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Does military background enhance personal productivity?

Does military background enhance personal productivity?


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Is there any research investigating the effect (or correlation) of a military background of a person on his productivity, effectiveness and other characteristics?

It is often casually claimed that a person with a military background is more disciplined, hardworking and so on, but it is interesting to find out whether it is has a scientific proof.

There some other supporting reasons like that Harvard accepts a lot of people with a military background or many of them succeed in the business world.

See also the same question on Productivity This Site


Suicide in the Military

According to the World Health Organization, almost one million people die by suicide every year, which is a global mortality rate of 10.7 per 100,000. In the United States (U.S.), someone attempts suicide every 31 seconds and an average of 1 person dies by suicide every 11.9 minutes, a rate of 13.3 per 100,000. Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the country. An important consideration is that suicides have consistently been underreported for a variety of reasons. Experts have estimated that suicide incidence may be 10-15% higher than officially recorded.

The U.S. military reflects an important subset of the U.S. population with both shared and unique characteristics when compared to the U.S. population. Historically, military suicide rates have been lower than those rates found in the general population. Rising suicide rates among Service members and Veterans over the past decade have raised public and professional concerns. Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. military. According to the calendar year 2015 Department of Defense Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) annual report, the standardized suicide rate was 20.2 per 100,000 for the Active component. For the Selected Reserves component, the rates were 24.7 per 100,000 for the Reserves and 27.1 per 100,000 for the National Guard.

A number of psychosocial factors are associated with suicide risk. The most common individual stressors identified for both military suicide decedents and military suicide attempts were relationship problems, administrative/legal issues and workplace difficulties. Other medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk for suicide include traumatic brain injury (TBI), chronic pain, and sleep disorders. These conditions can contribute substantially to increased suicide risk in affected individuals. The most common method for suicide in the DoD is firearms, accounting for over 60 percent of all suicide deaths in the military.

Elevated suicide risk has been shown to endure well beyond military service, with Veterans carrying a much greater risk for suicide than their civilian counterparts. According to the Office of Suicide Prevention (2016), Veterans account for approximately 18% of all adult suicide deaths in the U.S. Interestingly, Veterans represent only 8.5% of the U.S. population, highlighting the disproportionate number of suicide deaths in this population. This means that approximately 20 Veterans die each day by suicide. Like Service members, the most common method for suicide among U.S. Veterans is firearms, accounting for over two-thirds of all Veteran suicides.

With the significant increased suicide rates in our military population, it is imperative that we provide evidence-based psychotherapies developed specifically to target suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CT-SP) is an evidence-based treatment recommended by the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Patient’s at Risk for Suicide (2013). CT-SP is a structured, time-limited, present-focused approach that helps patients develop coping skills and strategies to overcome suicidal crises.

For a brief description of CT-SP, click here. CDP offers two-day training workshops in the assessment, prevention and treatment of suicidal thoughts and behavior using both in-person and live online formats. Click Upcoming Training Events to view future training opportunities and to learn how to how to register for a training event.


One of the disadvantages of being a student while holding a job is that they are often short on time and commonly find themselves with limited time to study, sleep, and maintain healthy eating habits. In a study conducted by Gorgulho, et al., one of the main complaints among working students is that they find themselves without enough time to eat right (Gorgulho, et al., 2012). Instead of consuming healthy foods, such as fruit and whole grains, working students often grab a quick meal comprised of low quality foods that contain sugar and high sodium (Gorgulho, et al., 2012). This is not to say that students should feel discouraged and not work while in college, but instead be mindful of the commitment and plan accordingly. For example, students who work everyday might benefit from a 7 day food preparation technique at the beginning of every week.

If poor eating habits continue over an extended period of time, this will increase the risk of obesity and the development of lifestyle related chronic diseases (Huang, et al., 2003). Huang’s study on obesity, diet, and physical activity among college students indicates that an estimated 35% of college students are at risk for being overweight (Huang, et al., 2003). Low levels of physical activity and poor nutrition are common reasons for this high incidence rate. While it may not seem of importance to working students while in college, the negative outcomes will prove to be a growing concern as they get older. Quality of diet is a matter of lifestyle change and can be easily improved, while managing diseases and major health concerns later in life may not easily improve one’s health.

Many researchers focus on working after higher education but little research the effects of working while in higher education. Recently, higher education has been increasing tuition and other costs that go into attending college. This has had an effect on students. Mainly, they are looking for jobs while in school to help cushion some of those costs and everyday expenses. In Moris Triventi’s study, he looked into the effect of working in higher education. He found that working at low-intensity had positive effects but higher-intensity jobs, 35 hours or more per week, tended to have negative effects. Some of the positive effects are increased independence, ability to budget, managing a schedule, and gaining soft skills, such as communication and problem-solving skills. Some of the negative effects are higher risk of dropping out, delayed graduation rates, and negative effects on academic performance. He found that full-time workers tend to have less time for academic studies and school activities. Non-workers average 17.0 hours of studying per week and part-time and full-time workers study 15.7 hours a week. Full-time workers also attend class less time per week. Part-time workers in this study were able to deal with the effects of working while in school (Triventi, 2014).

In Rajeev Darolia’s study, there was a correlation between number of credits completed and number of hours worked per week. This study states that 80 percent of students work at some point in their undergraduate program and numbers of hours worked per week increases each year. Some students take fewer credits due to work commitments. Part-time and full-time students tend to spend less time studying (Darolia, 2014). This can lead to delayed graduation dates and more debt from more years of schooling. The time-to-degree ratio is higher, which in turn costs the students less future earnings. The study points out the negative effect of working to be lack of time for school-based activities and leisure activities, which can help with overall health (Darolia, 2014).

These articles helped by guiding us to ask questions about how many hours the participants work per week and how many credits they were taking. Then, we can correlate their hours of work to their grade point average, (GPA). This is to see if lower intensity work would aid or hinder academic performance.

Money is the main key in college in which students acquire tremendous amount of debt to pay off. Many college students work while attending school which in return has an affect. A recent article has shown that there is a psychological and physical toll that takes upon student who try to juggle both. From working and attending school, stress becomes the main setback in which affects their academic performances. Taking a survey of 225 participants of student, it showed that stress was a main cause for these student which caused emotional and physical exhaustion. Our survey tries to study how students deal with stress when they work or not work while attending school. Stress plays the main role in all factors for these students attending a university (“Optimism and Risk for Job Burnout”,2015).

Sleep is one constant that college students lack. A recent article shows that 50% of student surveyed at a university is sleep deprived. An average amount of students has a range of from difficultly falling asleep to difficulty staying asleep. This lack of sleep syndrome is known has sleep phase syndrome is an important problem students face at school which affects them from a range of academic performance. Sleep is a necessity but the life style college students acquire from coming into universities affects them severely. Our survey shows how lack of sleep can affect student from grades to their diet (“Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students”,2015).


ResearchClue.com

Today, work-life balance has become an increasingly pervasive concern to both employers and employees of most organisations. Work-life balance which primarily deals with an employee’s ability to properly prioritize between work and his or her lifestyle, social life, health, family etc., is greatly linked with employee productivity, performance and job satisfaction. Where there is proper balance between work and life, employees tend to put in their best efforts at work, because their family is happy. Most research studies have shown that when there are happy homes, work places automatically become conflict free and enjoyable places to be. Increasing attrition rates and increasing demand for work-life balance have forced organisations to look beyond run of the mill Human Resources interventions. As a result, initiatives such as flexible working hours, alternative work arrangements, leave policies and benefits in lieu of family care responsibilities and employee assistance programmes have become a significant part of most of the company benefit programmes and compensation packages.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE

The origins of research on work-life balance can be traced back to studies of women having multiple roles. Barnett and Baruch (1985) investigated the psychological distress connected to the balance of rewards and concerns generated by individual women’s multiple roles as paid worker, wife and mother. They found that positive role quality – more rewards than concerns experienced in a given role – was related to low levels of role overload, role conflict and anxiety. Based on their research, Barnett and Baruch defined role balance as a “rewards minus concerns” difference score which could range from positive to negative values.
Over the past two decades, various studies on work-life balance practices have been conducted and have been discussed in publications representing a number of different academic disciplines – economics (e.g., Johnson & Provan, 1995 Whitehouse & Zetlin, 1999), family studies (e.g., Hill, Hawkins, Ferris, & Weitzman, 2001 Raabe, 1990), gender studies (e.g., Nelson, Quick, Hitt, & Moesel, 1990 Wayne & Cordeiro, 2003), industrial relations (e.g., Batt & Valcour, 2003 Eaton, 2003), information systems (e.g., Baines & Gelder, 2003 Frolick, Wilkes, & Urwiler, 1993), management (e.g., Konrad & Mangel, 2000 Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000), social psychology (e.g., Allen & Russell, 1999 Hegtvedt, Clay-Warner, & Ferrigno, 2002), and sociology (e.g., Blair-Loy & Wharton, 2002 Glass & Estes, 1997). The most common approach is to view work-life balance practices through a business case lens: that is, by offering these practices, organizations attract new members and reduce levels of work-life conflict among existing ones, and this improved recruitment and reduced work-life conflict enhance organizational effectiveness.
A review of the literature, however, questions this purported link between work-life balance practices and organizational effectiveness. The majority of studies investigating the outcomes of work-life practices do not measure work-life conflict, and thus cannot support this proposed mediated relationship (Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005). The mechanisms by which the provision of work-life practices affects both employee behaviour and organizational performance remain unclear, and under-researched (Allen, 2001 Schutte & Eaton, 2004). The results of a number of studies reviewed in this paper appear to suggest that work-life balance practices do not necessarily influence levels of employee work-life conflict, but instead improve organizational performance via other routes, such as reduced overheads in the case of employees working from home, improved productivity Work-Life among employees working at their peak hours, or social exchange processes arising from perceptions of organizational support (e.g., Allen, 2001 Apgar, 1998 Shepard, Clifton, & Kruse, 1996).
This study examines the literature to identify the various ways in which organizational work-life practices may influence organizational performance. Using a wide range of studies from a variety of disciplines, the empirical support available for the link between work-life practices and organizational performance at both the individual and organization level of analysis is reviewed. Integrating the literature in this fashion provides us with important new insights regarding potential moderators and mediators of the link between work-life practices and organizational performance, and suggests new research questions that may further enhance our understanding of how (or if) this link operates.

COMPANY PROFILE
According to MerchantbankGhana.com, Merchant Bank Ghana Limited (MBG) is a limited liability company is one of the leading Banks in the country. It was incorporated in August 1971 and commenced business in March 1972 as the first merchant bank in Ghana. Merchant Bank Ghana Limited (MBG) provides a comprehensive range of banking services to its customers and clients, using its worldwide network of correspondent banks and their agencies. The range of MBG's banking services includes:

  • Domestic and International Banking Operations for Corporate Customers, Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and, High Net-worth Individuals
  • Treasury Services
  • Money and Capital Market Operations
  • Hire Purchase and Leasing Services and
  • Foreign Remittances

The Bank has two wholly owned specialised subsidiaries namely

  • Merban Investment Holdings Limited (MIHL) - dealing in Funds/Portfolio Management, Money Market Operations, Investment Advisory Services, Trustee Services and Custodial and Nominee Services
  • Merban Stockbrokers Limited (MSL) - dealing in Brokerage Services, Underwriting of new Issues, and Investor Search & Joint Venture Arrangement and

The MBG group also has the following additional specialist services tailored to meet its customers' needs:

  • Registrar Services - maintaining records of Shareholders and Creditors, facilitating dividend payments to Shareholders and
  • Corporate Finance & Advisory Services (CFAS)- handling Corporate restructuring, Joint Venture Arrangement, Company Valuation, Project Finance Funds Sourcing, Issuing House Services and General Financial Advisory Services. And also dealing in Hire Purchase transactions and Leasing.

The bank has taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the introduction of Universal Banking Business in Ghana and MBG has fully developed all three areas of universal banking namely Retail, Corporate and Investment. The branch network of Merchant Bank currently stands at twenty-two (22).

Mission
As a universal Bank in Ghana, Merchant Bank (Ghana) limited is committed to providing quality financial products and services to our customers across our chosen market and maintaining our place as a leading and preferred financial institution in Ghana.
Vision
To become the leading, the most influential and best performing financial service provider in Ghana by 2012 and one of the leading banks in West Africa by 2015

Core Values

  • Performance-oriented organization
  • All decisions and actions must be based on Unshakeable Facts.
  • Must at all times conduct business with a sense ofCompetitive Urgency.
  • We must maintain High Ethical Standardsin all our internal and external relationships.

The bank has over its 30 years of existence achieved a lot, notable amongst which are:

  • The establishment of hire purchase and leasing business in Ghana.
  • The promotion and formation of the first Discount House in Ghana.
  • Handled the share issues of 8 out of 10 companies when there was no Stock Exchange in Ghana in the 1970's.
  • The initiation of the preparatory work in the establishment of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE).

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Lack of work flexibility, high work pressure and longer working hours are stressing out many Ghanaian workers, reducing their job performance and productivity as well as causing broken homes. In the community, there is growing concern that the quality of home and community life is deteriorating. These have resulted to poor employee input and performance at his or her job place, because an employee, who finds it difficult to properly balance his or her family life, tends to also have difficulties managing tasks at his or her workplace, therefore resulting in poor employee performance. Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom, (1997) in their study provide some indication that when people spend too many hours at work, and spend less with their families, their health and work performance begin to deteriorate. There are various explanations for this associated with affluence, the growth of single parent families, the privatization of family life and the lack of local resources and facilities In addition, the pressures and demands of work, reflected both in longer hours, more exhaustion and the growth of evening and weekend work leave less scope for “quality” family time. The consequences include increases in juvenile crime, more drug abuse, a reduction in care of the community and in community participation and less willingness to take responsibility for care of elderly relatives and for the disadvantaged. While steps to redress these concerns transcend work and employment, it is nevertheless argued that the demands of work contribute to a reduced participation in non-work activities resulting in an imbalance.
Moreover, there is a view, widely promoted by some management writers but not strongly supported by sound empirical evidence, that workers are less willing to display unlimited commitment to the organization. One reason offered for this is the changing nature of the psychological contract at work turbulence in organizations has made it less feasible to offer secure progressive careers and therefore to justify why workers should be committed.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the study are:

  • To examine various Work-Life balance practices/programs that exist in Merchant bank, Koforidua.
  • To identify work-Life balance challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua.
  • To identify the influence of imbalance Work-Life practices on organizational performance of Merchant bank, Koforidua, and the social life of its employees.
  • To identify ways of enhancing proper Work-Life balance practices amongst employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What Work-Life balance practices exist in Merchant bank, Koforidua?
  • What are the Work-Life challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua?
  • What are the influences of imbalance work-life practices on organizational performance and social life of employees?
  • In what ways can proper work-life practices be enhanced to boost performance in Merchant bank, Koforidua?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study seeks to bring out the various work-life balance practices which Merchant Bank has undertaken to increase its productivity and contribute its quota in the economic development of the communities which it operates, and the country at large. This study will therefore help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of work-life balance practices on the performance of employees in an organization. The study will also bring out specifically, the work-life balance practices which the bank has been able to make available to its employees. It also seeks to bring out the level of encouragement and motivation the bank has given to its employees to work effectively, among others. The importance of this study is therefore to highlight the various employee work-life balance practices and how it affects the productivity of an organization. This study will go a long way to illustrate how organizations should treat its employees’ in-order to increase productivity.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the research will be limited to Merchant Bank at the New Juaben Municipal Assembly in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The research will rely on the bank for vital information as well as information from secondary source. The research will take duration of four months to complete.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher encountered a limitation in regards to availability of information. Thus due to the institutions working ethics, the researcher could not get access to vital information since it was treated as confidential and the targeted respondent’s number was not attained since some employees were on leave. Inadequate funds and availability of time also became a limitation.


How Can Military Sexual Assault Affect Service Members’ Health?

Kintzle and her colleagues published a study in 2017 that details the effects of military sexual assault on physical and psychological health. Challenges that people who have experienced sexual assault can face as a result of sexual trauma include but are not limited to:

  • Chronic pain
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Eating disorders
  • Depression
  • Dissociative disorder
  • Substance misuse
  • Panic disorder
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Sexual assault trauma can have short- and long-term effects. Compared to civilians, those who experience military sexual assault may be less able to take time off or away from work to process their trauma. They may also be forced to relive their trauma when continuing to live and work alongside their assailant. If developed, psychological and emotional problems can affect a person’s ability to perform physically and maintain full employment, reducing overall quality of life.

These issues can also develop years after the incident has occurred and the service member has separated from the military.

“For some women who were in the military 20, 30, or 40 years ago, they talk about being sexually assaulted and waking up the next day and just trying to move on with their lives,” Kintzle said. “It wasn’t until they got out of the military, or when they got married and had children that, all of a sudden, the emotions and everything they pushed away came back into their lives and caused a lot of pain and discomfort.”

To ensure people receive timely and appropriate care so they can address their experience and cope with what has happened, the military will need to acknowledge the psychological impact of sexual assault. In another study on mental health care utilization in female veterans who have experienced sexual trauma, Kintzle and colleagues found a number of barriers to getting care including avoidance, stigma, lack of availability of gender-sensitive care, poor relationship with the military system and concerns about the effect on one’s career. Men who have experienced sexual assault can encounter even greater stigma from leadership who choose to avoid the issue.


Helping Children Integrate the Parental Injury Experience within the Family

Healthcare and family support professionals should encourage families to:

  1. Seek out resources and instrumental support. Families may require that basic needs be met in the areas of finance, medical care, military concerns, housing, education, and child care. Children may need special services and/or supports to address any behavioral/mental health problems that develop or to connect them with community resources that provide them with social support and structured activities.
  2. Support and help monitor their children’s stress. As children deal with stress, they may find it difficult to express emotions, to relax, or to calm themselves. Parents can teach children to label and express their emotions giving them specific strategies (i.e., deep/belly breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or visualizing a safe space).
  3. Share information with children about the injury in a way they can comprehend it. Particularly important is information that helps children understand what the injury is, what the effects of the injury are in terms of parent functioning and/or symptoms, and what to expect over time. Children may need reassurance that the injury is not their fault and that specific symptoms/emotional changes in the parent are expected. This helps to normalize and contextualize the family’s current difficulties and helps children understand what is happening in their family.
  4. Develop problem solving skills and goal setting. Particularly important is helping children identify relevant problems, name their goals, brainstorm possible solutions, and pick a solution to try out. Goal setting helps families identify how they would like things to be different, and how to monitor change. Parents and children can select family goals together and practice them as they plan for future challenges, recognizing incremental improvements over time.

From the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, www.usuhs.mil, and the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Bethesda, Maryland, www.cstsonline.org. Used with permission.


Cultural and Societal Differences in Aggression

The United States continues to be an extremely violent country, much more so than other countries that are similar to it in many ways, such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Western European countries. On the other hand, other countries in Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America have more violence than does the United States. These differences show that cultures vary dramatically in how, and how much, their members aggress against each other.

When children enter a violent culture such as that of the United States, they may be socialized to be even more violent. In a study of students at a high school near Detroit, Michigan, Souweidane and Huesmann (1999) found that the children who had been born in the United States were more accepting of aggression than were children who had emigrated from the Middle East, especially if they did so after the age of 11. And in a sample of Hispanic schoolchildren in Chicago, children who had been in the United States longer showed greater approval of aggression (Guerra, Huesmann, & Zelli, 1993).

In addition to differences across cultures, there are also regional differences in the incidences of violence—for example, in different parts of the United States. The Research Focus below describes one of these differences—variations in a social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression, known as the culture of honor.

Research Focus

In the United States, the homicide rate is significantly higher in the southern and western states but lower in the eastern and northern states. One explanation for these differences is in terms of variation in cultural norms about the appropriate reactions to threats against one’s social status. These cultural differences apply primarily to men some men react more violently than others when they believe that others are threatening them. The social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression (the culture of honor) leads even relatively minor conflicts or disputes to be seen as challenges to one’s social status and reputation and can therefore trigger aggressive responses. The culture of honor is more prevalent in areas that are closer to the equator, including the southern parts of the United States.

In one series of experiments (Cohen, Nisbett, Bosdle, & Schwarz, 1996), researchers investigated how White male students who had grown up either in the northern or in the southern regions of the United States responded to insults (Figure 9.12). The experiments, which were conducted at the University of Michigan (located in the northern United States), involved an encounter in which the research participant was walking down a narrow hallway. The experimenters enlisted the help of a confederate who did not give way to the participant but who rather bumped into the participant and insulted him. Compared with northerners, students from the south who had been bumped were more likely to think that their masculine reputations had been threatened, exhibited greater physiological signs of being upset, had higher testosterone levels, engaged in more aggressive and dominant behavior (gave firmer handshakes), and were less willing to yield to a subsequent confederate.

Figure 9.12. Students from southern states expressed more anger and had greater levels of testosterone after being insulted than did students from northern states (Cohen, Nisbett, Bosdle, & Schwarz, 1996).

In another test of the impact of culture of honor, Cohen and Nisbett (1997) sent letters to employers all over the United States from a fictitious job applicant who admitted having been convicted of a felony. To half the employers, the applicant reported that he had impulsively killed a man who had been having an affair with his fiancée and then taunted him about it in a crowded bar. To the other half, the applicant reported that he had stolen a car because he needed the money to pay off debts. Employers from the south and the west, places in which the culture of honor is strong, were more likely than employers in the north and east to respond in an understanding and cooperative way to the letter from the convicted killer, but there were no cultural differences for the letter from the auto thief.

A culture of honor, in which defending the honor of one’s reputation, family, and property is emphasized, may be a risk factor for school violence. More students from culture-of-honor states (i.e., southern and western states) reported having brought a weapon to school in the past month than did students from non-culture-of-honor states (i.e., northern and eastern states). Furthermore, over a 20-year period, culture-of-honor states had more than twice as many school shootings per capita as non-culture-of-honor states, suggesting that acts of school violence may be a response of defending one’s honor in the face of perceived social humiliation (Brown, Osterman, & Barnes, 2009).

One possible explanation for regional differences in the culture of honor involves the kind of activities typically engaged in by men in the different regions (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). While people in the northern parts of the United States were usually farmers who grew crops, people from southern climates were more likely to raise livestock. Unlike the crops grown by the northerners, the herds were mobile and vulnerable to theft, and it was difficult for law enforcement officials to protect them. To be successful in an environment where theft was common, a man had to build a reputation for strength and toughness, and this was accomplished by a willingness to use swift, and sometimes violent, punishment against thieves. Areas in which livestock raising is more common also tend to have higher status disparities between the wealthiest and the poorest inhabitants (Henry, 2009). People with low social status are particularly likely to feel threatened when they are insulted and are particularly likely to retaliate with aggression.

In summary, as in virtually every case, a full understanding of the determinants of aggression requires taking a person-situation approach. Although biology, social learning, the social situation, and culture are all extremely important, we must keep in mind that none of these factors alone predicts aggression but that they work together to do so. For instance, we have seen that testosterone predicts aggressive behavior. But this relationship is stronger for people with low socioeconomic status than for those with higher socioeconomic status (Dabbs & Morris, 1990). And children who have a genetic predisposition to aggression are more likely to become aggressive if they are abused as children (Caspi et al., 2002). It seems that biological factors may predispose us to aggression, but that social factors act as triggers—a classic example of interactionism at work.

Social Psychology in the Public Interest

Preventing Violence

The social psychological study of aggression represents a classic example of the conundrum faced by social psychologists: Although we have developed a good understanding of the causes of aggression—and that understanding gets clearer every day—what exactly to do about it is an even more difficult question. Human aggression has remained with us since the beginning of time, and it is difficult to imagine that it is going to disappear soon.

Stopping the cycle of violence that characterizes so many families, neighborhoods, cities, and countries will not be easy. On the other hand, if we are serious about it, then we have a good idea where to begin to try to make a difference, because the principles that we have discussed in this chapter form a foundation both for understanding the causes of violence and for potentially reducing it. One thing that is certain is that reducing the prevalence of violence must involve changes in cognitions and emotions, as well as behavior. Also, this work must begin with children of very young ages, before aggressive behaviors, thoughts, and feelings become so well developed that they are difficult to change (Zigler, Taussig, & Black, 1992).

With increasing life experiences, our schemas about the world become more well defined and stable, and these established knowledge structures become more difficult to change. Not surprisingly, attempts at treating or rehabilitating violent adults (including such things as “boot camps,” individual and group therapy, and “scared straight” programs) have not been that successful. One problem is that these approaches do not address the wide range of factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of violent behavior. The most successful interventions appear to be those that address both person and situation factors, and which do so at a relatively young age.

To prevent the cycle of violence from beginning, we must reduce exposure to violence, particularly among children. There is no question that viewing violence breeds more violence. The more violence we see or participate in, and the more violence we experience, the more we commit. The relationship is not perfect, and it does not hold for everyone, but it is clear. Just as smoking cigarettes causes cancer, so viewing aggression causes violence. And just as many countries have developed advertising campaigns, taxes, and laws to reduce the use of cigarettes, particularly among minors, so we must work to reduce the exposure, particularly of children, to violent material. Governments can and have been involved in this effort (Huesmann & Skoric, 2003), but the primary source will be parents, who must find out what their children are watching on TV, in movies, and on the Internet—as well as what video games they are playing—and monitor and restrict their use.

People must work to dispel the popular notion that engaging in aggressive actions is cathartic. When we attempt to reduce aggression by punching a pillow or pounding on our computer keyboard, we are bound to fail. The arousal and negative emotions that result from engaging in aggression do not reduce but rather increase the likelihood of engaging in more aggression. It is better to simply let the frustration dissipate over time, for instance, by distracting oneself with laughter or other activities than to attempt to fight aggression with more aggression.

We need to help people control their emotions. Most violence is emotional aggression—the result of negative affect and high arousal. We need to better teach children to think about how they are feeling, to consider the sources of their negative emotions, and to learn ways to respond to them that do not involve aggression. When we think more carefully about our situation, rather than simply responding in an emotional way, we can more carefully choose the most effective responses when we are frustrated or angry (Berkowitz, 1993).

We must also work at the societal and government level by creating and enforcing laws that punish those who are aggressive, by increasing controls on the presence and availability of handguns and violent material more generally, and by creating programs to help the many victims of sexual and physical violence. In schools, it is essential that administrators, teachers, and staff become aware of the potential for violence and make themselves available as resources for students. School systems must have explicit policies that prohibit and specify sanctions for any student who teases, threatens, excludes, or otherwise mistreats another individual. A step forward in this regard is the legislation designed to stop cyberbullying that has recently been introduced in countries such as Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

Reducing the large income disparities between the poorest and the richest members of society will also be important. As a result of upward comparison, poverty creates frustration that begets violence.

Children (and adults) must be better educated about the causes of violence, because understanding the causes can help us learn to be less aggressive. Furthermore, because abuse of alcohol and other drugs so often leads to violence, better education about the effects of such substances, as well as support for individuals who need help dealing with them, is an important investment, not only for these individuals but also for the people around them.

We must also work to improve the situation in which children find themselves. Children who grow up in abusive homes learn that aggression is the norm it is not surprising that they then often respond to social problems through aggression. We must help these families learn to use reward rather than punishment and particularly to avoid violent punishment, which leads children to model the violent behavior. If we can reduce the extent of violence within families, then children who grow up in those families will likely be less violent themselves.

And we must help people find alternatives to violence by encouraging them to think about others more positively rather than as threats to their own status and self-worth. If we can increase other-concern, for instance, by helping children learn to better communicate with each other, and at the same time increase people’s positive feelings about themselves, we will create more positive social situations that reduce violence and aggression.

  • There are individual differences in aggression, for instance, in terms of how people respond to negative emotions.
  • Men are more physically aggressive, but there are few differences between men and women in nonphysical aggression.
  • Different cultures have different norms about aggression as well as different rates of aggressive behavior. The culture of honor is an example.

Exercises and Critical Thinking

  1. Consider yourself and people you know in terms of individual differences related to aggression, as well as gender and cultural influences on aggression. Do the variables we discussed in this section predict their likelihood of aggressing?
  2. Consider a case in which you or someone you know is frustrated, angry, or experiencing other emotions that may lead to aggressive behavior. What techniques might you use to prevent the aggression from occurring?
  3. Create a print, web, or video advertisement that conveys information that would help students learn to be less aggressive.

References

Anderson, C. A. (1997). Effects of violent movies and trait hostility on hostile feelings and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior, 23(3), 161–178.

Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(3), 212–230.

Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103(1), 5–33.

Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Bettencourt, B., & Miller, N. (1996). Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 422–447.

Brown, R. P., Osterman, L. L., & Barnes, C. D. (2009). School violence and the culture of honor. Psychological Science, 20(11), 1400–1405.

Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Human aggression in evolutionary psychological perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(6), 605–619.

Campbell, A., Muncer, S., & Gorman, B. (1993). Sex and social representations of aggression: A communal-agentic analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 19(2), 125–135.

Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W.,…Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297(5582), 851–854.

Cohen, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1997). Field experiments examining the culture of honor: The role of institutions in perpetuating norms about violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(11), 1188–1199.

Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bosdle, B., & Schwarz, N. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: An “experimental ethnography.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945–960.

Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101.

Crick, N. R., & Nelson, D. A. (2002). Relational and physical victimization within friendships: Nobody told me there’d be friends like these. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 599–607.

Dabbs, J. M., & Morris, R. (1990). Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychological Science, 1(3), 209–211.

Dill, K. E., Anderson, C. A., & Deuser, W. E. (1997). Effects of aggressive personality on social expectations and social perceptions. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(2), 272–292.

Downey, G., Irwin, L., Ramsay, M., & Ayduk, O. (Eds.). (2004). Rejection sensitivity and girls’ aggression. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychology literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309–330.

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 306–315.

Graham, K., & Wells, S. (2001). The two worlds of aggression for men and women. Sex Roles, 45(9–10), 595–622.

Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., & Zelli, A. (1993). Attributions for social failure and adolescent aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 19(6), 421–434.

Henry, P. J. (2009). Low-status compensation: A theory for understanding the role of status in cultures of honor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(3), 451–466.

Horowitz, R., & Schwartz, G. (1974). Honor, normative ambiguity and gang violence. American Sociological Review, 39(2), 238–251.

Huesmann, L. R., & Skoric, M. M. (Eds.). (2003). Regulating media violence: Why, how and by whom? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kernis, M. H., Brockner, J., & Frankel, B. S. (1989). Self-esteem and reactions to failure: The mediating role of overgeneralization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(4), 707–714.

Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 371–410.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Österman, K., Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Kaukiainen, A., Landau, S. F., Fraczek, A., & Caprara, G. V. (1998). Cross-cultural evidence of female indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 24(1), 1–8.

Rodkin, P. C., Farmer, T. W., Pearl, R., & Van Acker, R. (2000). Heterogeneity of popular boys: Antisocial and prosocial configurations. Developmental Psychology, 36(1), 14–24.

Salmivalli, C., & Nieminen, E. (2002). Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Aggressive Behavior, 28(1), 30–44.

Salmivalli, C., Ojanen, T., Haanpaa, J., & Peets, K. (2005). “I’m OK but you’re not” and other peer-relational schemas: Explaining individual differences in children’s social goals. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 363–375.

Souweidane, V., & Huesmann, L. R. (1999). The influence of American urban culture on the development of normative beliefs about aggression in Middle-Eastern immigrants. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(2), 239–254.

Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997–1006.


JOB SECURITY AND JOB PERFORMANCE

When employees don’t feel secure in their job, increased stress and negative emotions impact their work performance. But what intervention strategies will produce the greatest results? The researchers initially examined the relationship between job insecurity and performance and found that increased feelings of job insecurity corresponded with low levels of job performance. However, this was not the case for employees in organizations with high levels of organizational justice. Organizational justice has to do with the policies and procedures put in place to make employees feel as though they are treated fairly.

However, the findings were not as straightforward as increased feelings of job insecurity resulting in decreased performance. Increased feelings of job insecurity first led to fewer work-related positive feelings, which is a crucial component of work engagement. Only then did these feelings harmfully impact actual job performance. This means that just because job insecurity is a reality, does not automatically translate into decreased performance. Employees can still feel positive about their work and environment. It is only when job insecurity is present and these positive feelings are reduced in some way that performance will inevitably suffer.


She shared a few additional ways that consistent exercise can help your mental well-being:

Frustration tolerance. Physical activity can be a healthy way to release frustration and anger. No matter what you do – kickboxing, yoga, or going for a run – the physical release of negative energy will leave you feeling refreshed. In fact, a study done in 2010 , claims that exercise can have a preventative effect against the buildup of anger.

Reduced tension . When you’re stressed, your muscles contract, adding more tension to your already over-strained body. Exercise releases stored energy and allows muscles to return to a resting state. You may experience fewer backaches, tension headaches, arthritic joint pain . the list goes on.

Increased attention and productivity. When your mental plate is cleared from toxic stress and anxiety, you can have the needed space for more productive tasks, Yip told INSIDER. You’ll be more in tune with your body in order to recognize the signs of stress before it takes a toll on your physical and mental health.

Better sleep. T he more you exercise, the better you’ll sleep, at least according to several studies. When you’re not getting enough rest, you can’t perform at your best. Exercise can knock you out at the end of the night and help you sleep soundly. Just make sure you're not exercising right before bedtime as it may work you up too much.

Stronger immune system. Ever notice that when you exercise consistently, you don’t get sick as often? Exercise lowers cortisol — the hormone responsible for your body's fight-or-flight alarm. At chronically-elevated levels, it taxes your natural immune system. When you’re physically active, you might demonstrate more stamina and greater resiliency to fight discomfort, inside and out.

Increased confidence. Exercise increases self-efficacy, which is the confidence you have in your ability to accomplish a goal. It has been suggested that exercise may provide you with an effective mode through which self-efficacy can be enhanced based on its ability to provide you with a meaningful mastery of experience.


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Cultural and Societal Differences in Aggression

The United States continues to be an extremely violent country, much more so than other countries that are similar to it in many ways, such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Western European countries. On the other hand, other countries in Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America have more violence than does the United States. These differences show that cultures vary dramatically in how, and how much, their members aggress against each other.

When children enter a violent culture such as that of the United States, they may be socialized to be even more violent. In a study of students at a high school near Detroit, Michigan, Souweidane and Huesmann (1999) found that the children who had been born in the United States were more accepting of aggression than were children who had emigrated from the Middle East, especially if they did so after the age of 11. And in a sample of Hispanic schoolchildren in Chicago, children who had been in the United States longer showed greater approval of aggression (Guerra, Huesmann, & Zelli, 1993).

In addition to differences across cultures, there are also regional differences in the incidences of violence—for example, in different parts of the United States. The Research Focus below describes one of these differences—variations in a social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression, known as the culture of honor.

Research Focus

In the United States, the homicide rate is significantly higher in the southern and western states but lower in the eastern and northern states. One explanation for these differences is in terms of variation in cultural norms about the appropriate reactions to threats against one’s social status. These cultural differences apply primarily to men some men react more violently than others when they believe that others are threatening them. The social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression (the culture of honor) leads even relatively minor conflicts or disputes to be seen as challenges to one’s social status and reputation and can therefore trigger aggressive responses. The culture of honor is more prevalent in areas that are closer to the equator, including the southern parts of the United States.

In one series of experiments (Cohen, Nisbett, Bosdle, & Schwarz, 1996), researchers investigated how White male students who had grown up either in the northern or in the southern regions of the United States responded to insults (Figure 9.12). The experiments, which were conducted at the University of Michigan (located in the northern United States), involved an encounter in which the research participant was walking down a narrow hallway. The experimenters enlisted the help of a confederate who did not give way to the participant but who rather bumped into the participant and insulted him. Compared with northerners, students from the south who had been bumped were more likely to think that their masculine reputations had been threatened, exhibited greater physiological signs of being upset, had higher testosterone levels, engaged in more aggressive and dominant behavior (gave firmer handshakes), and were less willing to yield to a subsequent confederate.

Figure 9.12. Students from southern states expressed more anger and had greater levels of testosterone after being insulted than did students from northern states (Cohen, Nisbett, Bosdle, & Schwarz, 1996).

In another test of the impact of culture of honor, Cohen and Nisbett (1997) sent letters to employers all over the United States from a fictitious job applicant who admitted having been convicted of a felony. To half the employers, the applicant reported that he had impulsively killed a man who had been having an affair with his fiancée and then taunted him about it in a crowded bar. To the other half, the applicant reported that he had stolen a car because he needed the money to pay off debts. Employers from the south and the west, places in which the culture of honor is strong, were more likely than employers in the north and east to respond in an understanding and cooperative way to the letter from the convicted killer, but there were no cultural differences for the letter from the auto thief.

A culture of honor, in which defending the honor of one’s reputation, family, and property is emphasized, may be a risk factor for school violence. More students from culture-of-honor states (i.e., southern and western states) reported having brought a weapon to school in the past month than did students from non-culture-of-honor states (i.e., northern and eastern states). Furthermore, over a 20-year period, culture-of-honor states had more than twice as many school shootings per capita as non-culture-of-honor states, suggesting that acts of school violence may be a response of defending one’s honor in the face of perceived social humiliation (Brown, Osterman, & Barnes, 2009).

One possible explanation for regional differences in the culture of honor involves the kind of activities typically engaged in by men in the different regions (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). While people in the northern parts of the United States were usually farmers who grew crops, people from southern climates were more likely to raise livestock. Unlike the crops grown by the northerners, the herds were mobile and vulnerable to theft, and it was difficult for law enforcement officials to protect them. To be successful in an environment where theft was common, a man had to build a reputation for strength and toughness, and this was accomplished by a willingness to use swift, and sometimes violent, punishment against thieves. Areas in which livestock raising is more common also tend to have higher status disparities between the wealthiest and the poorest inhabitants (Henry, 2009). People with low social status are particularly likely to feel threatened when they are insulted and are particularly likely to retaliate with aggression.

In summary, as in virtually every case, a full understanding of the determinants of aggression requires taking a person-situation approach. Although biology, social learning, the social situation, and culture are all extremely important, we must keep in mind that none of these factors alone predicts aggression but that they work together to do so. For instance, we have seen that testosterone predicts aggressive behavior. But this relationship is stronger for people with low socioeconomic status than for those with higher socioeconomic status (Dabbs & Morris, 1990). And children who have a genetic predisposition to aggression are more likely to become aggressive if they are abused as children (Caspi et al., 2002). It seems that biological factors may predispose us to aggression, but that social factors act as triggers—a classic example of interactionism at work.

Social Psychology in the Public Interest

Preventing Violence

The social psychological study of aggression represents a classic example of the conundrum faced by social psychologists: Although we have developed a good understanding of the causes of aggression—and that understanding gets clearer every day—what exactly to do about it is an even more difficult question. Human aggression has remained with us since the beginning of time, and it is difficult to imagine that it is going to disappear soon.

Stopping the cycle of violence that characterizes so many families, neighborhoods, cities, and countries will not be easy. On the other hand, if we are serious about it, then we have a good idea where to begin to try to make a difference, because the principles that we have discussed in this chapter form a foundation both for understanding the causes of violence and for potentially reducing it. One thing that is certain is that reducing the prevalence of violence must involve changes in cognitions and emotions, as well as behavior. Also, this work must begin with children of very young ages, before aggressive behaviors, thoughts, and feelings become so well developed that they are difficult to change (Zigler, Taussig, & Black, 1992).

With increasing life experiences, our schemas about the world become more well defined and stable, and these established knowledge structures become more difficult to change. Not surprisingly, attempts at treating or rehabilitating violent adults (including such things as “boot camps,” individual and group therapy, and “scared straight” programs) have not been that successful. One problem is that these approaches do not address the wide range of factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of violent behavior. The most successful interventions appear to be those that address both person and situation factors, and which do so at a relatively young age.

To prevent the cycle of violence from beginning, we must reduce exposure to violence, particularly among children. There is no question that viewing violence breeds more violence. The more violence we see or participate in, and the more violence we experience, the more we commit. The relationship is not perfect, and it does not hold for everyone, but it is clear. Just as smoking cigarettes causes cancer, so viewing aggression causes violence. And just as many countries have developed advertising campaigns, taxes, and laws to reduce the use of cigarettes, particularly among minors, so we must work to reduce the exposure, particularly of children, to violent material. Governments can and have been involved in this effort (Huesmann & Skoric, 2003), but the primary source will be parents, who must find out what their children are watching on TV, in movies, and on the Internet—as well as what video games they are playing—and monitor and restrict their use.

People must work to dispel the popular notion that engaging in aggressive actions is cathartic. When we attempt to reduce aggression by punching a pillow or pounding on our computer keyboard, we are bound to fail. The arousal and negative emotions that result from engaging in aggression do not reduce but rather increase the likelihood of engaging in more aggression. It is better to simply let the frustration dissipate over time, for instance, by distracting oneself with laughter or other activities than to attempt to fight aggression with more aggression.

We need to help people control their emotions. Most violence is emotional aggression—the result of negative affect and high arousal. We need to better teach children to think about how they are feeling, to consider the sources of their negative emotions, and to learn ways to respond to them that do not involve aggression. When we think more carefully about our situation, rather than simply responding in an emotional way, we can more carefully choose the most effective responses when we are frustrated or angry (Berkowitz, 1993).

We must also work at the societal and government level by creating and enforcing laws that punish those who are aggressive, by increasing controls on the presence and availability of handguns and violent material more generally, and by creating programs to help the many victims of sexual and physical violence. In schools, it is essential that administrators, teachers, and staff become aware of the potential for violence and make themselves available as resources for students. School systems must have explicit policies that prohibit and specify sanctions for any student who teases, threatens, excludes, or otherwise mistreats another individual. A step forward in this regard is the legislation designed to stop cyberbullying that has recently been introduced in countries such as Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

Reducing the large income disparities between the poorest and the richest members of society will also be important. As a result of upward comparison, poverty creates frustration that begets violence.

Children (and adults) must be better educated about the causes of violence, because understanding the causes can help us learn to be less aggressive. Furthermore, because abuse of alcohol and other drugs so often leads to violence, better education about the effects of such substances, as well as support for individuals who need help dealing with them, is an important investment, not only for these individuals but also for the people around them.

We must also work to improve the situation in which children find themselves. Children who grow up in abusive homes learn that aggression is the norm it is not surprising that they then often respond to social problems through aggression. We must help these families learn to use reward rather than punishment and particularly to avoid violent punishment, which leads children to model the violent behavior. If we can reduce the extent of violence within families, then children who grow up in those families will likely be less violent themselves.

And we must help people find alternatives to violence by encouraging them to think about others more positively rather than as threats to their own status and self-worth. If we can increase other-concern, for instance, by helping children learn to better communicate with each other, and at the same time increase people’s positive feelings about themselves, we will create more positive social situations that reduce violence and aggression.

  • There are individual differences in aggression, for instance, in terms of how people respond to negative emotions.
  • Men are more physically aggressive, but there are few differences between men and women in nonphysical aggression.
  • Different cultures have different norms about aggression as well as different rates of aggressive behavior. The culture of honor is an example.

Exercises and Critical Thinking

  1. Consider yourself and people you know in terms of individual differences related to aggression, as well as gender and cultural influences on aggression. Do the variables we discussed in this section predict their likelihood of aggressing?
  2. Consider a case in which you or someone you know is frustrated, angry, or experiencing other emotions that may lead to aggressive behavior. What techniques might you use to prevent the aggression from occurring?
  3. Create a print, web, or video advertisement that conveys information that would help students learn to be less aggressive.

References

Anderson, C. A. (1997). Effects of violent movies and trait hostility on hostile feelings and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior, 23(3), 161–178.

Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(3), 212–230.

Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103(1), 5–33.

Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Bettencourt, B., & Miller, N. (1996). Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 422–447.

Brown, R. P., Osterman, L. L., & Barnes, C. D. (2009). School violence and the culture of honor. Psychological Science, 20(11), 1400–1405.

Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Human aggression in evolutionary psychological perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(6), 605–619.

Campbell, A., Muncer, S., & Gorman, B. (1993). Sex and social representations of aggression: A communal-agentic analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 19(2), 125–135.

Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W.,…Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297(5582), 851–854.

Cohen, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1997). Field experiments examining the culture of honor: The role of institutions in perpetuating norms about violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(11), 1188–1199.

Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bosdle, B., & Schwarz, N. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: An “experimental ethnography.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945–960.

Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101.

Crick, N. R., & Nelson, D. A. (2002). Relational and physical victimization within friendships: Nobody told me there’d be friends like these. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 599–607.

Dabbs, J. M., & Morris, R. (1990). Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychological Science, 1(3), 209–211.

Dill, K. E., Anderson, C. A., & Deuser, W. E. (1997). Effects of aggressive personality on social expectations and social perceptions. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(2), 272–292.

Downey, G., Irwin, L., Ramsay, M., & Ayduk, O. (Eds.). (2004). Rejection sensitivity and girls’ aggression. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychology literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309–330.

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 306–315.

Graham, K., & Wells, S. (2001). The two worlds of aggression for men and women. Sex Roles, 45(9–10), 595–622.

Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., & Zelli, A. (1993). Attributions for social failure and adolescent aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 19(6), 421–434.

Henry, P. J. (2009). Low-status compensation: A theory for understanding the role of status in cultures of honor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(3), 451–466.

Horowitz, R., & Schwartz, G. (1974). Honor, normative ambiguity and gang violence. American Sociological Review, 39(2), 238–251.

Huesmann, L. R., & Skoric, M. M. (Eds.). (2003). Regulating media violence: Why, how and by whom? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kernis, M. H., Brockner, J., & Frankel, B. S. (1989). Self-esteem and reactions to failure: The mediating role of overgeneralization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(4), 707–714.

Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 371–410.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Österman, K., Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Kaukiainen, A., Landau, S. F., Fraczek, A., & Caprara, G. V. (1998). Cross-cultural evidence of female indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 24(1), 1–8.

Rodkin, P. C., Farmer, T. W., Pearl, R., & Van Acker, R. (2000). Heterogeneity of popular boys: Antisocial and prosocial configurations. Developmental Psychology, 36(1), 14–24.

Salmivalli, C., & Nieminen, E. (2002). Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Aggressive Behavior, 28(1), 30–44.

Salmivalli, C., Ojanen, T., Haanpaa, J., & Peets, K. (2005). “I’m OK but you’re not” and other peer-relational schemas: Explaining individual differences in children’s social goals. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 363–375.

Souweidane, V., & Huesmann, L. R. (1999). The influence of American urban culture on the development of normative beliefs about aggression in Middle-Eastern immigrants. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(2), 239–254.

Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997–1006.


ResearchClue.com

Today, work-life balance has become an increasingly pervasive concern to both employers and employees of most organisations. Work-life balance which primarily deals with an employee’s ability to properly prioritize between work and his or her lifestyle, social life, health, family etc., is greatly linked with employee productivity, performance and job satisfaction. Where there is proper balance between work and life, employees tend to put in their best efforts at work, because their family is happy. Most research studies have shown that when there are happy homes, work places automatically become conflict free and enjoyable places to be. Increasing attrition rates and increasing demand for work-life balance have forced organisations to look beyond run of the mill Human Resources interventions. As a result, initiatives such as flexible working hours, alternative work arrangements, leave policies and benefits in lieu of family care responsibilities and employee assistance programmes have become a significant part of most of the company benefit programmes and compensation packages.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE

The origins of research on work-life balance can be traced back to studies of women having multiple roles. Barnett and Baruch (1985) investigated the psychological distress connected to the balance of rewards and concerns generated by individual women’s multiple roles as paid worker, wife and mother. They found that positive role quality – more rewards than concerns experienced in a given role – was related to low levels of role overload, role conflict and anxiety. Based on their research, Barnett and Baruch defined role balance as a “rewards minus concerns” difference score which could range from positive to negative values.
Over the past two decades, various studies on work-life balance practices have been conducted and have been discussed in publications representing a number of different academic disciplines – economics (e.g., Johnson & Provan, 1995 Whitehouse & Zetlin, 1999), family studies (e.g., Hill, Hawkins, Ferris, & Weitzman, 2001 Raabe, 1990), gender studies (e.g., Nelson, Quick, Hitt, & Moesel, 1990 Wayne & Cordeiro, 2003), industrial relations (e.g., Batt & Valcour, 2003 Eaton, 2003), information systems (e.g., Baines & Gelder, 2003 Frolick, Wilkes, & Urwiler, 1993), management (e.g., Konrad & Mangel, 2000 Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000), social psychology (e.g., Allen & Russell, 1999 Hegtvedt, Clay-Warner, & Ferrigno, 2002), and sociology (e.g., Blair-Loy & Wharton, 2002 Glass & Estes, 1997). The most common approach is to view work-life balance practices through a business case lens: that is, by offering these practices, organizations attract new members and reduce levels of work-life conflict among existing ones, and this improved recruitment and reduced work-life conflict enhance organizational effectiveness.
A review of the literature, however, questions this purported link between work-life balance practices and organizational effectiveness. The majority of studies investigating the outcomes of work-life practices do not measure work-life conflict, and thus cannot support this proposed mediated relationship (Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005). The mechanisms by which the provision of work-life practices affects both employee behaviour and organizational performance remain unclear, and under-researched (Allen, 2001 Schutte & Eaton, 2004). The results of a number of studies reviewed in this paper appear to suggest that work-life balance practices do not necessarily influence levels of employee work-life conflict, but instead improve organizational performance via other routes, such as reduced overheads in the case of employees working from home, improved productivity Work-Life among employees working at their peak hours, or social exchange processes arising from perceptions of organizational support (e.g., Allen, 2001 Apgar, 1998 Shepard, Clifton, & Kruse, 1996).
This study examines the literature to identify the various ways in which organizational work-life practices may influence organizational performance. Using a wide range of studies from a variety of disciplines, the empirical support available for the link between work-life practices and organizational performance at both the individual and organization level of analysis is reviewed. Integrating the literature in this fashion provides us with important new insights regarding potential moderators and mediators of the link between work-life practices and organizational performance, and suggests new research questions that may further enhance our understanding of how (or if) this link operates.

COMPANY PROFILE
According to MerchantbankGhana.com, Merchant Bank Ghana Limited (MBG) is a limited liability company is one of the leading Banks in the country. It was incorporated in August 1971 and commenced business in March 1972 as the first merchant bank in Ghana. Merchant Bank Ghana Limited (MBG) provides a comprehensive range of banking services to its customers and clients, using its worldwide network of correspondent banks and their agencies. The range of MBG's banking services includes:

  • Domestic and International Banking Operations for Corporate Customers, Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and, High Net-worth Individuals
  • Treasury Services
  • Money and Capital Market Operations
  • Hire Purchase and Leasing Services and
  • Foreign Remittances

The Bank has two wholly owned specialised subsidiaries namely

  • Merban Investment Holdings Limited (MIHL) - dealing in Funds/Portfolio Management, Money Market Operations, Investment Advisory Services, Trustee Services and Custodial and Nominee Services
  • Merban Stockbrokers Limited (MSL) - dealing in Brokerage Services, Underwriting of new Issues, and Investor Search & Joint Venture Arrangement and

The MBG group also has the following additional specialist services tailored to meet its customers' needs:

  • Registrar Services - maintaining records of Shareholders and Creditors, facilitating dividend payments to Shareholders and
  • Corporate Finance & Advisory Services (CFAS)- handling Corporate restructuring, Joint Venture Arrangement, Company Valuation, Project Finance Funds Sourcing, Issuing House Services and General Financial Advisory Services. And also dealing in Hire Purchase transactions and Leasing.

The bank has taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the introduction of Universal Banking Business in Ghana and MBG has fully developed all three areas of universal banking namely Retail, Corporate and Investment. The branch network of Merchant Bank currently stands at twenty-two (22).

Mission
As a universal Bank in Ghana, Merchant Bank (Ghana) limited is committed to providing quality financial products and services to our customers across our chosen market and maintaining our place as a leading and preferred financial institution in Ghana.
Vision
To become the leading, the most influential and best performing financial service provider in Ghana by 2012 and one of the leading banks in West Africa by 2015

Core Values

  • Performance-oriented organization
  • All decisions and actions must be based on Unshakeable Facts.
  • Must at all times conduct business with a sense ofCompetitive Urgency.
  • We must maintain High Ethical Standardsin all our internal and external relationships.

The bank has over its 30 years of existence achieved a lot, notable amongst which are:

  • The establishment of hire purchase and leasing business in Ghana.
  • The promotion and formation of the first Discount House in Ghana.
  • Handled the share issues of 8 out of 10 companies when there was no Stock Exchange in Ghana in the 1970's.
  • The initiation of the preparatory work in the establishment of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE).

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Lack of work flexibility, high work pressure and longer working hours are stressing out many Ghanaian workers, reducing their job performance and productivity as well as causing broken homes. In the community, there is growing concern that the quality of home and community life is deteriorating. These have resulted to poor employee input and performance at his or her job place, because an employee, who finds it difficult to properly balance his or her family life, tends to also have difficulties managing tasks at his or her workplace, therefore resulting in poor employee performance. Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom, (1997) in their study provide some indication that when people spend too many hours at work, and spend less with their families, their health and work performance begin to deteriorate. There are various explanations for this associated with affluence, the growth of single parent families, the privatization of family life and the lack of local resources and facilities In addition, the pressures and demands of work, reflected both in longer hours, more exhaustion and the growth of evening and weekend work leave less scope for “quality” family time. The consequences include increases in juvenile crime, more drug abuse, a reduction in care of the community and in community participation and less willingness to take responsibility for care of elderly relatives and for the disadvantaged. While steps to redress these concerns transcend work and employment, it is nevertheless argued that the demands of work contribute to a reduced participation in non-work activities resulting in an imbalance.
Moreover, there is a view, widely promoted by some management writers but not strongly supported by sound empirical evidence, that workers are less willing to display unlimited commitment to the organization. One reason offered for this is the changing nature of the psychological contract at work turbulence in organizations has made it less feasible to offer secure progressive careers and therefore to justify why workers should be committed.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the study are:

  • To examine various Work-Life balance practices/programs that exist in Merchant bank, Koforidua.
  • To identify work-Life balance challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua.
  • To identify the influence of imbalance Work-Life practices on organizational performance of Merchant bank, Koforidua, and the social life of its employees.
  • To identify ways of enhancing proper Work-Life balance practices amongst employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What Work-Life balance practices exist in Merchant bank, Koforidua?
  • What are the Work-Life challenges faced by employees of Merchant bank, Koforidua?
  • What are the influences of imbalance work-life practices on organizational performance and social life of employees?
  • In what ways can proper work-life practices be enhanced to boost performance in Merchant bank, Koforidua?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study seeks to bring out the various work-life balance practices which Merchant Bank has undertaken to increase its productivity and contribute its quota in the economic development of the communities which it operates, and the country at large. This study will therefore help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of work-life balance practices on the performance of employees in an organization. The study will also bring out specifically, the work-life balance practices which the bank has been able to make available to its employees. It also seeks to bring out the level of encouragement and motivation the bank has given to its employees to work effectively, among others. The importance of this study is therefore to highlight the various employee work-life balance practices and how it affects the productivity of an organization. This study will go a long way to illustrate how organizations should treat its employees’ in-order to increase productivity.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the research will be limited to Merchant Bank at the New Juaben Municipal Assembly in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The research will rely on the bank for vital information as well as information from secondary source. The research will take duration of four months to complete.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher encountered a limitation in regards to availability of information. Thus due to the institutions working ethics, the researcher could not get access to vital information since it was treated as confidential and the targeted respondent’s number was not attained since some employees were on leave. Inadequate funds and availability of time also became a limitation.


Helping Children Integrate the Parental Injury Experience within the Family

Healthcare and family support professionals should encourage families to:

  1. Seek out resources and instrumental support. Families may require that basic needs be met in the areas of finance, medical care, military concerns, housing, education, and child care. Children may need special services and/or supports to address any behavioral/mental health problems that develop or to connect them with community resources that provide them with social support and structured activities.
  2. Support and help monitor their children’s stress. As children deal with stress, they may find it difficult to express emotions, to relax, or to calm themselves. Parents can teach children to label and express their emotions giving them specific strategies (i.e., deep/belly breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or visualizing a safe space).
  3. Share information with children about the injury in a way they can comprehend it. Particularly important is information that helps children understand what the injury is, what the effects of the injury are in terms of parent functioning and/or symptoms, and what to expect over time. Children may need reassurance that the injury is not their fault and that specific symptoms/emotional changes in the parent are expected. This helps to normalize and contextualize the family’s current difficulties and helps children understand what is happening in their family.
  4. Develop problem solving skills and goal setting. Particularly important is helping children identify relevant problems, name their goals, brainstorm possible solutions, and pick a solution to try out. Goal setting helps families identify how they would like things to be different, and how to monitor change. Parents and children can select family goals together and practice them as they plan for future challenges, recognizing incremental improvements over time.

From the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, www.usuhs.mil, and the Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Bethesda, Maryland, www.cstsonline.org. Used with permission.


JOB SECURITY AND JOB PERFORMANCE

When employees don’t feel secure in their job, increased stress and negative emotions impact their work performance. But what intervention strategies will produce the greatest results? The researchers initially examined the relationship between job insecurity and performance and found that increased feelings of job insecurity corresponded with low levels of job performance. However, this was not the case for employees in organizations with high levels of organizational justice. Organizational justice has to do with the policies and procedures put in place to make employees feel as though they are treated fairly.

However, the findings were not as straightforward as increased feelings of job insecurity resulting in decreased performance. Increased feelings of job insecurity first led to fewer work-related positive feelings, which is a crucial component of work engagement. Only then did these feelings harmfully impact actual job performance. This means that just because job insecurity is a reality, does not automatically translate into decreased performance. Employees can still feel positive about their work and environment. It is only when job insecurity is present and these positive feelings are reduced in some way that performance will inevitably suffer.


Suicide in the Military

According to the World Health Organization, almost one million people die by suicide every year, which is a global mortality rate of 10.7 per 100,000. In the United States (U.S.), someone attempts suicide every 31 seconds and an average of 1 person dies by suicide every 11.9 minutes, a rate of 13.3 per 100,000. Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the country. An important consideration is that suicides have consistently been underreported for a variety of reasons. Experts have estimated that suicide incidence may be 10-15% higher than officially recorded.

The U.S. military reflects an important subset of the U.S. population with both shared and unique characteristics when compared to the U.S. population. Historically, military suicide rates have been lower than those rates found in the general population. Rising suicide rates among Service members and Veterans over the past decade have raised public and professional concerns. Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. military. According to the calendar year 2015 Department of Defense Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) annual report, the standardized suicide rate was 20.2 per 100,000 for the Active component. For the Selected Reserves component, the rates were 24.7 per 100,000 for the Reserves and 27.1 per 100,000 for the National Guard.

A number of psychosocial factors are associated with suicide risk. The most common individual stressors identified for both military suicide decedents and military suicide attempts were relationship problems, administrative/legal issues and workplace difficulties. Other medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk for suicide include traumatic brain injury (TBI), chronic pain, and sleep disorders. These conditions can contribute substantially to increased suicide risk in affected individuals. The most common method for suicide in the DoD is firearms, accounting for over 60 percent of all suicide deaths in the military.

Elevated suicide risk has been shown to endure well beyond military service, with Veterans carrying a much greater risk for suicide than their civilian counterparts. According to the Office of Suicide Prevention (2016), Veterans account for approximately 18% of all adult suicide deaths in the U.S. Interestingly, Veterans represent only 8.5% of the U.S. population, highlighting the disproportionate number of suicide deaths in this population. This means that approximately 20 Veterans die each day by suicide. Like Service members, the most common method for suicide among U.S. Veterans is firearms, accounting for over two-thirds of all Veteran suicides.

With the significant increased suicide rates in our military population, it is imperative that we provide evidence-based psychotherapies developed specifically to target suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CT-SP) is an evidence-based treatment recommended by the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Patient’s at Risk for Suicide (2013). CT-SP is a structured, time-limited, present-focused approach that helps patients develop coping skills and strategies to overcome suicidal crises.

For a brief description of CT-SP, click here. CDP offers two-day training workshops in the assessment, prevention and treatment of suicidal thoughts and behavior using both in-person and live online formats. Click Upcoming Training Events to view future training opportunities and to learn how to how to register for a training event.


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How Can Military Sexual Assault Affect Service Members’ Health?

Kintzle and her colleagues published a study in 2017 that details the effects of military sexual assault on physical and psychological health. Challenges that people who have experienced sexual assault can face as a result of sexual trauma include but are not limited to:

  • Chronic pain
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Eating disorders
  • Depression
  • Dissociative disorder
  • Substance misuse
  • Panic disorder
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Sexual assault trauma can have short- and long-term effects. Compared to civilians, those who experience military sexual assault may be less able to take time off or away from work to process their trauma. They may also be forced to relive their trauma when continuing to live and work alongside their assailant. If developed, psychological and emotional problems can affect a person’s ability to perform physically and maintain full employment, reducing overall quality of life.

These issues can also develop years after the incident has occurred and the service member has separated from the military.

“For some women who were in the military 20, 30, or 40 years ago, they talk about being sexually assaulted and waking up the next day and just trying to move on with their lives,” Kintzle said. “It wasn’t until they got out of the military, or when they got married and had children that, all of a sudden, the emotions and everything they pushed away came back into their lives and caused a lot of pain and discomfort.”

To ensure people receive timely and appropriate care so they can address their experience and cope with what has happened, the military will need to acknowledge the psychological impact of sexual assault. In another study on mental health care utilization in female veterans who have experienced sexual trauma, Kintzle and colleagues found a number of barriers to getting care including avoidance, stigma, lack of availability of gender-sensitive care, poor relationship with the military system and concerns about the effect on one’s career. Men who have experienced sexual assault can encounter even greater stigma from leadership who choose to avoid the issue.


One of the disadvantages of being a student while holding a job is that they are often short on time and commonly find themselves with limited time to study, sleep, and maintain healthy eating habits. In a study conducted by Gorgulho, et al., one of the main complaints among working students is that they find themselves without enough time to eat right (Gorgulho, et al., 2012). Instead of consuming healthy foods, such as fruit and whole grains, working students often grab a quick meal comprised of low quality foods that contain sugar and high sodium (Gorgulho, et al., 2012). This is not to say that students should feel discouraged and not work while in college, but instead be mindful of the commitment and plan accordingly. For example, students who work everyday might benefit from a 7 day food preparation technique at the beginning of every week.

If poor eating habits continue over an extended period of time, this will increase the risk of obesity and the development of lifestyle related chronic diseases (Huang, et al., 2003). Huang’s study on obesity, diet, and physical activity among college students indicates that an estimated 35% of college students are at risk for being overweight (Huang, et al., 2003). Low levels of physical activity and poor nutrition are common reasons for this high incidence rate. While it may not seem of importance to working students while in college, the negative outcomes will prove to be a growing concern as they get older. Quality of diet is a matter of lifestyle change and can be easily improved, while managing diseases and major health concerns later in life may not easily improve one’s health.

Many researchers focus on working after higher education but little research the effects of working while in higher education. Recently, higher education has been increasing tuition and other costs that go into attending college. This has had an effect on students. Mainly, they are looking for jobs while in school to help cushion some of those costs and everyday expenses. In Moris Triventi’s study, he looked into the effect of working in higher education. He found that working at low-intensity had positive effects but higher-intensity jobs, 35 hours or more per week, tended to have negative effects. Some of the positive effects are increased independence, ability to budget, managing a schedule, and gaining soft skills, such as communication and problem-solving skills. Some of the negative effects are higher risk of dropping out, delayed graduation rates, and negative effects on academic performance. He found that full-time workers tend to have less time for academic studies and school activities. Non-workers average 17.0 hours of studying per week and part-time and full-time workers study 15.7 hours a week. Full-time workers also attend class less time per week. Part-time workers in this study were able to deal with the effects of working while in school (Triventi, 2014).

In Rajeev Darolia’s study, there was a correlation between number of credits completed and number of hours worked per week. This study states that 80 percent of students work at some point in their undergraduate program and numbers of hours worked per week increases each year. Some students take fewer credits due to work commitments. Part-time and full-time students tend to spend less time studying (Darolia, 2014). This can lead to delayed graduation dates and more debt from more years of schooling. The time-to-degree ratio is higher, which in turn costs the students less future earnings. The study points out the negative effect of working to be lack of time for school-based activities and leisure activities, which can help with overall health (Darolia, 2014).

These articles helped by guiding us to ask questions about how many hours the participants work per week and how many credits they were taking. Then, we can correlate their hours of work to their grade point average, (GPA). This is to see if lower intensity work would aid or hinder academic performance.

Money is the main key in college in which students acquire tremendous amount of debt to pay off. Many college students work while attending school which in return has an affect. A recent article has shown that there is a psychological and physical toll that takes upon student who try to juggle both. From working and attending school, stress becomes the main setback in which affects their academic performances. Taking a survey of 225 participants of student, it showed that stress was a main cause for these student which caused emotional and physical exhaustion. Our survey tries to study how students deal with stress when they work or not work while attending school. Stress plays the main role in all factors for these students attending a university (“Optimism and Risk for Job Burnout”,2015).

Sleep is one constant that college students lack. A recent article shows that 50% of student surveyed at a university is sleep deprived. An average amount of students has a range of from difficultly falling asleep to difficulty staying asleep. This lack of sleep syndrome is known has sleep phase syndrome is an important problem students face at school which affects them from a range of academic performance. Sleep is a necessity but the life style college students acquire from coming into universities affects them severely. Our survey shows how lack of sleep can affect student from grades to their diet (“Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students”,2015).


She shared a few additional ways that consistent exercise can help your mental well-being:

Frustration tolerance. Physical activity can be a healthy way to release frustration and anger. No matter what you do – kickboxing, yoga, or going for a run – the physical release of negative energy will leave you feeling refreshed. In fact, a study done in 2010 , claims that exercise can have a preventative effect against the buildup of anger.

Reduced tension . When you’re stressed, your muscles contract, adding more tension to your already over-strained body. Exercise releases stored energy and allows muscles to return to a resting state. You may experience fewer backaches, tension headaches, arthritic joint pain . the list goes on.

Increased attention and productivity. When your mental plate is cleared from toxic stress and anxiety, you can have the needed space for more productive tasks, Yip told INSIDER. You’ll be more in tune with your body in order to recognize the signs of stress before it takes a toll on your physical and mental health.

Better sleep. T he more you exercise, the better you’ll sleep, at least according to several studies. When you’re not getting enough rest, you can’t perform at your best. Exercise can knock you out at the end of the night and help you sleep soundly. Just make sure you're not exercising right before bedtime as it may work you up too much.

Stronger immune system. Ever notice that when you exercise consistently, you don’t get sick as often? Exercise lowers cortisol — the hormone responsible for your body's fight-or-flight alarm. At chronically-elevated levels, it taxes your natural immune system. When you’re physically active, you might demonstrate more stamina and greater resiliency to fight discomfort, inside and out.

Increased confidence. Exercise increases self-efficacy, which is the confidence you have in your ability to accomplish a goal. It has been suggested that exercise may provide you with an effective mode through which self-efficacy can be enhanced based on its ability to provide you with a meaningful mastery of experience.


Watch the video: Wie du eiserne Disziplin aufbaust - Marcus Aurelius Stoizismus (May 2022).