. A person and his environment are simultaneous interacting and participating in perception neither the organism nor the environment made the factor.

In classroom situation the different of behaviour of students to different teacher. Simultaneous mutually interaction is different individual environment. An intelligence behaviour is purposive. When a child behaving purposively he is pursuing his goal and enlighten his insights. It means that he has intelligence behaviour.

3. Emphasis on Psychological Environment:

Emphasis on psychological environment is rather than function. Every individual has its own psychological environment.

4. Situational Emphasis:

The situation as whole is to be taken into account for psychological study. The specific details and various aspects of situation come later at no time aspect of field viewed as isolated elements. Here Lewin concept is Gestalt.

5. The Principle of Contemporarily Literally:

Meaning of contemporarily is at all time. Whatever, the length of time everything is going at once. Lewin lays emphasis on the past also.

Educational Implications of Field Theory:

1. Learning as Change in Cognitive Structure:

As one learns one increase in knowledge. A change in the structure of knowledge (cognitive structure), may occur with repetition. The important thing is that the cognitive structure gets changed, not the repetitions occur it depends on the better arrangement of situation. Change in cognitive structure come about in the part. A psychological force may have two consequences. It can lead to locomotion and change the cognitive structure.

2. Reward and Punishment:

Those who accept law of effect or reinforcement theories have seldom analyzed in detail what circumstances are which force the learner to confront the reward or the threat or punishment. The punishment is used to keep the learner at an intrinsically disliked task the tendency is to leave the field. Reward situation is attractive and keeps the learner in the field.

3. Success and Failure:

It is more appropriate to think of the goal actively as successful or unsuccessful rather than or rewarding or punishing.

(i) To reach the goal constitutes success positive valence.

(ii) To get within the region of the goal may be successful experience.

(iii) To make noticeable progress toward a goal may provide a successful experience.

(iv) To select a socially approved goal may in itself be a successful experience.

It is Lewin’s credit is that he made serious effort to deal with psychological real problem.

Psychological success and failure depends upon ego involvement in the task at hand that is the goals must be real to the learner. Easy word is not spelled correctly it not the psychological failure. Experienced teachers know how hard it is to keep task at an appropriate level of difficulty so that the learner remain ego involved.

4. Learning as a Change in Behaviour:

The goal attractiveness is what Lewin calls valence and valence change.

Often desirable outcome is a change in the interest of the learner, that is, changes in the relative attractiveness of one goal over another.

Goals originally unattractive may become acceptable through a change in the meaning of the goal related activity. There are many teaching techniques which depend upon this principle.

(i) Changing of food preference by telling a story.

(ii) This is common radio devices for instruction.

(iii) The behaviour of teacher necessary change cognitive structure of the student fear of change in valence.

5. The Field Theory is significant for a group of children who are more than average and have the ability to see the relationship different person and goal. It is therefore, useful for teaching the bright children.

6. It emphasises, the development of insight and change in cognitive structure. Every experienced teacher should be careful while interpreting the behaviour pattern of the class.

7. Subject-matter presented in the class should be based on the student experiences this is also guided by the field theory.

8. The field theory encourages the teacher to be active and self-organizer. It also emphasises dynamic learning which can prove much useful for teacher in the class.

9. The concept of frustration, conflict and aspiration can be analyzed in teaching learning situation, can be better understood by the field theory.

10. The approach of the teacher in the classroom should be situational oriented, i.e., the most important contribution.

Freud theory emphasizes the biological drives-hunger, excretion and sex in particular. Most other theories place somewhat great emphasis on social factors. Adler emphasizes the concept of the inferiority complex and the concept of compensation. All parts theory of personality emphasize traits.

Trait Theory of Personality:

One is the concept of the uniqueness of personality. Each person having his unique background of child experiences develops a set of traits that are unique to him.

Second feature of the theory is the concepts of functional autonomy of motives. Each person acquires motivation as part of satisfying other motives.

Constitutional Theory:

Personality is determined at least in part, by the constitutional make-up of the person.

(a) Components of Body Build:

(iii) Ectomorphy, Somatic features.

(b) Components of Temperaments:

Behaviourism of School Concept of Psychology:

It is the sum total of all activities by which an individual is known in the social world. A social personality on whose activities are mainly social. Intellectual personality one which does intellectual activities. The sum of (S-R) makes the personality structure. External environment has great influence on the personality development.

Pleasure and Pain Principle:

This operates at the initial stage. Heredity factor has no effect on personality development, 100 per cent effect of environment on the personality development.

Main sources environment mood of acquiring behaviour conditioning a habit. Hereditary factors consist of anatomical, physiological and mineralogical growth which follows maturation and produces difference in personality make up by different kind of secretion.

Recent Approach to the Personality:

Mainly personality consists four aspects:

1. Cognitive function (awareness of self, sensation perception memory, intelligence, learning, ability, attitude).

2. Affective function (temperament).

3. Conative function (character) feeling, emotion, sublimation.

4. Physiological aspect or functions (body formation).

Personality has a hierarchical organization of all these cognitive, affective, conative, physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect conative physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect constitutes the personality structure.

(1) Specific Response:

If an organism responds in different ways in different situation in different time, then the behaviour is termed as a specific response.

If an organism gives the same response for the same situation at different time then it is termed as habit response.

Persistent behaviour of the same situation is called habit response or habit formation.

If an organism gives the same response in different situation at different time, then response is termed as trait response.

The trait is the persistent behaviour in different situation and different time the response is same.

SR →HR → TR → TP (Type of Personality). This hierarchy constitutes the personality type.

Putting a person into a group or category, it gives a general description of person is easier.

To describe a personal characteristic of persistence behaviour in specific situation. It is difficult to describe two individual or into the same category, but they differ the trait of a specific characteristic. Same type of traits of people may be classified into different type of personality.


The impact of stimulus valence and emotion regulation on sustained brain activation: task-rest switching in emotion

Task-rest interactions, defined as the modulation of brain activation during fixation periods depending on the preceding stimulation and experimental manipulation, have been described repeatedly for different cognitively demanding tasks in various regions across the brain. However, task-rest interactions in emotive paradigms have received considerably less attention. In this study, we therefore investigated task-rest interactions evoked by the induction and instructed regulation of negative emotion. Whole-brain, functional MRI data were acquired from 55 healthy participants. Two-level general linear model statistics were computed to test for differences between conditions, separately for stimulation and for fixation periods, as well as for interactions between stimulation and fixation (task-rest interactions). Results showed that the regulation of negative emotion led to reverse task-rest interactions (decreased activation during stimulation but increased activation during fixation) in the amygdala as well as in visual cortex regions and to concordant task-rest interactions (increased activation during both, stimulation and fixation) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as in a number of brain regions at the intersection of the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. Thus, this first whole-brain investigation of task-rest interactions following the induction and regulation of negative emotion identified a widespread specific modulation of brain activation in regions subserving emotion generation and regulation as well as regions implicated in attention and default mode.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


What is VADER?

One of the most popular rule-based sentiment analysis models is VADER. VADER, or Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner, is a lexicon and rule-based sentiment analysis tool specifically attuned to sentiments expressed in social media.

VADER is like the GPT-3 of Rule-Based NLP Models.

Since it is tuned for social media content, it performs best on the content you can find on social media. However, it still offers acceptable F1 Scores on other test sets, and provides a comparable performance compared to complex statistical models such as Support Vector Machines, as you can see below:

Note that there are several alternative lexicons that you can use for your project, such as Harvard’s General Inquirer, Loughran McDonald, Hu & Liu. In this tutorial, we will adopt the VADER’s lexicon along with its methodology.

Now that you have a basic understanding of rule-based NLP models, we can proceed with our tutorial. This tutorial will approach a classic sentiment analysis problem from a rule-based NLP perspective: A Lexicon-based sentiment analysis on the IMDB Reviews Dataset.


Psychology Question Bank &ndash 440 MCQs on "Motivation and Emotions" – Part 4

440 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers on “Motivation and Emotions” for Psychology Students – Part 4:

301. The manufacture of adrenalin and noradrenalin is controlled by:

302. Repression is a common mode of resolving:

303. The defense mechanisms are reactions to:

304. Dynamic psychology is the psychology of:

(b) Perception and Attention

(d) Personality and Intelligence

305. Both the terms “emotion” and “motivation” came from the same Latin root:

306. According to Lewin, tensions are emotional states which accompany:

307. In avoidance-avoidance conflict, the indi­vidual is compelled to choose between:

(a) One positive and one negative alter­native

(b) Two negative alternatives

(c) Two positive alternatives

(d) Two negative alternatives and two posi­tive alternatives

308. A releaser is a highly specific stimulus that “triggers” or initiates:

(d) Species-specific behaviour

309. Who assumed that human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of potency?

310. Corpus luteum and placenta of pregnant women secret the hormone:

311. According to Maslow, the self-actualizing tendency is:

312. Need for achievement can be measured by:

(c) TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)

(d) Semantic Differential scale

313. The desire to be with one’s own kind is termed as:

314. The type of conflict in which the goal of the individual has both positive and negative valence of approximate equal intensity is known as:

(a) Approach-avoidance conflicts

(b) Avoidance-avoidance confects

(c) Approach-approach conflict

(d) Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts

315. A young woman who turns herself into a religious worker has a strong:

316. The author of the hierarchical theory of motivation is:

317. When progress towards a goal is blocked and underlying tension is unresolved, we speak of:

318. Survival needs activate the organism to:

(a) Provide for physiological deficits

(d) Gain status and recognition

(a) Inferred from behaviour

(c) Used to explain behaviour

(d) Used to predict behaviour

320. A motivated behaviour is directed towards:

321. Needs, drives or motives:

(a) Can be directly observed

(b) Cannot be directly observed

322. Gregariousness is a/an:

323. Individual’s life goal is:

324. When the motive has a biological or physiological basis, it is called a/an:

325. Motives are never observed directly but they are inferred from:

326. The first stage of motivational cycle is:

327. In studying motivation, we attempt to answer:

(a) The broadest “why” question of behaviour

(b) The innate releasing mechanism

328. The level of arousal is maintained by a structure in the brain stem called the:

(c) Reticular activating system

329. Motivation can be understood as an interaction between:

(c) Life space and Approach gradient

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gradient

330. Many years ago, an American Psychologist did a study in Orissa in which he found that achievement needs are higher in the business caste. What is his name?

331. A desire to achieve success and to meet some inner standard of excellence is a good definition of the:

332. The “need for success”, “expectancy for success” and the “incentive value of success” are three motivational factors which determine the strength of:

333. The need to achieve is jointly determined by:

(a) The expectation of success and the fear of failure

(b) The blocking of behaviour and fear of failure

(c) The drive stimulus and approach gradient

(d) The innate releasing mechanism and frustration

334. Social conformity can be described as a reverse:

335. F. H. Allport (1935) described social conformity as the:

336. As motivation is closely related to effort, the emotion is related to:

337. Fritz Heider, an Austrian psychologist, has given us a great deal of insight into:

(c) Interpersonal relationships

338. A motive ethnologically means that

339. Since motives activate the organism, they are also known as the:

340. The second stage of the motivational cycle is called the:

341. Prolactin, a hormone from the anterior pituitary gland plays an important role in motivating:

342. Behaviour of the mentally ill persons is greatly influenced by their:

(b) Innate Releasing Mechanism

343. Generally we infer needs and desires from:

344. Physiologists use the term homeostasis to describe the body’s tendency to maintain a balance or equilibrium among it’s:

(a) External physiological status and envi­ronment

(b) Internal physiological status and the en­vironment

(c) Displacement behaviour and encepha- lization

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gra­dient

345. The relative strength of the drives of hunger, thirst and sex have been studied experi­mentally in the white rat by:

(d) The choice and Preference Method

346. The technique by which the strength of need is measured in terms of readiness with which a task is learned under different conditions of motivation is known as:

(c) The choice and Preference Method

347. The technique for the measurement of needs by which the strength of a need is measured in terms of the magnitude of an obstacle or the number of times an obstacle of a given magnitude will be overcome in order to obtain a needed object is known as:

(d) The choice and Preference Method

348. A tension within an organism which tends to organize the field of the organism with respect to certain incentives or goals and to incite activity directed towards their attain­ment is called:

349. An intraorganic activity or condition of tissue supplying stimulation for a particular type of behaviour is known as:

350. Maslow viewed that motivated behaviour is:

351. “A goal refers to some substance, objects or environmental condition capable of reducing or temporarily eliminating the complex of internal conditions which initiated action.” This definition of “goal” was given by:

(c) Solomon and Corbit (1974)

352. Cannon called the concept of internal equilibrium and function as:

353. The expectations or goal that one sets to achieve in future keeping in view his past performance is called:

354. “The need for achievement” was first defined largely on the basis of clinical studies done by:

355. The achievement motivation theory of Mc Clelland is explained in terms of:

(a) “Affective Arousal model of moti­vation”

(c) Innate Releasing Mechanism

(e) Opponent Process Theory

356. Intrinsic Motivational Theory was propoun­ded by:

357. Psychoanalytic theory of motivation was developed by:

358. The goals which the person tries to escape are called:

359. A person’s need for feeling competent and self-determining in dealing with his environment is called:

360. When the motive is directed towards goals external to the person such as money or grade, it is called:

361. Steers and Porter (1975) in their text entitled “Motivation and work behaviour” identi­fied:

(a) Two major components of motivation

(b) Four major components of motivation

(c) Five major components of motivation

(d) Three major components of motivation

362. The conditions which influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviours relevant in work settings are called:

363. Intrinsic motivation as currently conceived is championed by:

364. Most of the research on intrinsic motivation has concentrated on the interaction between:

(a) Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards

(b) Instinct and imprinting

(c) Action specific energy and balance sheet grid

(d) Substitute behaviour and consummatory behaviour

365. An individual’s affective orientation towards particular outcomes is called the:

(b) Approach gradient of the outcome

(d) Avoidance gradient of the outcome

366. Dipboye (1977) distinguished between the strong and weak version of:

(a) Internal sources of behaviour

(b) External sources of behaviour

(c) Natural sources of behaviour

(d) Both subjective and objective sources of behaviour

368. Motives move a person from:

369. Literally, motivation means the process of inducing:

370. Motivation is defined as a state of the organism in which bodily energy is mobilised and selectively directed towards parts of the:

371. “Mobilisation of bodily energy” is otherwise known as:

372. The selected part of environment refers to the end results of behaviour sequence which are known as:

(a) Directional aspects of behaviour

(b) End result of instrumental behaviour

(c) Destination after conscious activities

374. When a motive is aroused and the organism is driven to a goal, a condition is produced within the organism called:

375. The tension increases when the goal is:

376. Those internal mechanisms of the body which, by controlling numerous highly complicated physiological processes, keep it in a state of equilibrium are known as:

377. Homeostasis is the overall term for equili­brium preserving tendencies with an orga­nism by which:

(a) Neurophysiological condition is main­tained

(b) Psychological condition is maintained

(c) Physiological condition is maintained

(d) Psychophysical condition is maintained

378. Curiosity comes under:

380. Maslow’s idea about the structure of needs is known as:

(a) Self-actualisation theory of motivation

(b) Physiological theory of motivation

(c) Psychological theory of motivation

(d) Psychophysical theory of motivation

381. “Intrinsic motivation theory” was developed by:

382. A person who is motivated displays:

383. The process of maintaining the biochemical balance or equalibrium throughout human body is referred as:

384. Which one of the following is not a psy­chological motive?

385. ‘The competition of two or more contra­dictory impulses, usually accompanied by emotional tension is called a/an:

386. An object or thing which directs or stimu­lates behaviour:

387. A pituitary hormone associated with the secretion of milk is known as:

388. A motive that is primarily learned rather than basing on biological needs is known as:

(c) Neurophysiological Motive

389. During 1950s, psychologists began to be disenchanted with the drive reduction theory of motivation as an explanation of:

(b) Only certain types of physiological behaivour

(c) Only certain types of psychological behaviour

(d) Both physiological and psychological behaviour

390. The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of:

(d) Both food and water intake

391. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is otherwise known as:

392. Research evidences indicated that vent­romedial hypothalamus (VMH):

(d) Inhibits eating expedites eating

393. Electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypo­thalamus (VMH) cells:

(d) Both expedites and inhibits eating

394. Injections of glucose (which raise blood sugar level):

(c) Both expedite and facilitate eating

395. Injections of insulin (which lower blood sugar level):

396. Studies indicated that the hypothalamus contains cells (glucoreceptors) sensitive to the rate of which:

(a) Glucose passes through them

(b) Glucose stimulates them

(d) Glucose both stimulates and inhibits them

397. An empty stomach produces the periodic contractions of muscles in the stomach wall which we identify as:

398. Obesity is thought to stem from disturbances during the:

(a) Phallic stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(b) Oral and Anal stages of psychosexual development

(c) Genital stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(d) Latency period of psychosexual deve­lopment

399. Dehydration of the osmoreceptors can be produced by depriving the organism of:

400. Water deficit in the body increases the concentration of:

401. Realistic anxiety is otherwise known as:

402. In “moral anxiety”, ego’s dependence upon:

403. Neurotic anxiety is one in which there occurs emotional response to a threat to ego that the impulses may break through into:

404. Sometimes the superego gives threats to punish the ego. This causes an emotional response called:

405. Always we want to protect ego from the ensuring anxiety. For doing this, ego adopts some strategies which are called:

406. Defense mechanisms help the person in protecting ego from open expression of id impulses and opposing:

407. Defense mechanisms operate at unconscious level. They occur without awareness of the individual. Hence they are:

408. A child scolded by his father may hit his younger sublings. This is an example of:

409. “A young woman after fighting with her husband returned to her parent’s home only to allow her parents to “baby” her and fulfil her every wish like that of a child”. This is an illustration of:

410. The last stage of psychosexual development is:

411. Sigmund Freud has regarded the first three stages of psychosexual development i.e., the period of 5 or 6 years of life, to be decisive for the formation of:

412. In the book “Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego”, Freud has explained the formation of:

413. Freud had published a book “Totem and Taboo” in 1913. By publishing this book, he has shown his concern for:

414. Who viewed, “A person is brown with sex, lives in sex and finally dies in sex” ?

415. Who said that after birth, the child has a strong frustrating experience?

416. “Penis envy” is found in girls in:

417. Homosexuality is a derivative of:

418. The Oral, Anal and Phallic stages of Psychosexual Development are called:

419. The genital stage is generally characterized by object choices rather than by:

420. In Anal Stage of Psychosexual Develop­ment, pleasure is derived from:

(d) Expulsion and Retention

421. The “Super ego” is the equivalent of what is more commonly known as the:

422. The psychoanalysis performed in a con­trolled setting is known as:

423. A state of deep unconsciousness, with non- responsiveness to stimulation, is known as:

424. In 1895, Freud and Breuer published a book entitled:

(b) Interpretation of Dreams

(d) Psychopathology of Everyday Life

425. Studies of Freud and Breuer reported successful treatment of hysterical symptoms by a method called:

426. The success of the cathartic method was regarded by Freud as evidence of the:

427. From the experiences in hypnotism and catharsis, Freud’s theory of:

(a) Unconscious was derived

428. Dreams represent demands or wishes stemming from the:

429. In a special book, Freud analyzed the psychology of error and found the source of errors in the conflict between:

(b) Unconscious wish and conscious censorship

(c) Conscious wish and unconscious censorship

430. The parts of the body that are capable of reacting to sexual stimuli are called:

431. The main erotogenic zone of our body is:

432. According to Freud, the entire activity of men is bent upon procuring pleasure and avoiding pain. This activity is controlled by:

433. The urethral development stage is an introductory period to the:

434. The very term “Phallic” is derived from “Phallos”, which means:

435. Urethral eroticism is mainly:

436. According to Freud, the negative Oedipus complex may lead to:

437. The idea of developmental stages was borrowed by Freud from:

438. The diversion of a part of the sexual energy into non-sexual activities is called:

439. The term “defense mechanism” was introduced by:

440. Moving away from the reality is called the mechanism of:

Answers

301. (a) 302. (c) 303. (a) 304. (a) 305. (d) 306. (a) 307. (b) 308. (d) 309. (d) 310. (c) 311. (c) 312. (c) 313. (a) 314. (a) 315. (b) 316. (d) 317. (a) 318. (a) 319. (a) 320. (c) 321. (b) 322. (a) 323. (c) 324. (a) 325. (d) 326. (a) 327. (a) 328. (c) 329. (a) 330. (d) 331. (a) 332. (d) 333. (a) 334. (a) 335. (d) 336. (a) 337. (c) 338. (a) 339. (c) 340. (b) 341. (a) 342. (c) 343. (d) 344. (b) 345. (b) 346. (d) 347. (b) 348. (a) 349. (c) 350. (a) 351. (b) 352. (c) 353. (d) 354. (a) 355. (a) 356. (c) 357. (a) 358. (d) 359. (a) 360. (a) 361. (d) 362. (a) 363. (c) 364. (a) 365. (c) 366. (d) 367. (a) 368. (a) 369. (a) 370. (d) 371. (a) 372. (c) 373. (a) 374. (b) 375. (c) 376. (a) 377. (a) 378. (b) 379. (c) 380. (a) 381. (a) 382. (d) 383. (c) 384. (d) 385. (a) 386. (b) 387. (a) 388. (d) 389. (a) 390. (a) 391. (c) 392. (d) 393. (a) 394. (d) 395. (a) 396. (a) 397. (d) 398. (b) 399. (b) 400. (d) 401. (a) 402. (a) 403. (a) 404. (a) 405. (a) 406. (a) 407. (b) 408. (a) 409. (b) 410. (b) 411. (b) 412. (b) 413. (a) 414. (b) 415. (b) 416. (d) 417. (b) 418. (a) 419. (b) 420. (d) 421. (a) 422. (c) 423. (a) 424. (a) 425. (c) 426. (a) 427. (a) 428. (a) 429. (b) 430. (a) 431. (b) 432. (b) 433. (b) 434. (a) 435. (a) 436. (b) 437. (a) 438. (d) 439. (a) 440. (b)

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Sentimental interplay between structured and unstructured user-generated contents : An empirical study on online hotel reviews

User-generated content (UGC), i.e. the feedback from consumers in the electronic market, including structured and unstructured types, has become increasingly important in improving online businesses. However, the ambiguity and heterogeneity, and even the conflict between the two types of UGC, require a better understanding from the perspective of human cognitive psychology. By using online feedback on hotel services, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of satisfaction level, opinion dispersion and cultural context background on the interrelationship between structured and unstructured UGC.

Design/methodology/approach

Natural language processing techniques – specifically, topic classification and sentiment analysis on the sentence level – are adopted to retrieve consumer sentiment polarity on five attributes relative to itemized ratings. Canonical correlation analyses are conducted to empirically validate the interplay between structured and unstructured UGC among different populations segmented by the mean-variance approach.

Findings

The variety of cognitions displayed by individuals affects the general significant interrelationship between structured and unstructured UGC. Extremely dissatisfied consumers or those with heterogeneous opinions tend to have a closer interconnection, and the interaction between valence and dispersion further strengthens or loosens the relationship. The satisfied or neutral consumers tend to show confounding sentiment signals in relation to the two different UGC. Chinese consumers behave differently from non-Chinese consumers, resulting in a relatively looser interplay.

Practical implications

By identifying consistent opinion providers and promoting more valuable UGC, UGC platforms can raise the quality of information generated. Hotels will then be able to enhance their services through the strategic use of UGC by analyzing reviews with dispersed low-itemized rating and by addressing the differences exhibited by non-Chinese customers. This analytical method can also help to create richly structured sentiment information from unstructured UGC.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the variety of cognitive behaviors in the process when UGC are contributed by online reviewers, focussing on the consistency between structured and unstructured UGC. The study helps researchers understanding emotion recognition and affective computing in social media analytics, which is achieved by exploring the variety of UGC information and its relationship to the contributors’ cognitions. The analytical framework adopted also improves the prior techniques.


ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

  • Applied Emotion and Motivation Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

An important function of emoji as communicative symbols is to convey emotional content from sender to receiver in computer-mediated communication, e. g., WhatsApp. However, compared with real faces, pictures or words, many emoji are ambiguous because they do not symbolize a discrete emotion or feeling state. Thus, their meaning relies on the context of the message in which they are embedded. Previous studies investigated affective judgments of pictures, faces, and words suggesting that these stimuli show a typical distribution along the big two emotion dimensions of valence and arousal. Also, emoji and emoticons have been investigated recently for their affective significance. The present study extends previous research by investigating affective ratings of emoji, emoticons and human faces and by direct comparison between them. In total, 60 stimuli have been rated by 83 participants (eight males, age: 18� years), using the non-verbal Self-Assessment Manikin Scales for valence and arousal. The emotionality of the stimuli was measured on a 9-point Likert scale. The results show significant main effects of the factors “stimulus category” and 𠇍iscrete emotion” including emotionality, valence and arousal. Also, the interaction between these two main factors was significant. Emoji elicited highest arousal, whereas stimuli related to happiness were rated highest in valence across stimulus categories. Angry emoji were rated highest in emotionality. Also, the discrete emotion was best recognized in emoji, followed by human face stimuli and lastly emoticons.


Conclusions, limitations, and future directions

In summary, the present database provides subjective ratings for 1,100 Chinese words for both affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) and various semantic variables (concreteness, imageability, context availability, and familiarity), and particularly focuses on the relationship between the affective variables (i.e., valence and arousal) and concreteness after controlling other semantic variables. Descriptive statistics for all variables are supplied in a PDF file as supplementary materials to this article. The correlation analysis carried out confirmed the reliability and consistency of the present data. The hierarchical regression carried out suggests that the affective variable ratings can predict concreteness ratings, which supports the idea that abstract words might have more affective associations than do concrete words (Kousta et al., 2011 Vigliocco et al., 2009) and confirms the findings of recent behavioral and event-related potential studies (Barber et al., 2013 Kanske & Kotz, 2007 Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, & Del Campo, 2011 Tse & Altarriba, 2009 Yao & Wang, 2013, 2014).

However, we did not include a measure of the age of acquisition (AoA) and the mode of acquisition (MoA) of the words, which may be limitations of this study. In fact, studies have shown that AoA and MoA can be important contributions to lexical processing and are related to the affective properties of words (Citron et al., 2014 Della Rosa et al., 2010 Moors et al., 2013). Therefore, a future study could expand the present database to include AoA and MoA values. In addition, we used a scale from unfamiliar to familiar to measure familiarity, which may have led to the meaning of familiarity being interpreted in different ways by participants (Montefinese et al. 2014). Thus, the familiarity index should be based on “subjective measures” of how often participants both use or are exposed to a given word (e.g., very often, very rarely) in future studies.

To conclude, the present study will be a valuable source of information for emotion research that makes use of Chinese words. This database enables researchers to use highly controlled Chinese verbal stimuli for the study of emotion and will allow them to investigate the relation between cognition and emotion more reliably.


Perception of valence and arousal in German emotion terms: A comparison between 9-year-old children and adults

Two major semantic features of emotion concepts have been shown to impact performance in emotion perception tasks: valence and arousal. To design psycholinguistic experiments with emotion terms as stimuli, norms are required that indicate valence and arousal values for individual words. Although such norms are usually obtained from ratings of adults, they are often also used in developmental studies. This procedure raises the question of whether children and adults perceive emotional valence and arousal of words in the same way, and consequently, whether adults’ ratings are adequate when constructing stimulus sets for children. The present study obtained valence and arousal ratings for 48 German emotion terms from three different groups: 9-year-old children and adults tested in a controlled laboratory setting, and adults tested via online survey. Results demonstrate high correlations for valence and arousal across settings. The comparison between children and adults also revealed high correlations, suggesting that children at the age of 9 already display adultlike behavior in their evaluation of emotion terms. A small difference was found for absolute rating values of arousal, with children rating words less arousing than adults. Overall, 9-year-olds and adults are sufficiently similar in their perception of emotion to warrant the use of adult valence and arousal ratings in the analysis of children data.


Results

Comprehension

There was a main effect of type of question (surface, paraphrase, inference), F(2, 60) = 61.28, p < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.67. The mean percentage of correct answers was significantly higher for surface questions (84%, SD = 15.18) than for paraphrase ones (70%, SD = 15.17), and significantly higher for paraphrase questions than for inference ones (63%, SD = 14.86). Planed comparisons analyses revealed significant differences between surface and paraphrase questions (p < 0.001), surface and inference questions (p < 0.001), and paraphrase and inference questions (p < 0.05).

The interaction between type of question and text valence was also significant, F(4, 120) = 11.82, p < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.28. Planned comparisons showed that participants answered surface questions less correctly for negative texts than for positive or neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 45.04, p < 0.001. No significant difference was found between the three emotional valences for paraphrase questions. Finally, participants answered inference questions better when they were about negative texts than when they were about positive or neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 9.34, p < 0.001. Moreover, for inference questions, there was a significant difference between negative and positive texts, F(1, 30) = 12.87, p < 0.001, but not between positive and neutral or negative and neutral texts (p > 0.05). In general, type of question had no impact on the rate of correct answers for negative texts, and the same pattern was observed for positive and neutral texts, namely, lower response rates for surface, paraphrase and inference questions.

In order to analyze the influence of the arousal intensity, we analyzed emotional texts only. So next, we focused on the emotional texts (positive and negative) and the effects of valence and emotional intensity on text comprehension. Analysis failed to reveal any major effect of emotional intensity on mean scores, F(2, 60) = 0.92, p = ns. However, an interaction effect was found between valence and emotional intensity, F(4, 120) = 2.71, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.08. Planned comparisons showed that for high-intensity texts, there was a significant difference between mean comprehension scores for negative and positive texts, F(1, 30) = 13.21, p < 0.01. These mean scores were significantly higher for positive texts (74%, SD = 25.93) than for negative ones (68%, SD = 22.56).

An interaction effect was also revealed between type of question and emotional intensity, F(4, 120) = 3.048, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.09. While there were no differences between the three intensity levels for the surface and paraphrase mean scores, there was a significant difference between medium and high intensity for the inference questions, F(1, 30) = 4.76, p < 0.05. For low intensity, there was a significant difference between surface and paraphrase mean scores, F(1, 30) = 20.866, p < 0.001, as well as between both paraphrase and inference mean scores, F(1, 30) = 14.012, p < 0.001, and surface and inference mean scores, F(1, 30) = 82.869, p < 0.001. For medium intensities, mean scores were significantly higher for paraphrase questions than for either surface questions, F(1, 30) = 16.831, p < 0.001, or inference questions, F(1, 30) = 16.167, p < 0.001. By contrast, for high-intensity texts, mean scores were significantly higher for surface questions than for paraphrase questions, F(1, 30) = 39.262, p < 0.001, but there was no significant difference between paraphrase and inference questions, F(1, 30) = 0.061, p = ns. Mean scores on inference questions were higher for high-intensity texts than for texts of either low or medium intensity.

Analysis of the triple interaction between valence, intensity and type of question revealed differences between the intensities of positively valenced texts for responses to paraphrase questions (low-medium vs. high, F(1, 30 ) = 9.72, p < 0.01), as well as for responses to inference questions (low vs. medium, F(1, 30) = 9.62, p < 0.01, low vs. high, F(1, 30) = 15.51, p < 0.001, and medium vs. high, F(1, 30) = 60.96, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found for surface questions (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Mean percentage of correct answers, depending on valence, intensity and type of question. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗∗ p < 0.01 ∗∗∗ p < 0.001.

For negative texts, we only found one difference for the inference questions (medium vs. high intensity, F(1, 30) = 15.08, p < 0.001), with poorer performances for high-intensity texts.

Remember/Know Task

Analysis reveal a main effect of the nature of the recall on the number of correct responses, with significantly more R responses than K responses, F(1, 30) = 36.61, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.92. There was also a main effect of the emotional nature of the word (emotional vs. neutral). Participants recalled significantly more emotional words than neutral words, F(1, 30) = 69.69, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.96. We also observed a main effect of the texts’ emotional valence (positive vs. negative vs. neutral), as the mean number of recalled words was significantly higher for positive texts than for either negative or neutral ones (Figure 2). Planned comparisons confirmed this significant result, F(1, 30) = 25.68, p < 0.01. No significant difference was observed between negative and neutral texts (p > 0.05).

Figure 2. Mean number of correctly recalled words, depending on the emotional valence of the texts. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗∗ p < 0.01.

We demonstrated an interaction effect between the emotional nature of the recalled words and R/K performances, F(1, 30) = 13.53, p < 0.05, η 2 p = 0.68. There were more R responses for emotional words than for neutral ones, F(1, 30) = 41.80, p < 0.01, whereas there were no significant differences in K responses, F(1, 30) = 1.56, p = ns.

There was also an interaction effect between the emotional nature of the recalled words and the valence of the texts, F(1, 30) = 12.19, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.91. There were no significant differences in the recall of emotional words between positive and negative texts, F(1, 30) = 5.62, p = ns, whereas neutral words were significantly better recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones, F(1, 30) = 107.58, p < 0.01.

There was no significant difference in the effect of emotional intensity between positive and negative texts.

The interaction between the emotional valence of the texts (positive vs. negative) and the emotional (or otherwise) nature of the recalled words was also significant, F(1, 30) = 40.35, p < 0.01, η 2 p = 0.91. More emotional words were recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones, F(1, 30) = 7.29, p < 0.05. We also found a significant difference for neutral words, F(1, 30) = 7.29, p < 0.001, which were better recalled when they came from positive texts rather than from negative ones (Figure 3). There was no interaction between valence and emotional intensity.

Figure 3. Mean number of correctly recalled words, depending on word type and the emotional valence of the texts. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. ∗ p < 0.05 ∗∗∗ p < 0.001.


Theories of Personality: 5 Theories | Children | Psychology

The following points highlight the five main theories of personality. The theories are: 1. The Factorial Theory (R.B. Cattle) 2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport) 3. Murray’s Theory of Personality 4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein) 5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin).

1. The Factorial Theory (R.B. Cattle):

This theory has been developed by R.B. Cattle. He has defined the term personality.

“Personality is that which permits a prediction of a person what will he do in a given situation.”

Main Features of his Theory:

It has the following main three characteristics:

1. He has restricted to ‘units of behaviour.’ It must be integrated into a larger whole, is the true picture of the functioning of personality.

2. Both types of traits physiological and psychological are possible units of behaviour. But Cattle favours the trait approach is more fruitful.

3. The traits are inferred from the individual behaviour i.e., personality is an integration of traits.

The traits are classified into categories:

Surface traits are revealed by correlating traits elements or traits indicators which are behaviour sample which go together, independence, boldness alertness with enthusiasm.

Source traits are revealed by factor analysis and represent deeper level viable and more significant aspect of personality.

He found by conducting experiments that units of behaviour found to correspond to most fundamental influence, physiological, temperamental and social which give rise to personality.

In repeated factorial studies Cattle has found evidences for as many as 15 source traits. However, only six are repeatedly confirmed and unmistakable.

1. Cyclothymic Vs Seluzithymic (constitutional)

2. General mental capacity Vs Mental defect.

4. Adventures cyclothymic Vs Anxiety seluzithymic.

5. Socialized, cultured Vs Boovishness

6. Bohemian concerned Vs Conventional or personality.

Further Classification of Traits:

The traits can also be classified into two major categories:

1. Environmental Mold Traits

2. Constitutional Traits (Hereditary determinants).

1. Environmental mold traits are of three types:

(a) Dynamic- Goal direct behaviour.

(b) Ability- How well he worked towards the goal.

(c) Temperament- Emotional activities. Speed or energy with which he reacts.

Dynamics of the Functioning of Personality:

It depends on two components:

(i) Base Ergs have five sources:

(a) A dynamic constitutional source trait.

(b) Selectively turned towards certain environmental objects.

(c) An ergic pattern carries with it a certain characteristic of emotion.

(d) The pattern results in a certain specific type of goal satisfaction.

(e) An innate preference for path leading to goal.

Examples of ergs are sex, self-assertion, fear, gregariousness parental, protectiveness, appear of self, abasement, play curiosity and narcissism.

(ii) Meta Ergs have two sources:

(a) In all respects like erg except that it is an environmental mold trait attitude, sentiments and motives.

(b) Meta erg is also learned.

Development of Personality:

It the development of personality R.B. Cattle has emphasized, unfolding maturational processes and their modification through learning and experience. He suggests four ways for developing personality of an individual.

2. Elaboration of Meta ergs.

3. Organization of self, and

4. Dynamic lattices involving subsidization, chaining ergs and Meta ergs.

In this way, Cattle have developed seventeen principles for developing personality of an individual.

Evaluation of the Factorial Theory:

1. He has used ‘factor analysis’ method for developing his theory of personality. Therefore, it is mainly influenced by demerits of factor analysis method.

2. He has given main stress on traits and ergs in his theory. Thus, the theory of dominated by traits and ergs. His theory seems to be very close to Murray’s theory.

3. A teacher has to modify the ergs of students and has to elaborate their meta-ergs to make his teaching effective.

4. He has not taken into consideration social variables in extracting the factors for personality interpretation.

2. An Individual Approach Theory (Allport):

Allports theory of Personality is considered his significant contribution in psychology. It is also known as psychology of individuality. His approach in defining the personality is a synthesis of contemporary definitions.

Definition of Personality According to Allport:

“Personality is the dynamic organization within an individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environments.”

He has emphasized the following aspects of personality:

1. Personality as a dynamic or growing system of an individual.

2. It consists of psycho-physical system or factors.

3. Personality is the uniqueness of each individual.

4. The psycho-physical factors determine his adjustment to his environment. The adjustment is the function of the personality.

Allport views on personality span a period of 20 years duration.

He has been guided by the basic principles:

(a) To do justice for the complexity of personality compounded as it is hereditary, temperamental, social and psychological factors.

(b) To recognize or identify the uniqueness of each individual personality despite the many communities that exist among different people.

(c) Both nomothetic (universal laws) and ideography unique methods and combined to study the personality.

(d) He has opposed psycho-analytic view of personality dynamics in which present behaviour must be treated to its genetic origin.

Concept of Psychology of Individuality:

1. Functional autonomy of motives and

(1) Functional Autonomy of Motives:

It refers to the following sub-concepts:

It holds that adult motives are of varied nature.

“Self-sustaining contemporary systems, growing out of antecedent systems but functionally independent of them.”

It refers to the observation that a given activity originally serving a motive may becoming motivating in its own right, hence autonomous.

It explains the transformation of the selfish child into socialized adult. It accounts for the force e.g., phobia delusion and other forms of compulsive behaviour.

The driving force behind such complex activities as craftsmanship, artistic, endeavour and genius is explained as love of the activity for its own sake.

Traits and attitudes are both the central concepts in the psychology of personality.

Definition of a Trait:

“A trait is a generalized and vocalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour.”

(a) Traits are functionally autonomous reaction tendencies which are aroused by focal classes of stimulus situations.

(b) Such reaction tendencies are, in a sense unique for each individual personality, but because of common biological and environmental influences many traits may be considered as common traits, thus allowing for the measurement and prediction of behaviour.

Characteristics of Traits:

The following are the main characteristics of traits:

1. Traits are both general and focal.

2. Traits are around by certain classes of stimuli and not by specific stimuli.

3. Traits have dominance tendency in the presence of other people.

4. Traits are consistent or permanent in nature.

Classification of Traits:

Traits are classified into two categories- Individual traits, and Common trait.

In a sense every trait is an individual trait.

This may be of following types:

Cordial traits are outstanding all pervasive, dominant in the individual life a ruling passion.

Central traits are focal of personality, ordinary measured by rating scale, mentioned in conversation and described in words of recommendation.

Personality demonstrates a unity and integration of different type trait he shows his concerns with the problem of identifying the inner essence of personality.

The concept of self includes the bodily sense, self-identity, awareness of continuity of self, ego enhancement ego excitation, identification of external objects with the self, rational cognitive function, the self-images, appropriate striving refers to the self as opposed to behaviour which is peripheral to the self.

The forms of behaviour that serve self-realization represent growth or abundance motivation as opposed to deficiency of motivation.

Evaluation of Allports Theory:

It has the following merits and demerits of this theory:

(1) His theory is quite influential among those psychologists whose major concern is with area of personality.

(2) His theory seems to be more comprehensive to cover all aspects of an individual.

(3) He has tried to explain the phenomenon of self but self has been vindicated.

(4) He is very tender minded on theorizing the psychology of personality or individuality.

(5) He is greatly influenced by existentialism.

3. Murray’s Theory of Personality :

Murray’s theory of personality resembles with Allports in its humanistic, holistic and elective orientation to the problems involved in developing a theory of personality.

This theory of Murray has been greatly influenced by psycho-analytic theory of personality. He has placed great stress on the importance of environmental influence on the individual. It has consistently stressed on the physiological processes which are underlying in behaviour manifestation.

Definition of Personality:

According to Murray “Personality is the continuity of functional forms and press manifested through sequences of organized regiment processes and overt behaviours, from birth to death.”

This definition of personality includes the following characteristics of personality:

(a) Continuity in the functional forms.

(b) Regnant processes dynamically organized brain activities.

(c) Emphasis on functional forms i.e., overt behaviour.

Concept Related to Personality:

Murray’s theory is also known as ‘Theory of Need’. He has defined the term need.

“A need is a construct (hypothetical force) which stands for a force (the physic chemical nature which is unknown) in the brain region, a force which organized perception, apperception intellection, conation and action in such a way as to transform in certain direction an existing unsatisfying situation.

According to Murray, an unsatisfied need would arouse the person to work that would be sustained until satisfaction had been attained.

All needs have been classified into two broad categories:

Vicerogenic Needs are also known as primary needs which are essential for the survival of an organism. They include hunger, thirst, sex, water, food secretion, defecation, urination, warmth, etc.

Psychogenic Needs are the secondary which emerge out of primary needs. Murray has given a long list of these needs.

Some important Murray’s needs are as follows:

21. Proceedings-Internal and External

23. Development of Personality.

Evaluation of Murray’s Theory:

It has the following advantages and limitations:

1. Murray approach is elective to the theory of personality. He tries to integrate the concepts of theorists of personality.

2. He has emphasized on dynamic and perceptual factors, but he has ignored ‘self and individuality.

3. His theory appears to be more complex. The need press concept is very close to psycho-analytic theory.

4. He has given main stress on secondary needs in explaining the personality. Other aspects, intellectual, social and physical have not been considered.

4. The Organismic Theory (Goldstein):

He takes biological view in explaining a person. He looks for mental and emotional factors operating in organic conditions. Psycho-biological concept is better working hypothesis for psychiatric work and mental metrics. The study of nervous system come of these developments proceeds from whole to the part.

Characteristics of the Theory:

The following are the main characteristics of this theory:

1. It emphasises on individual as whole. Individual is regarded as a unity in multiplicity.

2. An individual is to be described with regard to situation and the individual continually changes by environment to achieve optimal performance.

3. An individual has relationship with environment with three levels:

(a) Biological level concerns with needs hunger, thirst and sex.

(b) Psychological level reacts to the environment taking part in the environment.

(c) Valuation level concerns with appreciation and values for the effectiveness and tries to evaluation the environment.

According to Goldstein there is only one drive, the drive is self-actualization with in self. Making the hidden potential to make the self-real.

The self is the integrating factor in conscious experiences. Psychology of self means as conceived organized whole round the concept of self.

Goldstein recognizes five characteristics of self:

i. Self is complex, relates to functions as feeling of self, willing of self and thinking of self.

ii. Self is relatively persistence.

iii. Self is unique and replaceable. Two persons cannot feel in similar manner.

iv. Self-feeling, thinking and willing cannot be replaced by the individual experiences.

v. Self is an agent which is related to conscious of an object or person.

The function of an individual is the whole not a part of his experiences.

It is the characteristic in developing the child totality in the environment influences. One trait converses to the conversion. The conversion leads to personality. The group of traits leads to another traits of the personality. A person is the combination or bundle of traits. The traits react together. The person is endowed with traits.

Whatever is salient at the same time imrabbed in deeper layers of a person when we take on the topic ‘the deeper layers’ of conscious comes out? The salient has its roots in unconscious mind layers of personality.

Evaluation of Organismic Theory:

The following are the merits and demerits of this theory:

1. It has emphasized the biological and psychological levels or factors.

2. The environment plays significant role in the development of personality.

3. It has also stressed upon self. Self has been defined in detail.

4. The theory involves to sub-theory of conversion and salient.

5. The theory has emphasized the whole person not a part.

5. The Field Theory (Kurt Lewin):

This theory describes how a person gains understanding of himself and his world in a situation where he and his environment compose totality of mutual interdependent and coexisting fact.

This is also known as cognitive field theory of learning. Under this theory learning is defined as relativistic process by which a learner develops new insight or changes old once in no sense is learning a mechanistic automatic process of connecting stimulus and response within a biological organism. Insight consciously defined basic sense of feeling for relationship, insight into matter into its meaning persons insight collectively constitute, the cognitive structure of life space.

Cognitive structure the way of a person how he perceives i.e., psychological aspects of a personal physical and social world. Such a world includes a person and all his facts, concepts, beliefs and expectation, consequently the cognitive structure of life space, figures in the development language, emotion actions and social inter-correlation.

Cognitive Field Psychology:

The development of cognitive field psychology is attributed largely Kurt Lewin and his associates. Kurt Lewin considered psychology (Action research) as a science closely related to everyday life. The centre of Lewin psychological interest was in motivating conditions of a person environment situation and furthermore he was extremely in democratic practice and principles. Although field theory is applicable in all field of psychology it is particularly useful in social personality and educational psychology.

Lewin’s goal was to make the concept of field psychology of sufficient scope, applicable to all kind of behaviour and yet specific enough to permanent representative of definite person in concert situation. He observed that Laws of (S-R) association in psychology are based on statistical predication and that statistical prediction may apply to the average of children or to the typical behaviour age group, but they do anticipate what will do in specific situation.

To give prediction in specific situation man’s behaviour and ‘topology.’ He thought the objective psychology demands field adequately and accurately it exists for an individual at particular time, consequently to be objective field of Psychology:

Methods of Cognitive Field Psychology:

Kurt Lewin field psychology is more precisely called topological vector psychology is developing his psychology. He borrowed this idea and concepts from other subjects namely Physics and Geometry. The key concepts which he borrowed where topology from geometry, vector from physics. In using these related concepts he died add rigidly to the definite of mother science. But constitute them in manner most useful in system of psychology, through the use of topology and vector concept.

Lewin pictured the psychological reality in term of field relationship of a person and these environments in so doing he applied method of field theory, it had been developed physical science however, concept of physical sciences did not lend themselves. He did not use same concept and fact did field theory in sister sciences. The following terms summarized the concept of field theory.

A consciously behaving self centre of abilities and needs that child, when he says ‘I am.’

State of a person which they exist in relation to a goal and determination towards that goal, correspond to tension system inner person.

Ability means cognitive concept to know environment, exclusive capacity to manipulate environment. Everything in which person can make psychological moment to do anything about. Person and environment are mutually dependent one another.

4. Cognitive Structure:

An environment including a person as known by the person he has one dimension clarity (insight or understanding).

Foreign Hull of a life space complex of none psychological environment or facts which surrounds a life space that part of person’s physical environment particular environment which does not include in psychological environment, physical social raw material foreign hull tends behavioural possibilities.

Kurt Lewin and Hull are mathematician psychology. Hull verified 16 postulate by mathematical formula. Similarly, Lewin reduces his concept and proved by vector and by topology.

Values are of two types negative and positive. If an individual is drawn towards the life space positive valence and away from it negative valence. The person tends to move in that region or away from it i.e., valence.

It relates to the relative position of respective region of a person temporarily continue to life space when we consider a study of a person-environmental situation, behavioural adequately devotes changes which occurs in life space.

Which very closely related and descriptive to psychological needs, the state of one system relative to the stage of surrounding system. It is either created as result of opposed forces or induced by internal physiological changes or external stimuli and inner personal region may come into equilibrium in state of tension, release of tension may be achieved either through reaching goal, restricting the life space.

A region of valence it is common point toward which forces within a life space point. It is a region of life space to which a person has psychological attractive barrier it is dynamic part of environment which resists motion through it, that which stands in the way a person reaching to goal.

Essential Feature of Field Theory:

The unique approach to the study of perception and reality is one of the features of this theory other important characteristics are interpreted intelligence behaviour as propulsive.

It emphasizes psychological function rather than objects a situational approach a historical point of view and stress up the principle of contemporally:

1. Perception and Reality:

There is no absolute, it is defined relatives.

2. Purposiveness of Behaviour:

Simultaneous and mutual interaction. A person and his environment are simultaneous interacting and participating in perception neither the organism nor the environment made the factor.

In classroom situation the different of behaviour of students to different teacher. Simultaneous mutually interaction is different individual environment. An intelligence behaviour is purposive. When a child behaving purposively he is pursuing his goal and enlighten his insights. It means that he has intelligence behaviour.

3. Emphasis on Psychological Environment:

Emphasis on psychological environment is rather than function. Every individual has its own psychological environment.

4. Situational Emphasis:

The situation as whole is to be taken into account for psychological study. The specific details and various aspects of situation come later at no time aspect of field viewed as isolated elements. Here Lewin concept is Gestalt.

5. The Principle of Contemporarily Literally:

Meaning of contemporarily is at all time. Whatever, the length of time everything is going at once. Lewin lays emphasis on the past also.

Educational Implications of Field Theory:

1. Learning as Change in Cognitive Structure:

As one learns one increase in knowledge. A change in the structure of knowledge (cognitive structure), may occur with repetition. The important thing is that the cognitive structure gets changed, not the repetitions occur it depends on the better arrangement of situation. Change in cognitive structure come about in the part. A psychological force may have two consequences. It can lead to locomotion and change the cognitive structure.

2. Reward and Punishment:

Those who accept law of effect or reinforcement theories have seldom analyzed in detail what circumstances are which force the learner to confront the reward or the threat or punishment. The punishment is used to keep the learner at an intrinsically disliked task the tendency is to leave the field. Reward situation is attractive and keeps the learner in the field.

3. Success and Failure:

It is more appropriate to think of the goal actively as successful or unsuccessful rather than or rewarding or punishing.

(i) To reach the goal constitutes success positive valence.

(ii) To get within the region of the goal may be successful experience.

(iii) To make noticeable progress toward a goal may provide a successful experience.

(iv) To select a socially approved goal may in itself be a successful experience.

It is Lewin’s credit is that he made serious effort to deal with psychological real problem.

Psychological success and failure depends upon ego involvement in the task at hand that is the goals must be real to the learner. Easy word is not spelled correctly it not the psychological failure. Experienced teachers know how hard it is to keep task at an appropriate level of difficulty so that the learner remain ego involved.

4. Learning as a Change in Behaviour:

The goal attractiveness is what Lewin calls valence and valence change.

Often desirable outcome is a change in the interest of the learner, that is, changes in the relative attractiveness of one goal over another.

Goals originally unattractive may become acceptable through a change in the meaning of the goal related activity. There are many teaching techniques which depend upon this principle.

(i) Changing of food preference by telling a story.

(ii) This is common radio devices for instruction.

(iii) The behaviour of teacher necessary change cognitive structure of the student fear of change in valence.

5. The Field Theory is significant for a group of children who are more than average and have the ability to see the relationship different person and goal. It is therefore, useful for teaching the bright children.

6. It emphasises, the development of insight and change in cognitive structure. Every experienced teacher should be careful while interpreting the behaviour pattern of the class.

7. Subject-matter presented in the class should be based on the student experiences this is also guided by the field theory.

8. The field theory encourages the teacher to be active and self-organizer. It also emphasises dynamic learning which can prove much useful for teacher in the class.

9. The concept of frustration, conflict and aspiration can be analyzed in teaching learning situation, can be better understood by the field theory.

10. The approach of the teacher in the classroom should be situational oriented, i.e., the most important contribution.

Freud theory emphasizes the biological drives-hunger, excretion and sex in particular. Most other theories place somewhat great emphasis on social factors. Adler emphasizes the concept of the inferiority complex and the concept of compensation. All parts theory of personality emphasize traits.

Trait Theory of Personality:

One is the concept of the uniqueness of personality. Each person having his unique background of child experiences develops a set of traits that are unique to him.

Second feature of the theory is the concepts of functional autonomy of motives. Each person acquires motivation as part of satisfying other motives.

Constitutional Theory:

Personality is determined at least in part, by the constitutional make-up of the person.

(a) Components of Body Build:

(iii) Ectomorphy, Somatic features.

(b) Components of Temperaments:

Behaviourism of School Concept of Psychology:

It is the sum total of all activities by which an individual is known in the social world. A social personality on whose activities are mainly social. Intellectual personality one which does intellectual activities. The sum of (S-R) makes the personality structure. External environment has great influence on the personality development.

Pleasure and Pain Principle:

This operates at the initial stage. Heredity factor has no effect on personality development, 100 per cent effect of environment on the personality development.

Main sources environment mood of acquiring behaviour conditioning a habit. Hereditary factors consist of anatomical, physiological and mineralogical growth which follows maturation and produces difference in personality make up by different kind of secretion.

Recent Approach to the Personality:

Mainly personality consists four aspects:

1. Cognitive function (awareness of self, sensation perception memory, intelligence, learning, ability, attitude).

2. Affective function (temperament).

3. Conative function (character) feeling, emotion, sublimation.

4. Physiological aspect or functions (body formation).

Personality has a hierarchical organization of all these cognitive, affective, conative, physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect conative physiological functional aspects. Each function or aspect constitutes the personality structure.

(1) Specific Response:

If an organism responds in different ways in different situation in different time, then the behaviour is termed as a specific response.

If an organism gives the same response for the same situation at different time then it is termed as habit response.

Persistent behaviour of the same situation is called habit response or habit formation.

If an organism gives the same response in different situation at different time, then response is termed as trait response.

The trait is the persistent behaviour in different situation and different time the response is same.

SR →HR → TR → TP (Type of Personality). This hierarchy constitutes the personality type.

Putting a person into a group or category, it gives a general description of person is easier.

To describe a personal characteristic of persistence behaviour in specific situation. It is difficult to describe two individual or into the same category, but they differ the trait of a specific characteristic. Same type of traits of people may be classified into different type of personality.


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