Types of gender violence and their characteristics

Types of gender violence and their characteristics

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One of the most serious problems of the society in which we live is the gender violence. This problem has its roots in the current, macho and patriarchal culture, which without realizing it teaches us values ​​that end up perpetuating this situation.

This type of violence, also known as macho violence, sometimes we fail to understand what it really is; Good information on this subject is very important, as it will help us detect any type of sign of sexist violence.

Keep in mind that not all sexist violence is the same, since we can differentiate, for example, between physical and psychological violence. Below, we explain all types of gender violence that exist and what they consist of.


  • 1 What is sexist violence?
  • 2 Why does gender violence exist?
  • 3 Profile of the abuser
  • 4 Forms of gender violence
  • 5 What to do in the face of sexist violence?

What is sexist violence?

Known as sexist violence or gender violence, it is any act of a violent type that affects a person, both physically and mentally and even in their way of relating, by their gender identity or by their biological sex.

This type of violence is very serious, since it has consequences on the victim that can lead to death or coma. It is not only a physical violence, since mentally it also causes sequelae that can even prevent the victim from reporting what is happening.

Gender violence outside the couple

When thinking about sexist violence or gender violence we usually think immediately of a couple, but this is a mistake. Macho violence can appear anywhere, and it is not necessary for two people to be a couple to form.

Cases of this type of violence can occur in institutions as well as in our social or family circle, since it is present in society as a whole. It is for this reason that it is so important to raise awareness among all citizens since they are young, educating on emotions, tolerance and equality so that they do not appear.

Why does gender violence exist?

The causes of gender violence mainly reside in our culture, since we live in a patriarchal society with a macho culture that still discriminates against women in many aspects, such as the wage gap, the glass ceiling or the prevailing beauty standards.

All this means that women have to face throughout their lives many more obstacles than a man has to face, which can affect self-confidence, self-esteem and, in general, empowerment female.

Although the lack of security and self-esteem can be a feature that appears in many cases of sexist violence, it is not one of the causes that cause it. The problem and the cause is this macho behavior combined with a lack of empathy and an impulsiveness that is not controlled by the individual who exercises this type of violence, both physical and psychological.

As we said before, all this has its roots in culture. An education with sexist values ​​also makes children understand certain qualities as important to be successful men in life, making this toxic masculinity, which begins to form with phrases like "don't cry like a babe".

Abuser Profile

Abusers who exercise some type of gender violence usually follow the same profile. In the case of physical violence, we will see an aggressive person, without empathy and who gets carried away by impulse, but it is more difficult to distinguish an abuser who exerts violence only in a psychological way.

For that reason, we explain what traits usually appear in these types of people:

They do not tolerate

They are people who they believe that their version is the right way to see life, and do not usually tolerate those of others. They are usually very sexist and sexist people who act in very negative ways when people do not act as they think they should.


Is lack of tolerance is closely linked to enormous mental rigidity. By not understanding other opinions they do not dialogue, but argue. This also influences your empathy with others.


Being people who tolerate so little that people do not act as they want them to act, they tend to send and get angry when they are not obeyed From the beginning.

They are nice

At first they are people who attract for their sympathy. At first we don't see how they really are, since they need some confidence to start showing how they really behave.

They use blackmail

Once your true “I” has appeared, the first signs of emotional abuse begin. These types of people do not hesitate to use any type of blackmail to get what they want, blaming the victim and making them feel uncomfortable and even feel fear.

Forms of gender violence

Gender violence is a situation in which we can find different types, although many times occur several at the same time. These types are normally classified according to the attitude of the person who is exercising this type of violence, and are the following:

Physical violence

It is the first thing we usually think of when talking about sexist violence. It is related to the direct physical damage that the abuser does to the victim, and that can lead to cause until his death.

Physical violence is understood from pushing to punching, since it is all kinds of aggression that puts the physical health of the victim at risk.

Physical violence is a situation that sadly continues to occur every day throughout the world, causing very serious situations for the person who suffers.

Sexual violence

Many people introduce it into physical violence, although it is considered as another type to include all kinds of attacks that affect the victim in some sexual way.

Sexual violence does not only refer to the sexual act or penetration, since it also includes touching a person without their permission or harassing them in a sexual way, which can also occur through networks.

Psychic violence

It is not necessary for one person to hit another for violence. When a person is being undervalued, he suffers humiliation and humiliates him, he also suffers a type of violence. Psychic violence is more difficult to distinguish, especially when the acts are commented in a more indirect than direct way.

Within this type of violence we find the following acts:

  • Abuse
  • Harassment
  • Humiliate
  • To threat
  • Exercise duress
  • Devalue
  • Despise

All this can lead to great insecurity for the victim, who does not know how to defend himself against these attacks. Moreover, this type of violence is what usually causes the victim not to report the abuser or take any action.

Violence of a social type

It is related to the psychological violence, although it affects only the social life of the victim, their way of relating and how they are perceived by the people around them.

In these cases the aggressor causes the victim to remain isolated, without the people who have always supported him. Without this support, which is usually essential to take the step of denouncing the abuser, the affected person feels much more helpless and dependent.

In the case of believing that someone is suffering some kind of violence, disengagement with the nearest circle is usually the first signal to realize what is happening.

Vicarious Violence

A type of violence that appears when there are children within the couple and the abuser uses them to coerce the mother and harm her, even harming them or causing their death to demonstrate the power they can exercise if their objectives are not met.

This type of abuse therefore does not end up affecting the mother, but the children also become victims of the situation, which has a great negative psychological effect on them.

Economic violence

When to a person his right to be economically free is taken away and ceases to be solvent, the abuser takes advantage of the situation to achieve what is proposed. It is a type of coercion and manipulation, so it could also enter into psychological violence.

Manipulating a person taking advantage of their lack of financial solvency is a very ruinous way of damaging all their integrity as a person, even being unable to find a job because this would make them economically independent.

Patrimonial Violence

Closely related to economic violence, although it is more related to possessions than money itself. When to a person Some of your property is taken away or destroyedAs a heritage, this type of violence is exercised.

Like the economic one, this type of gender violence serves to make the victim more dependent on the abuser and be helpless in the situation.

Damageing the facade of a house, or the victim's car, also enters into patrimonial violence.

What to do in the face of sexist violence?

When we are aware that someone in our environment is suffering gender violence, it can happen that we do not know how to act; Many times we do not know if the victim is aware of the situation.

For that reason, you can follow these indications that will help you know what to do when you face one of these cases, both in the case that you are a victim or if you are someone from your environment:

Don't press

In the case of not being the direct victim who suffers from this situation, be aware that you do not have to press her to report and take action immediately. He has to feel supported by you, especially so he doesn't feel guilty for what happens; that you listen to it is the first step so that you see that you are not alone in that situation.

The support phones

The 016 works 24 hours a day and is confidential, since it does not leave any trace. This phone is a great help to know how to act, both for people who believe that someone in their environment suffers this type of violence as for the victim itself.

In this helpline you will be informed of everything you can do, including the resources there are and what your rights are. In general, all this includes information on financial aid, assistance and reception and on social services.

Emergency phones

It is also important to know the emergency phone: 112. This phone is the one that you have to dial in case you are facing a risky situation and need immediate help.

Call the police

If you believe that someone in your environment is suffering from sexist violence, such as having heard screams often at your neighbors' house, too you can call the police to tell you what you can do next.

Report the case

In the case of suffering some kind of violence, you can go to the Women's Violence Court or a police station to report. In case you think it necessary, in addition to reporting you can request a restraining order so that your aggressor cannot approach you.

Be a witness

If one of these cases of violence has occurred in front of you, remember that you can go as a witness to the trial so that justice is done. In the case of being a direct relative of the victim, you can also request a restraining order.

The protection order

A restraining order, or a protection order, can be requested in the Prosecutor's Office, in the Civil Guard, in social services or in the Court of Violence on Women. Once requested, a judge will decide what to do in a maximum of 72 hours.

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