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What electrical stimuli do brain implants use?

What electrical stimuli do brain implants use?



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I was reading about artificial eyes and came to think about how the brain works. More specifically, what "signals" it uses in the case of cortical visual prosthetics in blind people? Cortical prosthetics apply current stimulations through electrodes placed on the surface of the visual cortex.

Now suppose I would want to let a blind person wearing a cortical prosthesis to see the color red, what signal would I send through the electrodes? Would a sine wave of 200 Hz do the job?


Short answer
The track record of cortical visual prosthetics is limited. However, a lot more is known on auditory prostheses (mainly cochlear implants) and retinal prostheses. In these implants, biphasic, charge balanced pulse trains are generally applied, mainly for safety reasons and to reduce current spread through the neural tissue. Sine waves have been tested in cochlear implants, but have long since been abandoned as useful stimulus. Color perception in visual cortical prosthetics is uncovered ground so far, but in retinal implants some limited data is available that color perception can be manipulated by altering the shape and frequency of the electrical pulse trains.

Background
First off, neural prosthetics (including auditory and visual prosthetics, as well as pace makers) in general operate through biphasic pulses instead of sine waves.

Biphasic pulses have the advantage that they can be very short (in the order of tens of microseconds in the case of cochlear implants, and hundreds of microseconds in retinal implants). This is advantageous, because the typical biphasic pulse has two identical phases but of opposite polarity. This means that the injected current is quickly neutralized within microseconds. Note that direct current is damaging to the delicate neural tissues. That's why charge-balanced pulses are used in modern cochlear implants to avoid direct current (DC) stimulation that may damage neural tissues (Bahmer & Baumann, 2013).

Sine waves have been used in cochlear implants (Clark, 2006), as most of the acoustic speech information is conveyed in frequencies between 500 and 400 Hz. Indeed, the auditory nerve does show phase locking when the electrical (or acoustic) stimulus is about 100 Hz or lower. However, biphasic pulse train are the norm nowadays, because it is safer, more power efficient and more effective, as pulses on adjacent electrodes can be alternated to prevent electrical current to summate on closely spaced electrodes. This is called interleaving and has been used widely since the 1990's as it came known as the continuous-interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy (Wilson et al., 1993). A CIS-like strategy has been adopted in retinal implants too, for example the Argus II prosthesis.

Visual prosthetics in general deliver visual perceptions on a gray scale. Cortical prosthetics have not been investigated much. However, retinal implants are currently commercially available from at least two companies. In retinal implants, phosphenes appear mostly as white spots of light, but yellow has been reported too (Stronks & Dagnelie, 2014b) as well as red to orange phosphenes (Humayun et al., 2003). Interestingly, in retinal prostheses it has indeed been shown that by carefully adjusting the pulse rate and pulse shape some crude form of color perception could be induced (Stronks & Dagnelie, 2014a). However, the only consistent result seem to have been that high-pulse rates resulted in blue phosphenes when the stimulation was stopped (OFF response) (Humayun et al., 2003). The thought is that different stimulus characteristics stimulate a different set of fibers in the retina but this is very preliminary at this stage. In cortical implants research has not even touched upon color sensations as yet, as far as I am aware.

References
- Bahmer & Baumann, Hear Res, 306: 123-30
- Clark, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci (2006); 361(1469): 791-810
- Humayun et al., Vis Res (2003); 43(24): 2573-81
- Stronks & Dagnelie, Exp Rev Med Dev (2014a); 11(1): 23-30
- Stronks & Dagnelie, Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience (2014b): 1-4
- Wilson et al., J Rehabil Res Dev (1993); 30(1): 110-6


This question is frankly a bit vague, but generally speaking (i.e. answering the question from the title) the brain uses electrochemical signaling. The trouble is, of course, we are far from fully understanding what goes on in there, or how those signals achieve all that we can do. Presently we can simulate tiny fragments of a rat's brain, as reported in Nature news, 2015.

To answer the question form the body, "if I hooked up some electrode[s] to a blind persons visual cortex and wanted them to see the color red, what would i send through the el[e]ctrodes?" The answer is we don't know. That's because, as Conway et al. 2007, state:

On a gross level, it remains disputed whether color is localized to a particular brain region; on a microscopic level, it is uncertain what contribution single cells make to the perception of specific hues. While some brain-imaging studies have suggested that color processing may be localized within the extrastriate brain [… ], single-cell electrophysiological studies, which have higher spatial and temporal resolution than imaging, have produced conflicting results [… ] and cast doubt on the notion of a specialized color center [… ].

Now if you're asking about artificial eyes… there are many kinds of proposed prosthesis, but if we talk about[bypassing the optical nerve completely such as bionic eye brain implants as reported by MIT Technology Review, 2017, then currently that only works for black and white… and even then

The patient was able to see spots of light with no significant adverse side effects. [… ]

“If we could figure out how to process and filter visual information to correctly stimulate the electrodes we could eventually improve the type of image that person will be able to perceive,”

So it seems to be an open problem, even without color.

Conway, B. R., Moeller, S., & Tsao, D. Y. (2007). Specialized color modules in macaque extrastriate cortex. Neuron, 56(3), 560-573.


Study Information

Study published on: February 6, 2020

Study author(s): Wei Liu Shikun Zhan, Dianyou Li, Zhengyu Lin, Chencheng Zhang, Tao Wang, Sijian Pan Jing Zhang, Chunyan Cao, Haiyan Jin, Yongchao Li, Bomin Sun,

The study was done at: Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine & Shanghai YangPu District Mental Health Center

The study was funded by: Research Award Fund for Outstanding Young Teachers in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and SHSMU-ION Research Center for Brain Disorders (B.M.S.).

Raw data availability: Not available

Featured image credit: Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay


BRAIN IMPLANTS

CONTROLLED-RELEASE IMPLANTS

Acellular polymeric brain implants that are able to deliver protein factors to the CNS have also been developed ( Tabata et al., 1993 Langer, 1995 Kuo and Saltzman, 1996 Maloney and Saltzman, 1996 am Ende and Mikos, 1997 Roskos and Maskiewicz, 1997 Yewey et al., 1997 ). These systems release drugs by degradation- or diffusion-based mechanisms over an extended time (weeks), but cannot sustain release over a long time (months), which is possible with cellular-based systems. The advantage with polymeric release is that cells are not used, the dose can be controlled, and the duration can be set. On the negative side, the formulation and stability of the factor or drug may be problematic. In addition, biodegradable implants often cause a mild inflammatory reaction, which may immunologically sensitize a cellular coimplant.

Appropriately designed, polymeric controlled-release devices have several possible applications and could, for example, support the survival and integration of transplanted cells. Furthermore, a polymeric system can support the sequential release of growth factors that may be necessary to support fully the stepwise differentiation of immature cells. This concept can be applied to neural stem cells that may lack important embryonic signals in the adult brain ( Wahlberg, 1997 ). Synthetic drugs that cannot be made in cellular-based systems can also be delivered by these implants. The local delivery of steroids ( Christenson et al., 1991 ) and cyclosporin A may be two applications that could be used in combination with cell implants to avoid early immunologic sensitization and rejection.


With brain implants, the 'future's gonna be weird'

Researchers at the University of Texas at San Antonio use brain-computer interfaces to study what happens when stutterers speak.

Billy Calzada / Staff file photo

Neuralink, Elon Musk&rsquos brain-implant startup in Austin, has a monkey that can play video games with its mind.

At least, that&rsquos what the company claims in a video featuring a 9-year-old macaque named Pager who has two Neuralinks in his noggin.

Musk compares the implants to &ldquoa Fitbit in your skull with tiny wires.&rdquo Each coin-sized device has thousands of electrodes on thread-thin wires that reach a few centimeters into the wearer&rsquos motor cortex.

In the video, Pager&rsquos Neuralinks connect via Bluetooth to a smart phone. As he uses a joystick to guide a ball into a square on the monitor in front of him, the brain chips measure his neurons firing and decodes their signals. Pager earns a sip of banana smoothie every time he completes the task.

Eventually, they take the joystick away, and the algorithm predicts Pager&rsquos movements while playing Pong using only his brain&rsquos signals. Remember Pong, the Atari game with two moving paddles and a ball bouncing back and forth?

Pager controls his paddle with his mind. The company calls it Monkey Mind Pong.

Pager the macaque uses his mind to play Pong in this screen capture from Neuralink's video. Neuralink is Elon Musk's Austin-based startup that's developing brain implants.

Musk hopes Neuralink will become the ultimate in wearable technology that could someday help solve an array of brain and spine problems, including paralysis, extreme pain, memory loss, blindness, hearing loss, depression, insomnia, seizures and addiction.

&ldquoThese can all be solved,&rdquo Musk said in a summer update about the company that currently employs about 100 people. &ldquoThe neurons are like wiring, and you kind of need an electronic thing to solve an electronic problem.&rdquo

In line with Musk&rsquos other ventures, such as SpaceX and Tesla, Neuralink also has aspirational goals beyond limiting human suffering. The technology may someday offer people the ability to download and store memories, communicate telepathically, unlock trapped creativity, listen to music mentally and, yes, play video games with one&rsquos mind.

One Neuralink scientist said he hopes the devices will help humanity understand consciousness.

Musk said the price of the implant will be high in the beginning and eventually decrease to a few thousand dollars.

And installation will be a quick, outpatient procedure. A robot will bore a hole in the recipient&rsquos skull, thread the wires into the brain and set the device flush with the bone using surgical glue. It should be invisible beneath the scalp.

Wearers will need to recharge their chip via wireless induction and install an app on their smart devices.

Musk acknowledges that it all sounds like the television show &ldquoBlack Mirror,&rdquo the modern &ldquoTwilight Zone&rdquo-like series in which humans navigate the dark side of technology.

&ldquoThe future&rsquos gonna be weird,&rdquo Musk said.

The theories behind Neuralink aren&rsquot new. Scientists call the technology brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs, and researchers at the University of Texas at San Antonio are doing their own work in the field.

&ldquoIt actually has a long history,&rdquo said Edward Golob, a UTSA psychology professor whose research delves into BCIs. &ldquoYou can, to a limited degree in humans, read out someone&rsquos intentions.&rdquo

Currently, he said, the technology allows scientists to interpret only simple concepts such as right and left, but artificial intelligence and other technical advances are helping them gain more insight.

&ldquoI suspect people want to take the technology even further &mdash to get the brain to be even better than it normally would by training it in some way and trying to input other signals,&rdquo he said. &ldquoThat&rsquos more kind of science fiction nowadays, but it will probably become science reality at some point in the future.&rdquo

We&rsquore still a long way off from solving brain and spine problems, let alone enabling everyone to communicate telepathically or have super-human vision with their Neuralinks.

&ldquoPutting metal in someone&rsquos brain is something we should pause about,&rdquo Golob said.

In addition to the technical and medical hurdles, there are ethical and moral issues with animal testing and patient welfare. Then there&rsquos the privacy, safety and security concerns of wiring people&rsquos brains to the internet.

Sultan Alotaibi, center, of Mentis Team #4, explains to Ruben Asebedo, left, and Patrick Stockton how brain activity is collected through an Electroencephalograph skull cap, at The Tech Symposium held by UTSA's Engineer and Business Colleges. Tuesday, April 28, 2015.

Bob Owen, Staff / San Antonio Express-News

One physical obstacle is the body&rsquos reaction to foreign objects such as electrode wires.

&ldquoOnce you stick electrodes into a brain, the body doesn&rsquot like metal inside of it,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoSo it mounts something called a foreign-body response &mdash it kind of looks like a booger &mdash and that gunk that gets around the electrodes gets in the way of their ability to detect the electrical signals that you want to detect.&rdquo

Musk acknowledges this as a material science problem and suggests some type of silicon carbide could work as an insulator.

Golob calls BCIs an &ldquoorphan technology&rdquo that is trapped in the valley between where science has left off and investors bet on its continued development.

Musk &ldquohas this vision that can excite not only his own company &mdash and he&rsquos going to put his resources into getting across this valley &mdash but he may get other people interested,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoThey could really push this technology forward faster and get these important applications ready sooner than they would otherwise.&rdquo

Though not as sensitive as electrodes inserted into someone&rsquos brain, external electrodes are an easier sell with study volunteers and patients. At UTSA, Golob and his colleagues use external electrodes &mdash a modified cap with dozens of sensors &mdash to study brain signals associated with stuttering.

&ldquoWe can look at it in real time and predict reasonably well whether or not they&rsquore going to stutter or not, right before they speak,&rdquo he said. The next step is to learn how to &ldquotrain the brain to get into the good state.&rdquo

&ldquoWhat we really want to do on top of helping people who stutter is think about diseases that are really bad &mdash Alzheimer&rsquos disease, for example,&rdquo he said.

If scientists can figure out what&rsquos going on in the brain when something&rsquos going awry, they might be able to help individuals use biofeedback to decrease their symptoms.

This type of therapy could help improve quality of life by decreasing symptoms, but it wouldn&rsquot stop the underlying diseases.

&ldquoIt&rsquos still a hypothesis,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoWe&rsquore going to find that out, hopefully in the next year or two.&rdquo

The Neuralink people say direct communication between people&rsquos brains via &ldquonon-linguistic consensual telepathy&rdquo is quicker and more accurate than writing or speaking. While I don&rsquot want a hole bored in my skull, I do like the idea of thinking about this column and sharing it with you telepathically.


Abstract

The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3 min], exercise [6 min], and warm-down [3 min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control. Conditions were randomized and counterbalanced to prevent any influence of systematic order on the dependent variables. Oscillatory potentials at the Cz electrode site were used to further understanding of time–frequency changes influenced by voluntary control of movements. Spectral coherence analysis between Cz and frontal, frontal-central, central, central-parietal, and parietal electrode sites was also calculated. Perceptual and affective measures were taken at five timepoints during the exercise bout. Results indicated that music reallocated participants' attentional focus toward auditory pathways and reduced perceived exertion. The music also inhibited alpha resynchronization at the Cz electrode site and reduced the spectral coherence values at Cz–C4 and Cz–Fz. The reduced focal awareness induced by music led to a more autonomous control of cycle movements performed at light-to-moderate-intensities. Processing of interoceptive sensory cues appears to upmodulate fatigue-related sensations, increase the connectivity in the frontal and central regions of the brain, and is associated with neural resynchronization to sustain the imposed exercise intensity.


A Tiny Electric Brain Implant Could Wake People in Comas

L ast year, a woman from the United Arab Emirates woke up in a German hospital after a road accident in 1991 left her in a coma for 27 years. Her doctors couldn’t believe it.

Her case was exceedingly rare. Only a handful of other patients ha v e ever recovered after that long. Some people may gradually come out of a coma or wake up after a few weeks. Some become what’s known as “minimally conscious,” showing occasional awareness and responsiveness. Others may enter a vegetative state — where they seem awake but show no signs of awareness. These patients may eventually regain a degree of awareness, but they could also remain in a vegetative state for years.

To help these people, scientists have been trying to pinpoint where consciousness resides in the human brain. Doing so would not only solve one of the central questions of neuroscience, but it could also lead to treatments to “awaken” people in comas.

Brain scans have suggested that an area called the thalamus, which is located just above the brain stem, plays a role in consciousness. In a paper published in the journal Neuron on Wednesday, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison identified a tiny zone within this region — just a few millimeters in size — that, when stimulated appropriately, appears to wake unconscious monkeys. It may be especially important in keeping humans awake and conscious as well.

First, the researchers inserted electrodes in the brains of macaques, recording activity from multiple brain areas at a time. By studying animals when they were awake, sleeping, or anesthetized, they narrowed down the region that seemed to be involved in consciousness to an area within the thalamus, only 1–1.5 millimeters across and 3–4 millimeters deep, called the central lateral thalamus.

Then, they used an approach called deep brain stimulation on anesthetized monkeys to deliver electrical pulses to this region. Deep brain stimulation, which involves surgically inserting electrodes into the brain to administer intermittent electric stimulation, is an approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease and a handful of other conditions. It has also been tried in some comatose patients but has only helped a few people.

“The animal looked around the room as if it was coming out of anesthesia normally.”

In contrast to those attempts, the Wisconsin team used much smaller electrodes to precisely target the central lateral thalamus. They also designed the electrodes to match this region’s shape. When they flipped on the stimulation, it had an immediate effect on the monkeys.

“Within about two seconds of starting stimulation, the animals started to open their eyes, make body movements and purposeful reaches,” says Yuri Saalmann, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and senior author of the paper. “The animal looked around the room as if it was coming out of anesthesia normally, despite the fact that there was a continuous administration of a relatively steep dose of anesthesia.”

When the stimulation was turned off, the monkeys went back into an unconscious state within seconds.

In 2007, a group at Weill Cornell Medical College led by neuroscientist Nicholas Schiff reported that deep brain stimulation to the general thalamus area roused a patient from a minimally conscious state, restoring limited movement and speech. Stimulation to the thalamus has since improved a few other patients’ conditions, but it hasn’t worked across the board for people in comas. The new study suggests targeting just the central lateral thalamus may be helpful where general thalamus stimulation is not.

“It is a very tough area to target,” Saalmann says of the central lateral thalamus. That may explain why only a handful of patients with disorders of consciousness have benefited from brain stimulation while many others have not.

There was another key difference in the stimulation approach that Saalmann’s team used compared to previous studies that have attempted to awaken unconscious patients. Deep brain stimulation studies typically use a high frequency of electricity — 100 hertz, or 100 electrical pulses a second. Saalmann’s group used a frequency half that amount because they had observed that neurons in the central lateral thalamus generated electrical pulses at only 50 hertz.

“We basically tried to mimic the activity of the neurons in the central lateral thalamus in the wake state,” Saalmann says. They tried higher and lower frequencies, too, but they weren’t effective.

Before the approach can be tried in comatose patients, Saalmann’s team needs to do more animal studies. They’re planning to do experiments to see if they can keep monkeys conscious for longer to do certain tasks like playing video games. He hopes to move the approach to clinical trials in comatose patients within a few years.

Meanwhile, a few ongoing clinical trials are testing the effectiveness of noninvasive types of stimulation, like transcranial direct current stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation on people in comas. Neuroscientists are also exploring the use of ultrasound, which was used to wake up a man in a coma.

Aaron Boes, a neurologist at the University of Iowa, says the Wisconsin group’s findings are promising, but whether the central lateral thalamus is the best area to target in people with disorders of consciousness is still an open question. “I suspect there are many areas of the brain that can modulate the level of arousal,” he says.

Martin Monti, an associate professor of neurology at the University of California, Los Angeles, thinks different types of stimulation are worth pursuing, but cautions that it may not work for everyone. His group is testing ultrasonic and non-invasive stimulation of the thalamus, but he says that brain damage in some patients may be so pervasive that stimulation won’t be effective at all.

“The patients who are in a disorder of consciousness typically narrowly survived a catastrophic life event,” he says. “So, it is not as simple as turning consciousness back on.”


Could Brain Implants Ever Make Telekinesis Possible?

Today, when you see an eerie child lift a toy with its mind in some hackneyed ‘80s-horror homage, you can be reasonably certain that kid is supposed to be special in some way. A hundred years from now, that might not translate. A hundred years from now, kids of all kinds—fictional and non-fictional eerie and normal—might routinely spend their Saturdays spinning furniture in the air by looking at it intensely. Whether this happens depends, of course, on the direction technology takes in the coming century—specifically, advancements in the field of brain implantation. You could ask why a team of researchers would spend millions trying to make telekinesis a reality, but the more interesting question—from our perspective, at least—is: could they? For this week’s Giz Asks , we reached out to a number of experts to find out.

Bradley Voytek

Associate Professor of Cognitive Science at the Halıcıoğlu Data Science Institute and the Neuroscience Graduate Program at UC San Diego

To give a super academic answer: almost. The goal is to read out signals from the brain and convert those signals into some kind of action in the world. The more signals we can read out (with low noise) the more control we can exert. But there’s a big bottleneck of how much attention we can pay to how many things at once. Some of us can’t rub our bellies while patting our heads! So it’s a bit presumptuous to think we’ll be able to use our fancy future brain implants to chop vegetables in the kitchen while also pouring a drink and writing a note all at the same time.

Also, unfortunately for engineers, biology—including neurons—looks super noisy to our computers, so we can’t read out too many signals. The more noise, the worse we do in controlling devices. The last thing you want is a device that’s reading every stray electrical signal from your brain and making that move random stuff all around. But if we’re willing to go with the definition of telekinesis of “moving stuff without my body touching it” then yes!—we can do that with brain implants right now. There are consumer toys that already let you sort of do that without brain implants, using a little EEG cap that reads the total electrical signals coming from your brain’s 86 billion or so neurons to control a robot to move forward or backward or something. Heck, we’ve been able to do this for a few decades now.

But it’s also not really in the spirit of the question. What we really want is to be able to look at something and make it fly through the air like Jean Grey from the X-Men, just using the power of our minds, not put on a goofy hat to make a little RC car roll forward a little. So we can get really wild, and draw some inspiration from science fiction, like Iron Man’s Extremis Armor. This armor is directly controlled via a neural interface with Tony Stark’s brain. Now this is all theoretical speculation, but in theory, with enough tiny brain implants, we should be able to read out a lot of different signals all at once. The more we can read out, the more we can control. Imagine controlling a drone—or fleet of drones—to fly around and pick stuff up for you. This is more like “telekinesis,” but it’s still susceptible to noise. So not only will we need fancy brain implants, but smarter control systems for our drones or whatever as well.

Andrea Stocco

Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences (I-LABS), and co-director of the Cognition and Cortical Dynamics Laboratory

It depends on what you mean by “telekinesis.” If you think of the cartoon version of “exerting force on any object, at any time, through the powers of the mind, without the mediation of any known type of mechanical or electromagnetic force,” then telekinesis is beyond the realm of physics, not just beyond the realm of brain implants.

But if you are happy with a more mundane version, in which you can exert force on any object through known physical forces, then the answer is different. If you are satisfied with calling “telekinesis” the operation of remote robotic arms through radio or wired signals, or the control of software objects (cursors on a screen, phone apps), then all of these things are certainly possible with brain implants.

And I say ‘certainly” because all of the above examples have already been done. Andy Schwarz has developed implanted electrode arrays in humans and primates that control articulated arms Rajesh Rao has developed EEG-based interfaces that control robotic arms and even small autonomous robots altogether Miguel Nicholelis has developed EEG-based interfaces that control exoskeletons, demonstrating how a paralyzed individual could use the exoskeleton to walk and even kick a soccer ball. Much can be done, of course these technologies are still clunky and not portable, but they clearly show what can be achieved.

So, telekinesis might sound like magic, but, as Arthur Clarke once said, “Every sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” And, although the cartoon version of telekinesis is physically impossible, a “technological” version of it (controlling objects remotely through wireless signals and brain implants) is already possible.


Chronic electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve at high stimulus rates: a physiological and histopathological study

A major factor associated with recent improvements in the clinical performance of cochlear implant patients has been the development of speech-processing strategies based on high stimulation rates. While these processing strategies show clear clinical advantage, we know little of their long-term safety implications. The present study was designed to evaluate the physiological and histopathological effects of long-term intracochlear electrical stimulation using these high rates. Thirteen normal-hearing adult cats were bilaterally implanted with scala tympani electrode arrays and unilaterally stimulated for periods of up to 2100 h using either two pairs of bipolar or three monopolar stimulating electrodes. Stimuli consisted of short duration (25-50 microseconds/phase) charge-balanced biphasic current pulses presented at 1000 pulses per second (pps) per channel for monopolar stimulation, and 2000 pps/channel for bipolar stimulation. The electrodes were shorted between current pulses to minimize any residual direct current, and the pulse trains were presented using a 50% duty cycle (500 ms on 500 ms off) in order to simulate speech. Both acoustic (ABR) and electrical (EABR) auditory brainstem responses were recorded periodically during the chronic stimulation program. All cochleas showed an increase in the click-evoked ABR threshold following implant surgery however, recovery to near-normal levels occurred in approximately half of the stimulated cochleas 1 month post-operatively. The use of frequency-specific stimuli indicated that the most extensive hearing loss generally occurred in the high-frequency basal region of the cochlea (12 and 24 kHz) adjacent to the stimulating electrode. However, thresholds at lower frequencies (2, 4 and 8 kHz), appeared at near-normal levels despite long-term electrode implantation and electrical stimulation. Our longitudinal EABR results showed a statistically significant increase in threshold in nearly 40% of the chronically stimulated electrodes evaluated however, the gradient of the EABR input/output (I/O) function (evoked potential response amplitude versus stimulus current) generally remained quite stable throughout the chronic stimulation period. Histopathological examination of the cochleas showed no statistically significant difference in ganglion cell densities between cochleas using monopolar and bipolar electrode configurations (P = 0.67), and no evidence of cochlear damage caused by high-rate electrical stimulation when compared with control cochleas. Indeed, there was no statistically significant relationship between spiral ganglion cell density and electrical stimulation (P = 0.459), or between the extent of loss of inner (IHC, P = 0.86) or outer (OHC, P = 0.30) hair cells and electrical stimulation. Spiral ganglion cell loss was, however, influenced by the degree of inflammation (P = 0.016) and electrode insertion trauma. These histopathological findings were consistent with the physiological data. Finally, electrode impedance, measured at completion of the chronic stimulation program, showed close correlation with the degree of tissue response adjacent to the electrode array. These results indicated that chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation, using carefully controlled charge-balanced biphasic current pulses at stimulus rates of up to 2000 pps/channel, does not appear to adversely affect residual auditory nerve elements or the cochlea in general. This study provides an important basis for the safe application of improved speech-processing strategies based on high-rate electrical stimulation.


Devices and magnetic field

It’s a proven fact that there is electromagnetic pollution. Electrical appliances and devices both create a magnetic field that, of course, has an effect on our brains. Let’s take for example two common devices: TV’s and computers.

There was an experiment done in 1987 in the Occupational Health Center in Lodz, Poland. They exposed a group of pregnant rats and a group of male rats to four hours a day in front of a TV one foot away.

The result in the females was that their offspring weighed less and were smaller than usual. The result in the men was a reduction in the weight of their testicles. In both there less sodium in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

People have also done various studies on computers. One of them concluded that pregnant women who worked in front of a computer were more likely to have abortions. In general, people who work in front of a screen display these symptoms more often:

  • dry mucus
  • skin inflammation
  • dry eyes
  • pimples on the face and open pores
  • red eyes
  • fatigue
  • migraines
  • stress

All of this happens because computers create a magnetic field with positive ions, and because screens make us blink less often. The ions move through the air and the user ends up receiving them. Devices can give a person vertigo, dizziness, nausea, etc.

The solution is to keep yourself at least a yard away from the device. This goes for TV’s as well as computers. And when it comes to buying them, you should always look for ones that have a TCO certification.


Roycegdesign

Cochlear Implant Psychology Definition. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. When we consulted a surgeon, he clipped several ct scan images of our son's head up on the light board and tapped a file containing reports of.

Cochlear implants (ci) have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened training cochlear implant recipients. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? This is made up of a microphone/receiver, a speech processor, and an antenna. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that stimulate the hearing nerve to provide sounds directly to the brain.

Rikki Poynter - Cochlear Implants - YouTube from i.ytimg.com A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. Cochlear implants can restore hearing in patients suffering deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in their cochlea.

Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid.

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. Cochlear implant definition, a device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. Cochlear implant synonyms, cochlear implant pronunciation, cochlear implant translation, english dictionary definition of cochlear implant. Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. Even the cochlear implant psychology definition features a long way to go. When we consulted a surgeon, he clipped several ct scan images of our son's head up on the light board and tapped a file containing reports of. Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted, electronic prosthetic device that provides electric stimulation directly to auditory nerve fibers psychology. It can be used for people who are deaf or very hard of hearing. Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant.

What are cochlear implant pros and cons. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices for solving hearing loss, but it is not a perfect solution. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. Get the facts from webmd on cochlear implants if you're very hard of hearing or deaf, a cochlear implant may help you get back the sounds you miss.

Cochlear implant pros and cons | Cochlear implant . from i.pinimg.com An electronic apparatus that allows people with severe hearing loss to recognize some sounds, especially speech sounds, and that. Cochlear implants can restore hearing in patients suffering deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in their cochlea. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? What is a cochlear implant? A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear.

Where can i find additional information about cochlear implants?

The nijmegen cochlear implant questionnaire (nciq) was used to assess the benefits of their ci. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. An electronic device designed to enable individuals with complete deafness to hear and interpret some sounds, particularly those associated with speech. What other sources of information are there? Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant. The cochlear implant is a surgically placed device that converts sound to an electrical signal. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? A cochlear implant is a surgical treatment for hearing loss that works like an artificial human cochlea in the inner ear, helping to send sound from the ear to the a doctor may also order a psychological exam to better understand the person's expectations. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? It consists of a microphone to detect sound, a headpiece to transmit sound, a processor to digitize sound, and a receiver to signal.

What can i expect a cochlear implant to achieve in my child? Assessment | biopsychology | comparative | cognitive | developmental | language | individual differences | personality | philosophy | social | methods | statistics | clinical | educational | industrial | professional items | world psychology |. Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices for solving hearing loss, but it is not a perfect solution. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? What is a cochlear implant?

Understanding Hearing Loss & Cochlear Implants | Cochlear . from i.pinimg.com What is a cochlear implant? How is the external transmitter held in place correctly? How important is the active cooperation of the patient? It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder. What are cochlear implant pros and cons.

It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder.

This treatment modality has received much attention and the cochlear implant is the most successful and widely applied neural prosthesis developed to date. What are cochlear implant pros and cons. Assessment | biopsychology | comparative | cognitive | developmental | language | individual differences | personality | philosophy | social | methods | statistics | clinical | educational | industrial | professional items | world psychology |. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? It consists of a microphone to detect sound, a headpiece to transmit sound, a processor to digitize sound, and a receiver to signal. Cochlear implant definition, a device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. Cochlear implant synonyms, cochlear implant pronunciation, cochlear implant translation, english dictionary definition of cochlear implant. An electronic device that is put into the inner ear during an operation in order to allow…. What other sources of information are there? How is the external transmitter held in place correctly? Due to the overall success of cochlear implants and ongoing advances in performance, an article addressing indications for cochlear implantation attempts to describe a target that moves almost yearly.

Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. How important is the active cooperation of the patient? A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted, electronic prosthetic device that provides electric stimulation directly to auditory nerve fibers psychology. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant.

Source: cochlearimplantonline.com

Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. What are cochlear implant pros and cons. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. The second part of the cochlear implant is an outside device.

Source: www.hopkinsmedicine.org

If you or a loved one are living with hearing loss and are not receiving enough benefit when using hearing aids, a cochlear implant may be able to help. List of pros of cochlear implants. Cochlear implants (ci) have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened training cochlear implant recipients. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person with sensorineural hearing loss a modified sense of sound. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your.

Source: www.nchearingloss.org

A psychologist may provide information on. It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person with sensorineural hearing loss a modified sense of sound. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.

If you or a loved one are living with hearing loss and are not receiving enough benefit when using hearing aids, a cochlear implant may be able to help. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? Here's what you need to know on what they are and how they work. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that stimulate the hearing nerve to provide sounds directly to the brain. Satisfaction with their ci was measured kobosko j, jedrzejczak ww, pilka e et al (2015) satisfaction with cochlear implants in postlingually deaf adults and its nonaudiological predictors:

Source: new-docs-thumbs.oneclass.com

Due to the overall success of cochlear implants and ongoing advances in performance, an article addressing indications for cochlear implantation attempts to describe a target that moves almost yearly.

Even the cochlear implant psychology definition features a long way to go.

The receiver has an array attached to it which on the other end has a series of electrodes which are placed in the inner ear (the cochlea).

Source: www.nchearingloss.org

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who.

Cochlear implants are surgically implanted devices for people with severe or profound hearing loss.


A Tiny Electric Brain Implant Could Wake People in Comas

L ast year, a woman from the United Arab Emirates woke up in a German hospital after a road accident in 1991 left her in a coma for 27 years. Her doctors couldn’t believe it.

Her case was exceedingly rare. Only a handful of other patients ha v e ever recovered after that long. Some people may gradually come out of a coma or wake up after a few weeks. Some become what’s known as “minimally conscious,” showing occasional awareness and responsiveness. Others may enter a vegetative state — where they seem awake but show no signs of awareness. These patients may eventually regain a degree of awareness, but they could also remain in a vegetative state for years.

To help these people, scientists have been trying to pinpoint where consciousness resides in the human brain. Doing so would not only solve one of the central questions of neuroscience, but it could also lead to treatments to “awaken” people in comas.

Brain scans have suggested that an area called the thalamus, which is located just above the brain stem, plays a role in consciousness. In a paper published in the journal Neuron on Wednesday, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison identified a tiny zone within this region — just a few millimeters in size — that, when stimulated appropriately, appears to wake unconscious monkeys. It may be especially important in keeping humans awake and conscious as well.

First, the researchers inserted electrodes in the brains of macaques, recording activity from multiple brain areas at a time. By studying animals when they were awake, sleeping, or anesthetized, they narrowed down the region that seemed to be involved in consciousness to an area within the thalamus, only 1–1.5 millimeters across and 3–4 millimeters deep, called the central lateral thalamus.

Then, they used an approach called deep brain stimulation on anesthetized monkeys to deliver electrical pulses to this region. Deep brain stimulation, which involves surgically inserting electrodes into the brain to administer intermittent electric stimulation, is an approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease and a handful of other conditions. It has also been tried in some comatose patients but has only helped a few people.

“The animal looked around the room as if it was coming out of anesthesia normally.”

In contrast to those attempts, the Wisconsin team used much smaller electrodes to precisely target the central lateral thalamus. They also designed the electrodes to match this region’s shape. When they flipped on the stimulation, it had an immediate effect on the monkeys.

“Within about two seconds of starting stimulation, the animals started to open their eyes, make body movements and purposeful reaches,” says Yuri Saalmann, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and senior author of the paper. “The animal looked around the room as if it was coming out of anesthesia normally, despite the fact that there was a continuous administration of a relatively steep dose of anesthesia.”

When the stimulation was turned off, the monkeys went back into an unconscious state within seconds.

In 2007, a group at Weill Cornell Medical College led by neuroscientist Nicholas Schiff reported that deep brain stimulation to the general thalamus area roused a patient from a minimally conscious state, restoring limited movement and speech. Stimulation to the thalamus has since improved a few other patients’ conditions, but it hasn’t worked across the board for people in comas. The new study suggests targeting just the central lateral thalamus may be helpful where general thalamus stimulation is not.

“It is a very tough area to target,” Saalmann says of the central lateral thalamus. That may explain why only a handful of patients with disorders of consciousness have benefited from brain stimulation while many others have not.

There was another key difference in the stimulation approach that Saalmann’s team used compared to previous studies that have attempted to awaken unconscious patients. Deep brain stimulation studies typically use a high frequency of electricity — 100 hertz, or 100 electrical pulses a second. Saalmann’s group used a frequency half that amount because they had observed that neurons in the central lateral thalamus generated electrical pulses at only 50 hertz.

“We basically tried to mimic the activity of the neurons in the central lateral thalamus in the wake state,” Saalmann says. They tried higher and lower frequencies, too, but they weren’t effective.

Before the approach can be tried in comatose patients, Saalmann’s team needs to do more animal studies. They’re planning to do experiments to see if they can keep monkeys conscious for longer to do certain tasks like playing video games. He hopes to move the approach to clinical trials in comatose patients within a few years.

Meanwhile, a few ongoing clinical trials are testing the effectiveness of noninvasive types of stimulation, like transcranial direct current stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation on people in comas. Neuroscientists are also exploring the use of ultrasound, which was used to wake up a man in a coma.

Aaron Boes, a neurologist at the University of Iowa, says the Wisconsin group’s findings are promising, but whether the central lateral thalamus is the best area to target in people with disorders of consciousness is still an open question. “I suspect there are many areas of the brain that can modulate the level of arousal,” he says.

Martin Monti, an associate professor of neurology at the University of California, Los Angeles, thinks different types of stimulation are worth pursuing, but cautions that it may not work for everyone. His group is testing ultrasonic and non-invasive stimulation of the thalamus, but he says that brain damage in some patients may be so pervasive that stimulation won’t be effective at all.

“The patients who are in a disorder of consciousness typically narrowly survived a catastrophic life event,” he says. “So, it is not as simple as turning consciousness back on.”


Could Brain Implants Ever Make Telekinesis Possible?

Today, when you see an eerie child lift a toy with its mind in some hackneyed ‘80s-horror homage, you can be reasonably certain that kid is supposed to be special in some way. A hundred years from now, that might not translate. A hundred years from now, kids of all kinds—fictional and non-fictional eerie and normal—might routinely spend their Saturdays spinning furniture in the air by looking at it intensely. Whether this happens depends, of course, on the direction technology takes in the coming century—specifically, advancements in the field of brain implantation. You could ask why a team of researchers would spend millions trying to make telekinesis a reality, but the more interesting question—from our perspective, at least—is: could they? For this week’s Giz Asks , we reached out to a number of experts to find out.

Bradley Voytek

Associate Professor of Cognitive Science at the Halıcıoğlu Data Science Institute and the Neuroscience Graduate Program at UC San Diego

To give a super academic answer: almost. The goal is to read out signals from the brain and convert those signals into some kind of action in the world. The more signals we can read out (with low noise) the more control we can exert. But there’s a big bottleneck of how much attention we can pay to how many things at once. Some of us can’t rub our bellies while patting our heads! So it’s a bit presumptuous to think we’ll be able to use our fancy future brain implants to chop vegetables in the kitchen while also pouring a drink and writing a note all at the same time.

Also, unfortunately for engineers, biology—including neurons—looks super noisy to our computers, so we can’t read out too many signals. The more noise, the worse we do in controlling devices. The last thing you want is a device that’s reading every stray electrical signal from your brain and making that move random stuff all around. But if we’re willing to go with the definition of telekinesis of “moving stuff without my body touching it” then yes!—we can do that with brain implants right now. There are consumer toys that already let you sort of do that without brain implants, using a little EEG cap that reads the total electrical signals coming from your brain’s 86 billion or so neurons to control a robot to move forward or backward or something. Heck, we’ve been able to do this for a few decades now.

But it’s also not really in the spirit of the question. What we really want is to be able to look at something and make it fly through the air like Jean Grey from the X-Men, just using the power of our minds, not put on a goofy hat to make a little RC car roll forward a little. So we can get really wild, and draw some inspiration from science fiction, like Iron Man’s Extremis Armor. This armor is directly controlled via a neural interface with Tony Stark’s brain. Now this is all theoretical speculation, but in theory, with enough tiny brain implants, we should be able to read out a lot of different signals all at once. The more we can read out, the more we can control. Imagine controlling a drone—or fleet of drones—to fly around and pick stuff up for you. This is more like “telekinesis,” but it’s still susceptible to noise. So not only will we need fancy brain implants, but smarter control systems for our drones or whatever as well.

Andrea Stocco

Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences (I-LABS), and co-director of the Cognition and Cortical Dynamics Laboratory

It depends on what you mean by “telekinesis.” If you think of the cartoon version of “exerting force on any object, at any time, through the powers of the mind, without the mediation of any known type of mechanical or electromagnetic force,” then telekinesis is beyond the realm of physics, not just beyond the realm of brain implants.

But if you are happy with a more mundane version, in which you can exert force on any object through known physical forces, then the answer is different. If you are satisfied with calling “telekinesis” the operation of remote robotic arms through radio or wired signals, or the control of software objects (cursors on a screen, phone apps), then all of these things are certainly possible with brain implants.

And I say ‘certainly” because all of the above examples have already been done. Andy Schwarz has developed implanted electrode arrays in humans and primates that control articulated arms Rajesh Rao has developed EEG-based interfaces that control robotic arms and even small autonomous robots altogether Miguel Nicholelis has developed EEG-based interfaces that control exoskeletons, demonstrating how a paralyzed individual could use the exoskeleton to walk and even kick a soccer ball. Much can be done, of course these technologies are still clunky and not portable, but they clearly show what can be achieved.

So, telekinesis might sound like magic, but, as Arthur Clarke once said, “Every sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” And, although the cartoon version of telekinesis is physically impossible, a “technological” version of it (controlling objects remotely through wireless signals and brain implants) is already possible.


BRAIN IMPLANTS

CONTROLLED-RELEASE IMPLANTS

Acellular polymeric brain implants that are able to deliver protein factors to the CNS have also been developed ( Tabata et al., 1993 Langer, 1995 Kuo and Saltzman, 1996 Maloney and Saltzman, 1996 am Ende and Mikos, 1997 Roskos and Maskiewicz, 1997 Yewey et al., 1997 ). These systems release drugs by degradation- or diffusion-based mechanisms over an extended time (weeks), but cannot sustain release over a long time (months), which is possible with cellular-based systems. The advantage with polymeric release is that cells are not used, the dose can be controlled, and the duration can be set. On the negative side, the formulation and stability of the factor or drug may be problematic. In addition, biodegradable implants often cause a mild inflammatory reaction, which may immunologically sensitize a cellular coimplant.

Appropriately designed, polymeric controlled-release devices have several possible applications and could, for example, support the survival and integration of transplanted cells. Furthermore, a polymeric system can support the sequential release of growth factors that may be necessary to support fully the stepwise differentiation of immature cells. This concept can be applied to neural stem cells that may lack important embryonic signals in the adult brain ( Wahlberg, 1997 ). Synthetic drugs that cannot be made in cellular-based systems can also be delivered by these implants. The local delivery of steroids ( Christenson et al., 1991 ) and cyclosporin A may be two applications that could be used in combination with cell implants to avoid early immunologic sensitization and rejection.


Study Information

Study published on: February 6, 2020

Study author(s): Wei Liu Shikun Zhan, Dianyou Li, Zhengyu Lin, Chencheng Zhang, Tao Wang, Sijian Pan Jing Zhang, Chunyan Cao, Haiyan Jin, Yongchao Li, Bomin Sun,

The study was done at: Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine & Shanghai YangPu District Mental Health Center

The study was funded by: Research Award Fund for Outstanding Young Teachers in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and SHSMU-ION Research Center for Brain Disorders (B.M.S.).

Raw data availability: Not available

Featured image credit: Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay


Devices and magnetic field

It’s a proven fact that there is electromagnetic pollution. Electrical appliances and devices both create a magnetic field that, of course, has an effect on our brains. Let’s take for example two common devices: TV’s and computers.

There was an experiment done in 1987 in the Occupational Health Center in Lodz, Poland. They exposed a group of pregnant rats and a group of male rats to four hours a day in front of a TV one foot away.

The result in the females was that their offspring weighed less and were smaller than usual. The result in the men was a reduction in the weight of their testicles. In both there less sodium in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

People have also done various studies on computers. One of them concluded that pregnant women who worked in front of a computer were more likely to have abortions. In general, people who work in front of a screen display these symptoms more often:

  • dry mucus
  • skin inflammation
  • dry eyes
  • pimples on the face and open pores
  • red eyes
  • fatigue
  • migraines
  • stress

All of this happens because computers create a magnetic field with positive ions, and because screens make us blink less often. The ions move through the air and the user ends up receiving them. Devices can give a person vertigo, dizziness, nausea, etc.

The solution is to keep yourself at least a yard away from the device. This goes for TV’s as well as computers. And when it comes to buying them, you should always look for ones that have a TCO certification.


Roycegdesign

Cochlear Implant Psychology Definition. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. When we consulted a surgeon, he clipped several ct scan images of our son's head up on the light board and tapped a file containing reports of.

Cochlear implants (ci) have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened training cochlear implant recipients. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? This is made up of a microphone/receiver, a speech processor, and an antenna. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that stimulate the hearing nerve to provide sounds directly to the brain.

Rikki Poynter - Cochlear Implants - YouTube from i.ytimg.com A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. Cochlear implants can restore hearing in patients suffering deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in their cochlea.

Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid.

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. Cochlear implant definition, a device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. Cochlear implant synonyms, cochlear implant pronunciation, cochlear implant translation, english dictionary definition of cochlear implant. Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. Even the cochlear implant psychology definition features a long way to go. When we consulted a surgeon, he clipped several ct scan images of our son's head up on the light board and tapped a file containing reports of. Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted, electronic prosthetic device that provides electric stimulation directly to auditory nerve fibers psychology. It can be used for people who are deaf or very hard of hearing. Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant.

What are cochlear implant pros and cons. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices for solving hearing loss, but it is not a perfect solution. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. Get the facts from webmd on cochlear implants if you're very hard of hearing or deaf, a cochlear implant may help you get back the sounds you miss.

Cochlear implant pros and cons | Cochlear implant . from i.pinimg.com An electronic apparatus that allows people with severe hearing loss to recognize some sounds, especially speech sounds, and that. Cochlear implants can restore hearing in patients suffering deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in their cochlea. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? What is a cochlear implant? A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear.

Where can i find additional information about cochlear implants?

The nijmegen cochlear implant questionnaire (nciq) was used to assess the benefits of their ci. Learn how the cochlear implant work including cochlear implant vs hearing aid. An electronic device designed to enable individuals with complete deafness to hear and interpret some sounds, particularly those associated with speech. What other sources of information are there? Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant. The cochlear implant is a surgically placed device that converts sound to an electrical signal. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. Improves hearing for some people with hearing loss, the chance of hearing again, or hearing for the first time opens doors of opportunities for them. What does the future hold for cochlear implants? A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? A cochlear implant is a surgical treatment for hearing loss that works like an artificial human cochlea in the inner ear, helping to send sound from the ear to the a doctor may also order a psychological exam to better understand the person's expectations. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? It consists of a microphone to detect sound, a headpiece to transmit sound, a processor to digitize sound, and a receiver to signal.

What can i expect a cochlear implant to achieve in my child? Assessment | biopsychology | comparative | cognitive | developmental | language | individual differences | personality | philosophy | social | methods | statistics | clinical | educational | industrial | professional items | world psychology |. Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices for solving hearing loss, but it is not a perfect solution. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? What is a cochlear implant?

Understanding Hearing Loss & Cochlear Implants | Cochlear . from i.pinimg.com What is a cochlear implant? How is the external transmitter held in place correctly? How important is the active cooperation of the patient? It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder. What are cochlear implant pros and cons.

It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder.

This treatment modality has received much attention and the cochlear implant is the most successful and widely applied neural prosthesis developed to date. What are cochlear implant pros and cons. Assessment | biopsychology | comparative | cognitive | developmental | language | individual differences | personality | philosophy | social | methods | statistics | clinical | educational | industrial | professional items | world psychology |. A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by how long have cochlear implants been available? It consists of a microphone to detect sound, a headpiece to transmit sound, a processor to digitize sound, and a receiver to signal. Cochlear implant definition, a device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. Cochlear implant synonyms, cochlear implant pronunciation, cochlear implant translation, english dictionary definition of cochlear implant. An electronic device that is put into the inner ear during an operation in order to allow…. What other sources of information are there? How is the external transmitter held in place correctly? Due to the overall success of cochlear implants and ongoing advances in performance, an article addressing indications for cochlear implantation attempts to describe a target that moves almost yearly.

Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. How important is the active cooperation of the patient? A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted, electronic prosthetic device that provides electric stimulation directly to auditory nerve fibers psychology. A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who. Suddenly alex was a candidate for a cochlear implant.

Source: cochlearimplantonline.com

Cognitive assessment bilateral cochlear implantation refers to cochlear implantation in both ears. A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to help a person with a certain form of deafness to hear. What are cochlear implant pros and cons. Cochlear implants can provide useful hearing to many children with profound hearing loss. The second part of the cochlear implant is an outside device.

Source: www.hopkinsmedicine.org

If you or a loved one are living with hearing loss and are not receiving enough benefit when using hearing aids, a cochlear implant may be able to help. List of pros of cochlear implants. Cochlear implants (ci) have brought with them hearing ability for many prelingually deafened training cochlear implant recipients. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person with sensorineural hearing loss a modified sense of sound. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your.

Source: www.nchearingloss.org

A psychologist may provide information on. It isn't a hearing aid, which makes sounds louder. Any decision to the contrary is a misconception of exactly just what your. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person with sensorineural hearing loss a modified sense of sound. A cochlear implant (ci) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.

If you or a loved one are living with hearing loss and are not receiving enough benefit when using hearing aids, a cochlear implant may be able to help. Cochlear implants have been controversial in deaf culture — how would one change my son? Here's what you need to know on what they are and how they work. Cochlear implants are electronic devices that stimulate the hearing nerve to provide sounds directly to the brain. Satisfaction with their ci was measured kobosko j, jedrzejczak ww, pilka e et al (2015) satisfaction with cochlear implants in postlingually deaf adults and its nonaudiological predictors:

Source: new-docs-thumbs.oneclass.com

Due to the overall success of cochlear implants and ongoing advances in performance, an article addressing indications for cochlear implantation attempts to describe a target that moves almost yearly.

Even the cochlear implant psychology definition features a long way to go.

The receiver has an array attached to it which on the other end has a series of electrodes which are placed in the inner ear (the cochlea).

Source: www.nchearingloss.org

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can provide a sense of sound to people who.

Cochlear implants are surgically implanted devices for people with severe or profound hearing loss.


Abstract

The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3 min], exercise [6 min], and warm-down [3 min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control. Conditions were randomized and counterbalanced to prevent any influence of systematic order on the dependent variables. Oscillatory potentials at the Cz electrode site were used to further understanding of time–frequency changes influenced by voluntary control of movements. Spectral coherence analysis between Cz and frontal, frontal-central, central, central-parietal, and parietal electrode sites was also calculated. Perceptual and affective measures were taken at five timepoints during the exercise bout. Results indicated that music reallocated participants' attentional focus toward auditory pathways and reduced perceived exertion. The music also inhibited alpha resynchronization at the Cz electrode site and reduced the spectral coherence values at Cz–C4 and Cz–Fz. The reduced focal awareness induced by music led to a more autonomous control of cycle movements performed at light-to-moderate-intensities. Processing of interoceptive sensory cues appears to upmodulate fatigue-related sensations, increase the connectivity in the frontal and central regions of the brain, and is associated with neural resynchronization to sustain the imposed exercise intensity.


With brain implants, the 'future's gonna be weird'

Researchers at the University of Texas at San Antonio use brain-computer interfaces to study what happens when stutterers speak.

Billy Calzada / Staff file photo

Neuralink, Elon Musk&rsquos brain-implant startup in Austin, has a monkey that can play video games with its mind.

At least, that&rsquos what the company claims in a video featuring a 9-year-old macaque named Pager who has two Neuralinks in his noggin.

Musk compares the implants to &ldquoa Fitbit in your skull with tiny wires.&rdquo Each coin-sized device has thousands of electrodes on thread-thin wires that reach a few centimeters into the wearer&rsquos motor cortex.

In the video, Pager&rsquos Neuralinks connect via Bluetooth to a smart phone. As he uses a joystick to guide a ball into a square on the monitor in front of him, the brain chips measure his neurons firing and decodes their signals. Pager earns a sip of banana smoothie every time he completes the task.

Eventually, they take the joystick away, and the algorithm predicts Pager&rsquos movements while playing Pong using only his brain&rsquos signals. Remember Pong, the Atari game with two moving paddles and a ball bouncing back and forth?

Pager controls his paddle with his mind. The company calls it Monkey Mind Pong.

Pager the macaque uses his mind to play Pong in this screen capture from Neuralink's video. Neuralink is Elon Musk's Austin-based startup that's developing brain implants.

Musk hopes Neuralink will become the ultimate in wearable technology that could someday help solve an array of brain and spine problems, including paralysis, extreme pain, memory loss, blindness, hearing loss, depression, insomnia, seizures and addiction.

&ldquoThese can all be solved,&rdquo Musk said in a summer update about the company that currently employs about 100 people. &ldquoThe neurons are like wiring, and you kind of need an electronic thing to solve an electronic problem.&rdquo

In line with Musk&rsquos other ventures, such as SpaceX and Tesla, Neuralink also has aspirational goals beyond limiting human suffering. The technology may someday offer people the ability to download and store memories, communicate telepathically, unlock trapped creativity, listen to music mentally and, yes, play video games with one&rsquos mind.

One Neuralink scientist said he hopes the devices will help humanity understand consciousness.

Musk said the price of the implant will be high in the beginning and eventually decrease to a few thousand dollars.

And installation will be a quick, outpatient procedure. A robot will bore a hole in the recipient&rsquos skull, thread the wires into the brain and set the device flush with the bone using surgical glue. It should be invisible beneath the scalp.

Wearers will need to recharge their chip via wireless induction and install an app on their smart devices.

Musk acknowledges that it all sounds like the television show &ldquoBlack Mirror,&rdquo the modern &ldquoTwilight Zone&rdquo-like series in which humans navigate the dark side of technology.

&ldquoThe future&rsquos gonna be weird,&rdquo Musk said.

The theories behind Neuralink aren&rsquot new. Scientists call the technology brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs, and researchers at the University of Texas at San Antonio are doing their own work in the field.

&ldquoIt actually has a long history,&rdquo said Edward Golob, a UTSA psychology professor whose research delves into BCIs. &ldquoYou can, to a limited degree in humans, read out someone&rsquos intentions.&rdquo

Currently, he said, the technology allows scientists to interpret only simple concepts such as right and left, but artificial intelligence and other technical advances are helping them gain more insight.

&ldquoI suspect people want to take the technology even further &mdash to get the brain to be even better than it normally would by training it in some way and trying to input other signals,&rdquo he said. &ldquoThat&rsquos more kind of science fiction nowadays, but it will probably become science reality at some point in the future.&rdquo

We&rsquore still a long way off from solving brain and spine problems, let alone enabling everyone to communicate telepathically or have super-human vision with their Neuralinks.

&ldquoPutting metal in someone&rsquos brain is something we should pause about,&rdquo Golob said.

In addition to the technical and medical hurdles, there are ethical and moral issues with animal testing and patient welfare. Then there&rsquos the privacy, safety and security concerns of wiring people&rsquos brains to the internet.

Sultan Alotaibi, center, of Mentis Team #4, explains to Ruben Asebedo, left, and Patrick Stockton how brain activity is collected through an Electroencephalograph skull cap, at The Tech Symposium held by UTSA's Engineer and Business Colleges. Tuesday, April 28, 2015.

Bob Owen, Staff / San Antonio Express-News

One physical obstacle is the body&rsquos reaction to foreign objects such as electrode wires.

&ldquoOnce you stick electrodes into a brain, the body doesn&rsquot like metal inside of it,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoSo it mounts something called a foreign-body response &mdash it kind of looks like a booger &mdash and that gunk that gets around the electrodes gets in the way of their ability to detect the electrical signals that you want to detect.&rdquo

Musk acknowledges this as a material science problem and suggests some type of silicon carbide could work as an insulator.

Golob calls BCIs an &ldquoorphan technology&rdquo that is trapped in the valley between where science has left off and investors bet on its continued development.

Musk &ldquohas this vision that can excite not only his own company &mdash and he&rsquos going to put his resources into getting across this valley &mdash but he may get other people interested,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoThey could really push this technology forward faster and get these important applications ready sooner than they would otherwise.&rdquo

Though not as sensitive as electrodes inserted into someone&rsquos brain, external electrodes are an easier sell with study volunteers and patients. At UTSA, Golob and his colleagues use external electrodes &mdash a modified cap with dozens of sensors &mdash to study brain signals associated with stuttering.

&ldquoWe can look at it in real time and predict reasonably well whether or not they&rsquore going to stutter or not, right before they speak,&rdquo he said. The next step is to learn how to &ldquotrain the brain to get into the good state.&rdquo

&ldquoWhat we really want to do on top of helping people who stutter is think about diseases that are really bad &mdash Alzheimer&rsquos disease, for example,&rdquo he said.

If scientists can figure out what&rsquos going on in the brain when something&rsquos going awry, they might be able to help individuals use biofeedback to decrease their symptoms.

This type of therapy could help improve quality of life by decreasing symptoms, but it wouldn&rsquot stop the underlying diseases.

&ldquoIt&rsquos still a hypothesis,&rdquo Golob said. &ldquoWe&rsquore going to find that out, hopefully in the next year or two.&rdquo

The Neuralink people say direct communication between people&rsquos brains via &ldquonon-linguistic consensual telepathy&rdquo is quicker and more accurate than writing or speaking. While I don&rsquot want a hole bored in my skull, I do like the idea of thinking about this column and sharing it with you telepathically.


Chronic electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve at high stimulus rates: a physiological and histopathological study

A major factor associated with recent improvements in the clinical performance of cochlear implant patients has been the development of speech-processing strategies based on high stimulation rates. While these processing strategies show clear clinical advantage, we know little of their long-term safety implications. The present study was designed to evaluate the physiological and histopathological effects of long-term intracochlear electrical stimulation using these high rates. Thirteen normal-hearing adult cats were bilaterally implanted with scala tympani electrode arrays and unilaterally stimulated for periods of up to 2100 h using either two pairs of bipolar or three monopolar stimulating electrodes. Stimuli consisted of short duration (25-50 microseconds/phase) charge-balanced biphasic current pulses presented at 1000 pulses per second (pps) per channel for monopolar stimulation, and 2000 pps/channel for bipolar stimulation. The electrodes were shorted between current pulses to minimize any residual direct current, and the pulse trains were presented using a 50% duty cycle (500 ms on 500 ms off) in order to simulate speech. Both acoustic (ABR) and electrical (EABR) auditory brainstem responses were recorded periodically during the chronic stimulation program. All cochleas showed an increase in the click-evoked ABR threshold following implant surgery however, recovery to near-normal levels occurred in approximately half of the stimulated cochleas 1 month post-operatively. The use of frequency-specific stimuli indicated that the most extensive hearing loss generally occurred in the high-frequency basal region of the cochlea (12 and 24 kHz) adjacent to the stimulating electrode. However, thresholds at lower frequencies (2, 4 and 8 kHz), appeared at near-normal levels despite long-term electrode implantation and electrical stimulation. Our longitudinal EABR results showed a statistically significant increase in threshold in nearly 40% of the chronically stimulated electrodes evaluated however, the gradient of the EABR input/output (I/O) function (evoked potential response amplitude versus stimulus current) generally remained quite stable throughout the chronic stimulation period. Histopathological examination of the cochleas showed no statistically significant difference in ganglion cell densities between cochleas using monopolar and bipolar electrode configurations (P = 0.67), and no evidence of cochlear damage caused by high-rate electrical stimulation when compared with control cochleas. Indeed, there was no statistically significant relationship between spiral ganglion cell density and electrical stimulation (P = 0.459), or between the extent of loss of inner (IHC, P = 0.86) or outer (OHC, P = 0.30) hair cells and electrical stimulation. Spiral ganglion cell loss was, however, influenced by the degree of inflammation (P = 0.016) and electrode insertion trauma. These histopathological findings were consistent with the physiological data. Finally, electrode impedance, measured at completion of the chronic stimulation program, showed close correlation with the degree of tissue response adjacent to the electrode array. These results indicated that chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation, using carefully controlled charge-balanced biphasic current pulses at stimulus rates of up to 2000 pps/channel, does not appear to adversely affect residual auditory nerve elements or the cochlea in general. This study provides an important basis for the safe application of improved speech-processing strategies based on high-rate electrical stimulation.


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