Working Memory Timing Information Storage

Working Memory Timing Information Storage

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In most working-memory tasks, a person is given a list and is asked to recall it in various manners. For example, they could recall it forwards, backwards, freely or try to recall a specific item given it's position.

However, has there been any tests where temporal information is emphasized? For example, consider the scenario where there is 1 second between the presentation of the first and second item in the list, but 2 seconds between the second and third items in the list. I could then ask the person which item was temporally closer to the second item in the list.

Has there been any Working Memory research of this temporal nature?

In "Similarity Breeds Proximity: Pattern Similarity within and across Contexts Is Related to Later Mnemonic Judgments of Temporal Proximity" by Youssef Ezzyat and Lila Davachi, timing between stimuli was kept constant, but the context of the stimuli was manipulated.

They found that changing contexts increased the perceived temporal distance between stimuli.

Alternatively, in "Learning and Generalization of Auditory Temporal-Interval Discrimination in Humans" by Wright et al., differentiating temporal distance between tones were learned. Additionally, in "Anticipation of future events improves the ability to estimate elapsed time" by Yoshiaki Tsunoda and Shinji Kakei, the probability distribution of distance between a warning signal and a trigger for a "GO"-like task was learned.

These experiments operate on very different time scales (milliseconds vs seconds) with very differently semantically-loaded stimuli (images vs tones). Although neither of them describe in the exact experiment in the original question, together they show the various ways perception and memory is affected temporal cues.


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Long-term memory is usually what people refer to when they are talking about memories. Long-term memory is our storage system. It has unlimited capacity, no expiry date and is formed by several sub-types.

Non-Declarative Memory

One sub-type is non-declarative memory (or implicit memory). These are memories we access without conscious awareness. They are usually created with practice and are retrieved automatically. A few examples are knowing how to ride a bike or swim

Declarative Memory

Another sub-type of long-term memory is declarative memory (or explicit memory). Information stored here can be accessed consciously - we can think and talk about this knowledge in words. There are two sub-sub-types of declarative memories: Semantic and Episodic.

Semantic memory is the one for facts about the world and meaning of words. We are usually taught about them. Some examples are knowing what triggered the First World War and the meaning of the word “carbohydrates”. Episodic memory is the one storing our own experiences and the episodes we have lived. We can usually recall “when what and where”. Some examples are remembering your first day as a teacher and what you had for dinner last night.

Working Memory Timing Information Storage - Psychology

We examined the influence of expansion and contraction on visual short-term memory (VSTM) using a change-detection task. In each trial, several expanding/contracting line segments with various orientations were presented in two successive displays. The orientation of objects in the second display was either identical to, or different from, that of the first display. Observers were asked to judge the presence or absence of an orientation change in successive displays. Results showed that memory performance for expanding objects was higher than for contracting objects (expansion benefit: Experiments 1A and 1B). Further experiments focused on VSTM processing (encoding, storage, and retrieval). Regarding the retrieval stage, an expansion benefit was replicated only when the direction of motion was consistent between two successive displays (Experiment 2A). A cueing stimulus enhanced the memory performance for both expanding and contracting motions and eliminated the expansion benefit (Experiment 2B). Regarding the storage stage, we found the expansion benefit occurred only for shorter blank intervals between the two displays (Experiment 3). Regarding the encoding stage, the expansion benefit was observed regardless of presentation times (Experiment 4). These results indicate the possibility that expanding and contracting motions modulate VSTM.

Keywords: expansion/contraction, visual short-term memory, change-detection task, VSTM processing

The Disentangled Sub-Processes Involved in Implied Motion Contributing to Food Freshness: The Neural Evidence from ERPs

Implied motion can enhance the consumer’s judgment of food freshness. However, this enhancing effect has only been investigated for a few products. Furthermore, researchers have not conclusively determined whether the effects of the low-level visual sensory processing and high-level conceptual processing on food evaluation differ. In Experiment 1, using different fruits in static water (fruit_IS), fruit with implied moving water (fruit_IM), or only fruits as stimuli, we initially generalized the effect of implied motion on the broader category of fruit, and implied motion improved the perceived freshness of the fruit. In Experiment 2, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and measured the temporal processes involved in the mechanism by which implied motion improved perceived fruit freshness. The behavioral results further supported the findings from Experiment 1. The ERP data revealed a pronounced positive difference between fruit_IM and fruit-only conditions recorded from posterior electrodes at approximately 200-300 ms (P2). This difference reflected the low-level visual implied motion sensory processing involved in the effect of implied motion on improving food freshness. Additionally, an early frontocentral negativity difference of approximately 300-500 ms between fruit_IM and fruit-only conditions was recorded, which reflected the high-level visual conceptual processing involved in the effect of implied motion on improving food freshness. These results strengthen and extend previous behavioral findings indicating that implied motion enhances the consumer’s judgment of food freshness across various food categories, and improves our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in the mechanism by which implied motion influences food judgments.

Keywords: implied motion, fruit freshness, taste, P2, early frontocentral negativity, low-level visual sensory process, high-level visual process

The Effects of Binaural and Monoaural Beat Stimulation on Cognitive Functioning in Subjects with Different Levels of Emotionality

Today, binaural and monaural beats are offered over the Internet or by mental health institutes to improve wellbeing or cognitive functioning. This improvement is explained by the assumption that the brain adapts its brainwave frequency to the frequency of the auditory beat. The present study examined the effects of binaural and monaural beat stimulation on attention and working memory in high and low emotional participants. A group of 24 participants (16 females, 8 males) between 19 and 31 years old (M = 22.33, SD = 3.42) performed a Flanker task to measure attention and a Klingberg task to measure working memory while listening to white noise (WN), 40 Hz gamma binaural beat (BB) and 40 Hz gamma monaural beat (MB). Speed of performance on all three levels of difficulty of the Flanker attention task was faster under the BB and MB condition than under WN. No differences were found between BB and MB conditions. With respect to the quality of performance on the Flanker attention task and the Klingberg working memory task no significant differences under the WN, MB, and BB condition were found. Finally, as participants with low or high emotionality did not respond differently to BB and MB under any of the conditions, effects of BB and MB seem similar in high and low emotional participants. The present study supports the notion that faster attention processing may equally be attributed to the influence of BB and MB. Further research is recommended to gain more insight in the role of factors such as duration of stimulation of BB and MB, frequency range, most appropriate carrier tones, and the role of personality traits.

Keywords: binaural beats, monaural beats, attention, auditory beat stimulation, emotionality, memory, Flanker task, Klingberg task

The Acute Effect of Exercise on Executive Function and Attention: Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

Acute aerobic exercise was shown to enhance such cognitive functions as executive function (EF) and attention. Acute resistance exercise was also shown to enhance cognitive functions, however, only few studies directly compared these two exercise modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a typical moderate intensity resistance exercise session as compared to a typical moderate intensity aerobic session, on executive function and attention. A counterbalanced repeated measures experimental design was applied. Forty physical education students (21 women 19 men, age = 25.7±2.84 years) were tested before and after three sessions: aerobic, resistance, and control. Each session consisted of 30 minutes of exercise or a rest. Executive function and attention were assessed by components of the computerized Stroop Catch game and Go-NoGo cognitive tests. A two-way ANOVA showed a greater increase in attention scores after the resistance sessions (p cognitive function, physical activity, cycling, strength

On the One Hand or on the Other: Trade-Off in Timing Precision in Bimanual Musical Scale Playing

Music performance requires simultaneously producing challenging movement sequences with the left and right hand. A key question in bimanual motor control research is whether bimanual movements are produced by combining unimanual controllers or through a dedicated bimanual controller. Here, 34 expert pianists performed musical scale playing movements with the left or right hand alone and with both hands simultaneously. We found that for the left hand, scale playing was more variable when playing with both hands simultaneously rather than with one hand at a time, but for the right hand, performance was identical. This indicates that when task constraints are high, musicians prioritize timing accuracy in the right hand at the cost of detriment of performance in the left hand. We also found that individual differences in timing substantially overlap between the unimanual and bimanual condition, suggesting control policies are similar but not identical when playing with two hands or one. In the bimanual condition, the left-hand keystrokes tended to occur before right-hand ones, and more so when the hands were further apart. Performance of the two hands was furthermore coupled so that they tended to be early and late together, especially in the beginning and end of each scale. This suggests that experts are able to achieve tightly coupled timing of scale playing movements between the hands. Taken together, these findings show evidence for partially overlapping and partially separate controllers for bimanual and unimanual movements in piano playing.

Keywords: music performance, motor control, bimanual control, expertise

The Role of Time Constraints in Athletes' Egocentric Mental Rotation Performance

A selective effect of motor expertise on mental rotation is revealed by a high correlation between the performance of sports experts and ability on a mental rotation task. Evidence is shown by studies involving a spatial factor, such as image interference or a movement constraint. Alternatively, the time constraint, as another performance factor, is considered critical in the effect of sport expertise on mental rotation. Three experiments were conducted to examine the role of time constraints in egocentric mental rotation and the stage performance of athletes (divers) and nonathletes. In Experiment 1, an egocentric mental rotation task in an untimed condition was conducted, and reaction times (RTs) , error rates (ERs), RTs at 0 °, and mental rotation speed were assessed. The results indicated that divers outperformed nonathletes in terms of RT, as well as perceptual and decision stages and rotation stages. Experiments 2 and 3 added a relative time constraint (subtracting 1/2 SD of all the subjects’ RT from the M of each group’s RT) and an absolute time constraint (subtracting 1/2 SD of all the subjects’ RT from the M of all the subjects’ RT) to the task, respectively. Superior RT and lower ER were observed for the divers in the time constraint condition. Moreover, the results illustrated that divers were faster than nonathletes in both stages when facing time pressure. In general, the present study has, for the first time, confirmed the role of time in the relationship between sports expertise and mental rotation.

Keywords: mental rotation, sport expertise, process stages, egocentric transformations, embodied cognition

What is Working Memory? (with pictures)

Sometimes referred to as short-term or recent memory, working memory consists of the brain’s processes that involve storing and managing information that is required for accomplishing such key tasks as reasoning, comprehension, and general learning. While there are different theories about how working memory actually relates to other brain and memory activity, most approaches agree that the degree of memory span exhibited by an individual is a good indicator of working memory capacity. With roots going back to the 19th century, much of the current perception regarding this type of mental functioning is based on research conducted during the 1960’s and beyond.

One of the attributes of working memory is the ability to recall data within a matter of seconds. Some approaches to explaining how this function takes place likens the ability of the brain to that of a computer. That is, a command is executed to retrieve information that is in storage, bring that information to the fore so it can be used, then places the information back into storage until it is needed again. The entire process takes place in seconds, and often seems to require no effort on the part of the individual at all.

An example of short-term memory at work has to do with the ability to remember a series of numbers, such as a telephone number, bank account number, or credit card number. Research indicates that the working memory of the average individual make sit possible to retrieve a series of seven digits without any real effort. However, further research has also indicated that this seven digit capacity can and often is expanded, allowing individuals to recall number sequences of up to sixteen digits without pausing.

There are several different ideas on how working memory actually functions. One is referred to as the multicomponent model. This approach calls for a central system that in turn coordinates the activities of two other systems. The two sub-systems serve as the storage for data that is used on a recurring basis, such as remembering how to do routine tasks at work or drive a vehicle. When prompted by this central control, the two sub-systems retrieve and present the stored data for use. Once the task is complete, the data is placed back into storage, making room for other data to come forth and be used for other tasks.

A more recent approach builds upon the multicomponent model of working memory by adding what has been referred to as an episodic buffer. The buffer helps to qualify data and help organize it for use. This allows the brain to manage different types of data simultaneously, and accomplish tasks with more proficiency and speed. For example, an individual can not only remember today’s date, but also associated related data, such as errands to run, and how to go about managing those errands.

It is important to remember that psychology is continuing to expand our knowledge of how the brain works, including the process for storing and retrieving information. As research into working memory continues, there will no doubt be new ideas on how to improve memory capacity, and possibly also how to prevent the deterioration of memory processes during later years. As more is understood about memory in general, current theories are likely to be refined, and possibly joined by other theories that take the study of working memory into completely new directions.

After many years in the teleconferencing industry, Michael decided to embrace his passion for trivia, research, and writing by becoming a full-time freelance writer. Since then, he has contributed articles to a variety of print and online publications, including InfoBloom, and his work has also appeared in poetry collections, devotional anthologies, and several newspapers. Malcolm’s other interests include collecting vinyl records, minor league baseball, and cycling.

After many years in the teleconferencing industry, Michael decided to embrace his passion for trivia, research, and writing by becoming a full-time freelance writer. Since then, he has contributed articles to a variety of print and online publications, including InfoBloom, and his work has also appeared in poetry collections, devotional anthologies, and several newspapers. Malcolm’s other interests include collecting vinyl records, minor league baseball, and cycling.

The visuospatial sketchpad

The study of visuospatial STM has developed enormously in recent years and is very well described in the entry by Luck, who suggests that its principal function is to create and maintain a visuospatial representation that persists across the irregular pattern of eye movements that characterise our scanning of the visual world.

Another function of the sketchpad is to create and maintain visual images of the type that we might for example, use in attempting to answer questions such as whether the ears of a collie dog are floppy or pricked, in describing the route from the station to home, or that an architect might use to imagine a building he is designing. It has been shown that spatial tasks can interfere with spatial skills such as driving a car, while a more purely visual activity such as seeing a sequence of pictures or colour patches may interfere with capacity to remember objects or shapes (Logie, 1986, Klauer & Zhao, 2004). Such results, together with the occurrence of brain-damaged patients who show one deficit and not the other (Della Sala & Logie, 2002), suggests that information about space, and about objects and their visual characteristics, may be stored separately (See Luck's entry for further detail). It seems likely that the sketchpad may also be involved in the storage of movement sequences, suggesting a capacity to store kinaesthetic information as well as visuospatial (Smyth & Pendleton, 1990, Smyth & Scholey, 1992). The presence of similarities between storage of serial order in visual and verbal memory suggests an analogous process, though not necessarily within a single system (Smyth et al. 2005).

The Working Memory Questionnaire: a scale to assess everyday life problems related to deficits of working memory in brain injured patients

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale designed to assess the consequences of working memory deficits in everyday life. The Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ) is a self-administered scale, addressing three dimensions of working memory: short-term storage, attention, and executive control. The normative sample included 313 healthy participants. The patient group included 69 brain injured patients, who were compared to a subsample of 69 matched healthy controls. The questionnaire was found to have a good internal consistency, both in healthy participants and in patients with brain injury (Cronbach's alpha = .89 and .94, respectively). In healthy participants, significant effects of age (p < .0001) and education (p < .01) were found, due to more complaints in participants aged 60 or more and (unexpectedly) in those aged below 30, and for less educated participants, below high school level. The WMQ was found to have the sensitivity to discriminate patients from matched controls, in the three domains (p < .0001). A good concurrent validity was found with the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and the Rating Scale of Attentional Behaviour (Spearman's Rho = .90 and .81, respectively, both ps < .0001). In addition, the total complaint score significantly correlated with neuropsychological measures of working memory (visual spans and short-term memory with interference) and with global intellectual efficiency (Raven's Matrices) but not with digit spans. Further studies are needed to measure the internal structure of the scale, and to compare self- and proxy-ratings.

What Attention Is

Attention is the process that allows us to take information in. It also helps us select useful information. Think of it as a funnel. It gathers what we need to know and channels it into our brain.

There are four important parts of paying attention well. Kids may have trouble with any or all of these components.

Alertness. Kids need to be ready to pay attention.

Selection. Kids must be able to identify what deserves attention. For example, they have to be able to focus on the teacher, not on the voices out in the hall.

Sustaining. Kids have to be able to stay reasonably attentive over time. This could be for a three-minute presentation or for a 40-minute lecture.

Shifting. Kids should be able to shift attention briefly when important new information is introduced. For example, they should be able to focus on a brief announcement on the intercom. Then they should be able to turn their attention back to the teacher.

Kids with attention issues may not recall what they’ve been taught. That’s because it never “got into their head” in the first place.

Adult age differences in the effects of processing on storage in working memory: A meta-analysis

Normal adult aging is known to be associated with lower performance on tasks assessing the short-term storage of information. However, whether or not there are additional age-related deficits associated with concurrent storage and processing demands within working memory remains unclear. Methodological differences across studies are considered critical factors responsible for the variability in the magnitude of the reported age effects. Here we synthesized comparisons of younger and older adults' performance on tasks measuring storage alone against those combining storage with concurrent processing of information. We also considered the influence of task-related moderator variables. Meta-analysis of effect sizes revealed a small but disproportionate effect of processing on older adults' memory performance. Moderator analysis indicated that equating single task storage performance across age groups (titration) and the nature of the stimulus material were important determinants of memory accuracy. Titration of storage task difficulty was found to lead to smaller, and nonsignificant, age-differences in dual task costs. These results were corroborated by supplementary Brinley and state-trace analyses. We discuss these findings in relation to the extant literature and current working memory theory as well as possibilities for future research to address the residual heterogeneity in effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

Watch the video: Αποθήκευση προγράμματος στην processing (August 2022).